Surat Al-Masad (The Palm Fiber, Flame) – سورة المسد
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]
تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ
Tabbat yada abee lahabin watab
May the hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and ruined is he.
Perish, ruined be, the hands of Abū Lahab, in other words, all of him — the use of ‘hands’ here to denote [all of] him is figurative, and is because most actions are performed by them; the statement is an invocation — and perish he!, may he be ruined! (this [tabba] is a predicate, as where one says, ahlakahu’Llāhu wa-qad halak, ‘God destroyed him and he indeed is destroyed’. When the Prophet threatened him with the chastisement, he said, ‘If what my brother’s son says is true, then I shall ransom [myself] from it with my wealth and sons!’; so the following was revealed:
مَا أَغْنَىٰ عَنْهُ مَالُهُ وَمَا كَسَبَ
Ma aghna AAanhu maluhuwama kasab
His wealth will not avail him or that which he gained.
His wealth will not avail him, nor what he has earned (wa-kasab means wa-kasbihi, that is to say, his sons; mā aghnā means [mā] yughnī).
سَيَصْلَىٰ نَارًا ذَاتَ لَهَبٍ
Sayasla naran thatalahab
He will [enter to] burn in a Fire of [blazing] flame
He will [soon] enter a Fire of flames, that is to say, [a fire that is] flaming and ignited (this [statement] is the source of his nickname, [which was given to him] on account of his flaming reddish fair face),
وَامْرَأَتُهُ حَمَّالَةَ الْحَطَبِ
Wamraatuhu hammalata alhatab
And his wife [as well] – the carrier of firewood.
and his wife (wa’mra’atuhu is a supplement to the person [of the verb] yaslā, ‘he will enter’, separated by the clause of the direct object and its qualification) — and this was Umm Jamīl — the carrier (read hammālatu or hammālata) of firewood, cactus and thorns which she used to fling into the path of the Prophet (s).
فِي جِيدِهَا حَبْلٌ مِّن مَّسَدٍ
Fee jeediha hablun min masad
Around her neck is a rope of [twisted] fiber.
with a rope of palm-fibre around her neck (fī jīdihā hablun min masadin is a circumstantial qualifier referring to hammālata’l-hatab, which in turn is [either] a description of imra’atahu, ‘his wife’, or the predicate of an implied subject).