Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 90.Surat Al-Balad (The City) – سورة البلد

Surat Al-Balad (The City) – سورة البلد

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

90:1

لَا أُقْسِمُ بِهَٰذَا الْبَلَدِ

Pronunciation

La oqsimu bihatha albalad

Translation

I swear by this city, Makkah –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

I swear (lā is extra) by this land, of Mecca,

90:2

وَأَنتَ حِلٌّ بِهَٰذَا الْبَلَدِ

Pronunciation

Waanta hillun bihatha albalad

Translation

And you, [O Muhammad], are free of restriction in this city –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and you, O Muhammad (s), have free disposal of, sanction for, this land, in that you will be given permission to fight in it — and indeed God fulfilled this promise to him on the day of the Conquest [of Mecca] (thus this is a parenthetical statement intervening between that by which the oath has been sworn and that which is a supplement thereto).

90:3

وَوَالِدٍ وَمَا وَلَدَ

Pronunciation

Wawalidin wama walad

Translation

And [by] the father and that which was born [of him],

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And [by] the begetter, that is, Adam, and that which he begat, that is, his descendants (mā, ‘that which’, [actually] means man, ‘whom’).

90:4

لَقَدْ خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ فِي كَبَدٍ

Pronunciation

Laqad khalaqna al-insana feekabad

Translation

We have certainly created man into hardship.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

We certainly created man (al-insān: the generic noun) in travail, in [a state of] toil and hardship, struggling with the tribulations of this world and the calamities of the Hereafter.

90:5

أَيَحْسَبُ أَن لَّن يَقْدِرَ عَلَيْهِ أَحَدٌ

Pronunciation

Ayahsabu an lan yaqdira AAalayhi ahad

Translation

Does he think that never will anyone overcome him?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Does he suppose, does the strong man of Quraysh, namely, Abū’l-Ashadd b. Kalada, presume, on account of his strength, that (an: softened in place of the hardened form, its subject omitted, that is to say, annahu) no one will have power over him? Yet God has power over him.

90:6

يَقُولُ أَهْلَكْتُ مَالًا لُّبَدًا

Pronunciation

Yaqoolu ahlaktu malan lubada

Translation

He says, “I have spent wealth in abundance.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He says, ‘I have exhausted, in enmity of Muhammad (s), vast wealth!’, great [wealth], piles and piles of it.

90:7

أَيَحْسَبُ أَن لَّمْ يَرَهُ أَحَدٌ

Pronunciation

Ayahsabu an lam yarahu ahad

Translation

Does he think that no one has seen him?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Does he suppose that (an, in other words, annahu) no one has seen him?, with regard to what he has expended to know the quantity thereof; God knows the quantity thereof; but it is not [in reality that much so as] to be considered a great amount, and [in any case] He will requite him for his evil conduct.

90:8

أَلَمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُ عَيْنَيْنِ

Pronunciation

Alam najAAal lahu AAaynayn

Translation

Have We not made for him two eyes?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Have We not given (an interrogative meant as an affirmative, in other words, ‘We have [certainly] given’) him two eyes,

90:9

وَلِسَانًا وَشَفَتَيْنِ

Pronunciation

Walisanan washafatayn

Translation

And a tongue and two lips?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and a tongue, and two lips,

90:10

وَهَدَيْنَاهُ النَّجْدَيْنِ

Pronunciation

Wahadaynahu annajdayn

Translation

And have shown him the two ways?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and guided him to the two paths?, [did We not] point out to him the path of good and that of evil?

90:11

فَلَا اقْتَحَمَ الْعَقَبَةَ

Pronunciation

Fala iqtahama alAAaqaba

Translation

But he has not broken through the difficult pass.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Yet why does he not assault the obstacle?, [why] does he [not] surmount it?

90:12

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا الْعَقَبَةُ

Pronunciation

Wama adraka maalAAaqaba

Translation

And what can make you know what is [breaking through] the difficult pass?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And what will show you, [what will] make known to you, what the obstacle is?, that he is to surmount — intended to emphasise its enormity (this statement is a parenthetical one). He explains the way to surmount it by saying:

90:13

فَكُّ رَقَبَةٍ

Pronunciation

Fakku raqaba

Translation

It is the freeing of a slave

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

the freeing of a slave, from bondage,

90:14

أَوْ إِطْعَامٌ فِي يَوْمٍ ذِي مَسْغَبَةٍ

Pronunciation

Aw itAAamun fee yawmin theemasghaba

Translation

Or feeding on a day of severe hunger

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

or to give food on a day of hunger,

90:15

يَتِيمًا ذَا مَقْرَبَةٍ

Pronunciation

Yateeman tha maqraba

Translation

An orphan of near relationship

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

to an orphan near of kin (maqraba means qarāba),

90:16

أَوْ مِسْكِينًا ذَا مَتْرَبَةٍ

Pronunciation

Aw miskeenan tha matraba

Translation

Or a needy person in misery

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

or a needy person in misery (matraba: [literally means] ‘clinging to the dust [turāb]’ because of his poverty; a variant reading has two verbal nouns in place of the two verbs [fakka, ‘he freed’, and at‘ama, ‘he fed’], the first being in a genitive construction, fakku raqabatin, ‘the freeing of a slave’, and the second with nunation, it‘āmun, ‘to give food’, in which case there is an implied iqtihāmu before al-‘aqaba, of which the said reading becomes the explication);

90:17

ثُمَّ كَانَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالصَّبْرِ وَتَوَاصَوْا بِالْمَرْحَمَةِ

Pronunciation

Thumma kana mina allatheena amanoowatawasaw bissabri watawasaw bilmarhama

Translation

And then being among those who believed and advised one another to patience and advised one another to compassion.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

while being (thumma kāna is a supplement to iqtahama, ‘he assaulted’; thumma is for the ordering of things to be mentioned) in other words, [what is meant is that] at the point of the assault he was: one of those who believe and enjoin one another to steadfastness, in [pursuing] obedience and in refraining from disobedience, and enjoin one another to compassion (marhama means rahma), towards creatures.

90:18

أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْمَيْمَنَةِ

Pronunciation

Ola-ika as-habualmaymana

Translation

Those are the companions of the right.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those, the ones described by the said attributes, are the ones of the right [side] (al-maymana means al-yamīn).

90:19

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا هُمْ أَصْحَابُ الْمَشْأَمَةِ

Pronunciation

Wallatheena kafaroo bi-ayatinahum as-habu almash-ama

Translation

But they who disbelieved in Our signs – those are the companions of the left.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But those who disbelieve in Our signs, they are the ones of the left [side] (al-mash’ama means al-shimāl).

90:20

عَلَيْهِمْ نَارٌ مُّؤْصَدَةٌ

Pronunciation

AAalayhim narun mu/sada

Translation

Over them will be fire closed in.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Over them will be an enclosing Fire (read mu’sada or mūsada), closed on top [of them].

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