Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 91.Surat Ash-Shams (The Sun) – سورة الشمس

Surat Ash-Shams (The Sun) – سورة الشمس

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

91:1

وَالشَّمْسِ وَضُحَاهَا

Pronunciation

Washshamsi waduhaha

Translation

By the sun and its brightness

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

By the sun and her morning light,

91:2

وَالْقَمَرِ إِذَا تَلَاهَا

Pronunciation

Walqamari itha talaha

Translation

And [by] the moon when it follows it

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and [by] the moon when it follows her, rising after she has set,

91:3

وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا جَلَّاهَا

Pronunciation

Wannahari itha jallaha

Translation

And [by] the day when it displays it

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and [by] the day when it reveals her, as it rises [high],

91:4

وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَاهَا

Pronunciation

Wallayli itha yaghshaha

Translation

And [by] the night when it covers it

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and [by] the night when it enshrouds her, covering her up with its darkness (idhā, ‘when’, in all three instances is an absolute adverbial, operated by the verbal action of the oath).

91:5

وَالسَّمَاءِ وَمَا بَنَاهَا

Pronunciation

Wassama-i wama banaha

Translation

And [by] the sky and He who constructed it

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

By the heaven and the One Who built it,

91:6

وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا طَحَاهَا

Pronunciation

Wal-ardi wama tahaha

Translation

And [by] the earth and He who spread it

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and [by] the earth and the One Who spread it, laid out flat.

91:7

وَنَفْسٍ وَمَا سَوَّاهَا

Pronunciation

Wanafsin wama sawwaha

Translation

And [by] the soul and He who proportioned it

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and [by] the soul, that is to say, [by] all souls, and the One Who proportioned it, in its created form (mā in all three instances relates to the verbal action, or functions as man, ‘the one who’),

91:8

فَأَلْهَمَهَا فُجُورَهَا وَتَقْوَاهَا

Pronunciation

Faalhamaha fujooraha wataqwaha

Translation

And inspired it [with discernment of] its wickedness and its righteousness,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and inspired to discern its vices and piety, He pointed out to it the path of good and that of evil (the placing of taqwā, ‘piety’, second takes into account the [rhyme] endings of the verses; the response to the oath is [the following:])

91:9

قَدْ أَفْلَحَ مَن زَكَّاهَا

Pronunciation

Qad aflaha man zakkaha

Translation

He has succeeded who purifies it,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Successful indeed (qad: the lām [of laqad, ‘indeed’] has been omitted from it for the sake of brevity) will be the one who purifies it, purges it of sins,

91:10

وَقَدْ خَابَ مَن دَسَّاهَا

Pronunciation

Waqad khaba man dassaha

Translation

And he has failed who instills it [with corruption].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and he will indeed have failed he who eclipses it, he who obscures it with [acts of] disobedience (dassāhā is actually dassasahā, but the second sīn has been replaced with an alif for [phonetic] ease).

91:11

كَذَّبَتْ ثَمُودُ بِطَغْوَاهَا

Pronunciation

Kaththabat thamoodu bitaghwaha

Translation

Thamud denied [their prophet] by reason of their transgression,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thamūd denied, their messenger Sālih, because of their rebellious nature,

91:12

إِذِ انبَعَثَ أَشْقَاهَا

Pronunciation

Ithi inbaAAatha ashqaha

Translation

When the most wretched of them was sent forth.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

when the most wretched of them, whose name was Qudār, was dispatched, [when] he hastened, in order to hamstring the she-camel with their approval.

91:13

فَقَالَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ نَاقَةَ اللَّهِ وَسُقْيَاهَا

Pronunciation

Faqala lahum rasoolu Allahi naqataAllahi wasuqyaha

Translation

And the messenger of Allah [Salih] said to them, “[Do not harm] the she-camel of Allah or [prevent her from] her drink.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But then the messenger of God, Sālih, said to them, ‘[This is] the she-camel of God, so let her have her drink!’, her drink on her day — one day was hers, the next theirs.

91:14

فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَعَقَرُوهَا فَدَمْدَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ رَبُّهُم بِذَنبِهِمْ فَسَوَّاهَا

Pronunciation

Fakaththaboohu faAAaqaroohafadamdama AAalayhim rabbuhum bithanbihim fasawwaha

Translation

But they denied him and hamstrung her. So their Lord brought down upon them destruction for their sin and made it equal [upon all of them].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But they denied him, with regard to his saying this [as being a command] from God — which if they contravened would immediately result in chastisement being sent down on them — then hamstrung her, they slew it in order to appropriate her [share of the] drinking water. So their Lord closed in on them, the chastisement, because of their sin, and meted it equally [among them], that is, the closing in on them, in other words, He subsumed them all by it, so that not one of them escaped.

91:15

وَلَا يَخَافُ عُقْبَاهَا

Pronunciation

Wala yakhafu AAuqbaha

Translation

And He does not fear the consequence thereof.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And He does not (read wa-lā, or fa-lā) fear the consequence of it.

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