Being Familiar with Islamic Calendar

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

The Islamic calendar or Hijri calendar [Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Turkish: Hicri Takvim] is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries [concurrently with the Gregorian calendar], and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic Holy days and festivals. The first year was the year during which the emigration of the Prophet [S.A.W.S] from Mecca to Medina, known as the Hijra [Emigrant], occurred. Each numbered year is designated either H for Hijra or AH for the Latin anno Hegirae [in the year of the Hijra]. A limited number of years before Hijra [BH] are used to date events related to Islam, such as the birth of the Prophet [S.A.W.S] in 53 BH.

Being a purely lunar calendar, it is not synchronized with the seasons. With an annual drift of 11 or 12 days, the seasonal relation is repeated approximately each 33 Islamic years.

Each month has either 29 or 30 days, but usually in no discernible order. Traditionally, the first day of each month is the day [beginning at sunset] of the first sighting of the hilal shortly after sunset. If the hilal is not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month [either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets], then the day that begins at that sunset is the 30th.

 

The Islamic Month


Month Name

Significant Date

Events Name

1

Muharram محرّم

or [Muharram al Haram]

Sacred Month

1st

Sacred Month

Islamic Year Begin

10th

Day of Aashura

2

Safar صفر

or [Safar al Muzaffar]

3

Rabiy al-Awwal ربيع الأوّل

or [Rabiy I]

12th

Mawlid an-Nabi [S.A.W.S]

4

Rabiy al-Shany ربيع الثاني

or [Rabiy II]

5

Jumada al-Ula جمادى الأولى

or [Jumada I]

6

Jumada al-Shany جمادى الثانية

or [Jumada II]

7

Rajab رجب

or [Rajab al-Murajab]

Sacred Month

27th

Sacred Month

Lailat-ul-Miraj [Night of Ascent]

8

Shabaan شعبان

or [Shabaan al-Muaazzam]

15th

Lailat-ul-Barat [Night of Forgiveness]

9

Ramadan رمضان

or [Ramadan al-Mubarak]

1st

Fasting Begin

27th

Lailat-ul-Qadr [Night of Decree]

10

Shawwal شوّال

or [Shawwal al-Mukarram]

1st

‘Id–ul-Fitr

11

DhU al-Qaida ذو القعدة

Sacred Month

Sacred Month

12

DhU al-Hijja ذو الحجة

or [DhU al-Hajja]

Sacred Month

9th

Sacred Month

Yaum-al-Arafah [Day of Arafaat]

10th

‘Id–ul-Adha

 

The Islamic Day of the Week

Day Name in Arabic

Day Name in English

1

Yawm as-Sabt يوم السبت

[Sabbath day]

Saturday

2

Yawm al-Aḥad يوم الأحد

[First day]

Sunday

3

Yawm al-Ithnayn يوم الاثنين

[Second day]

Monday

4

Yawm ath-Thalaathaa يوم الثلاثاء

[Third day]

Tuesday

5

Yawm al-Arba’aa’ يوم الأربعاء

[Fourth day]

Wednesday

6

Yawm al-Khamīs يوم الخميس

[Fifth day]

Thursday

7

Yawm al-Jumua يوم الجمعة

[Gathering day]

Friday

Formula for Convert Gregorian to Hijri year

To convert from a Gregorian year to a Hijri year:

H = (G − 621.57)/0.97023

 

[Note

[S.W.T] Subhaanahuu Wa Ta’ala – [Glorified and Exalted is ALLAH]: This phrase appears after the Name of ALLAH [S.W.T] its seen as an act of reverence and devotion towards ALLAH [S.W.T].

[S.A.W.S] Salla’Allahuu Alayhi Wa-Sallaam – [[May ALLAH Bless Him and grant Him Peace] [S.A.W.] or [P.B.U.H.] or [S.]]: The expression should be used after stating Prophet Muhammad [S.A.W.S]’s name.

(R.A) Raadiya’Allahu anhu – [May ALLAH be pleased with him]: When mentioning Sahaba [the Companions (R.A)] of Hadrat Muhammad [S.A.W.S.], Raadiya’Allahu anhu (for males/him) and Radiy’Allahu aanha (for females/her) Radiy’Allahu anhuuma (for them) are used.]

 

Selected Hadith Regarding Sacred Month

Sahih Bukhari: Volume 9, Book 93: Oneness, Uniqueness of ALLAH [S.W.T] (Tawheed), Number 539:

Narrated Abu Bakr (R.A):

 The Prophet [S.A.W.S] said, “Time has come back to its original state which it had when ALLAH [S.W.T] Created the Heavens and the Earth, the year is twelve months, of which four are sacred; (and out of these four) three are in succession, namely, Dhul-Qa’da, Dhul-Hijja and Muharram, and (the fourth one) Rajab Mudar which is between Jumad (Ath-Tham) and Sha’ban.” The Prophet [S.A.W.S] then asked us, “Which month is this?” We said, “ALLAH [S.W.T] and HIS Apostle [S.A.W.S] know (it) better.” He kept quiet so long that we thought he might call it by another name. Then he said, “Isn’t it Dhul-Hijja?” We said, “Yes.” He asked “What town is this?” We said, “ALLAH [S.W.T] and HIS Apostle [S.A.W.S] know (it) better.’ Then he kept quiet so long that we thought he might call it by another name. He then said, “Isn’t it the (forbidden) Town (Mecca)?” We said, “Yes.” He asked, “What is the day today?” We said, “ALLAH [S.W.T] and HIS Apostle [S.A.W.S] know (it) better. Then he kept quiet so long that we thought that he might call it by another name. Then he said, “Isn’t it the Day of An-Nahr (slaughtering of sacrifices)?” We said, “Yes.” Then he said, “Your blood (lives), your properties,” (the sub narrator Muhammad (R.A), said: I think he also said): “..and your honor) are as sacred to one another like the sanctity of this Day of yours, in this Town of yours, in this Month of yours. You shall meet your LORD and HE will ask you about your deeds. Beware! Don’t go astray after me by striking the necks of one another. Lo! It is incumbent upon those who are present to inform it to those who are absent for perhaps the informed one might comprehend it (understand it) better than some of the present audience.” Whenever the sub-narrator Muhammad (R.A) mentioned that statement, he would say, “The Prophet [S.A.W.S] said the truth.”) And then the Prophet [S.A.W.S] added, “No doubt! Haven’t I conveyed ALLAH [S.W.T]’s Message to you! No doubt! Haven’t I conveyed ALLAH [S.W.T]’s Message to you?”

 

Kalimah Tayyibah [The Holy Code]

لآَ اِلَهَ اِلاَّ اللَّهُ مُحَمَّدٌ رَّسُوْلُ اللهِ

Pronunciation:

Laa Ilaaha Illaal-Laahu Muhammadur-Rasulul-Lah [Salla’Allahuu Alayhi Wa-Sallaam]

Translation:

There is none worthy of Worship but ALLAH Muhammad [May ALLAH Bless him and grant him Peace] is the Messenger of ALLAH.

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