Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 74.Surat Al-Muddaththir (The Cloaked One) – سورة المدثر

Surat Al-Muddaththir (The Cloaked One) – سورة المدثر

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

74:1

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha almuddaththir

Translation

O you who covers himself [with a garment],

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you enveloped in your mantle, the Prophet (s) (al-muddaththir is actually al-mutadaththir, but the tā’ has been assimilated with the dāl) that is to say, the one who is enwrapped in his clothes when the Revelation [Gabriel] comes down on him,

74:2

قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ

Pronunciation

Qum faanthir

Translation

Arise and warn

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

arise and warn: threaten the people of Mecca with [punishment in] the Fire should they refuse to believe;

74:3

وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ

Pronunciation

Warabbaka fakabbir

Translation

And your Lord glorify

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and magnify your Lord, exalt [Him] above what is ascribed [to Him] by the idolaters;

74:4

وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ

Pronunciation

Wathiyabaka fatahhir

Translation

And your clothing purify

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and purify your clothes, from impurity, or [it means] shorten them, instead of [imitating] the way in which the Arabs [are wont to] let their robes drag [behind them], out of vanity, for perhaps they will be sullied by some impurity;

74:5

وَالرُّجْزَ فَاهْجُرْ

Pronunciation

Warrujza fahjur

Translation

And uncleanliness avoid

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and shun [all] defilement, [this rijz] was explained by the Prophet (s) to be the graven images; in other words, persist in shunning them.

74:6

وَلَا تَمْنُن تَسْتَكْثِرُ

Pronunciation

Wala tamnun tastakthir

Translation

And do not confer favor to acquire more

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And do not grant a favour seeking greater gain (read tastakthiru as a circumstantial qualifier) in other words, do not give something in order to demand more in return: this [stipulation] is specific to the Prophet (s), since he is enjoined to [adopt] the fairest traits and the noblest of manners;

74:7

وَلِرَبِّكَ فَاصْبِرْ

Pronunciation

Walirabbika fasbir

Translation

But for your Lord be patient.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and endure patiently for the sake of your Lord, [all His] commands and prohibitions.

74:8

فَإِذَا نُقِرَ فِي النَّاقُورِ

Pronunciation

Fa-itha nuqira fee annaqoor

Translation

And when the trumpet is blown,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

For when the trumpet is sounded, when the trumpet is blown, that is, the Horn (qarn), at the second blast,

74:9

فَذَٰلِكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَوْمٌ عَسِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Fathalika yawma-ithin yawmunAAaseer

Translation

That Day will be a difficult day

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

that day, that is to say, the time of the sounding (yawma’idhin is a substitution for the preceding subject, and is not declined because it is annexed to something that cannot be declined; the predicate of the subject [is the following]) will be a harsh day (idhā is operated by what is indicated by the statement: ishtadda’l-amru, ‘[for when the trumpet is sounded] the situation will be terrible’),

74:10

عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ غَيْرُ يَسِيرٍ

Pronunciation

AAala alkafireena ghayruyaseer

Translation

For the disbelievers – not easy.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

for the disbelievers, not at all easy: herein is an indication that it will be easy for believers despite its harshness.

74:11

ذَرْنِي وَمَنْ خَلَقْتُ وَحِيدًا

Pronunciation

Tharnee waman khalaqtu waheeda

Translation

Leave Me with the one I created alone

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Leave Me [to deal] with him whom I created (wa-man khalaqtu is a supplement to the direct object, or [it is] an object of accompaniment) lonely (wahīdan is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the man, ‘whom’, or to the pronoun referring to it but omitted from khalaqtu [sc. khalaqtuhu]), alone, without family or wealth — this was al-Walīd b. al-Mughīra al-Makhzūmī —

74:12

وَجَعَلْتُ لَهُ مَالًا مَّمْدُودًا

Pronunciation

WajaAAaltu lahu malan mamdooda

Translation

And to whom I granted extensive wealth

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and [then] assigned him ample means, abundant and continuous, [generated] from [his] crops, livestock and commerce,

74:13

وَبَنِينَ شُهُودًا

Pronunciation

Wabaneena shuhooda

Translation

And children present [with him]

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and sons, ten or more, present [by his side], present at social gatherings and whose testimonies are listened to,

74:14

وَمَهَّدتُّ لَهُ تَمْهِيدًا

Pronunciation

Wamahhadtu lahu tamheeda

Translation

And spread [everything] before him, easing [his life].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and facilitated, extended, for him greatly, [his] livelihood, duration of life and children.

74:15

ثُمَّ يَطْمَعُ أَنْ أَزِيدَ

Pronunciation

Thumma yatmaAAu an azeed

Translation

Then he desires that I should add more.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Still he is eager that I should give [him] more.

74:16

كَلَّا ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ لِآيَاتِنَا عَنِيدًا

Pronunciation

Kalla innahu kana li-ayatinaAAaneeda

Translation

No! Indeed, he has been toward Our verses obstinate.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Nay!, I shall not give him more than that. He is indeed stubborn to Our signs, [to] the Qur’ān.

74:17

سَأُرْهِقُهُ صَعُودًا

Pronunciation

Saorhiquhu saAAooda

Translation

I will cover him with arduous torment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

[Soon] I shall burden him with a trying chastisement; alternatively [sa‘ūdan means] a mountain of fire which he will be made to ascend and then fall down from, forever.

74:18

إِنَّهُ فَكَّرَ وَقَدَّرَ

Pronunciation

Innahu fakkara waqaddar

Translation

Indeed, he thought and deliberated.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed he pondered, what to say about the Qur’ān which he heard from the Prophet (s), and decided, this, in his mind.

74:19

فَقُتِلَ كَيْفَ قَدَّرَ

Pronunciation

Faqutila kayfa qaddar

Translation

So may he be destroyed [for] how he deliberated.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Perish he, may he be cursed and chastised, how he decided!, [perish he] whatever the nature of his decision may have been.

74:20

ثُمَّ قُتِلَ كَيْفَ قَدَّرَ

Pronunciation

Thumma qutila kayfa qaddar

Translation

Then may he be destroyed [for] how he deliberated.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Again, perish he, how he decided!

74:21

ثُمَّ نَظَرَ

Pronunciation

Thumma nathar

Translation

Then he considered [again];

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then he contemplated, the faces of his people; or [he contemplated] with what [words] he might cast aspersions upon it.

74:22

ثُمَّ عَبَسَ وَبَسَرَ

Pronunciation

Thumma AAabasa wabasar

Translation

Then he frowned and scowled;

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then he frowned, he contracted his face and glowered, anguished by what he wanted to say, and scowled, increasing the contracting and the glowering [in his face].

74:23

ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ

Pronunciation

Thumma adbara wastakbar

Translation

Then he turned back and was arrogant

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then he turned his back, to faith, in disdain, scornful of following the Prophet (s),

74:24

فَقَالَ إِنْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا سِحْرٌ يُؤْثَرُ

Pronunciation

Faqala in hatha illa sihrunyu/thar

Translation

And said, “This is not but magic imitated [from others].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and said, of what he [the Prophet] had brought: ‘This is nothing but handed-down sorcery, learnt from sorcerers;

74:25

إِنْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا قَوْلُ الْبَشَرِ

Pronunciation

In hatha illa qawlu albashar

Translation

This is not but the word of a human being.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

this is nothing but the speech of humans’, similar to what they [the idolaters] had said: ‘It is only a human that is teaching him’ [Q. 16:103].

74:26

سَأُصْلِيهِ سَقَرَ

Pronunciation

Saosleehi saqar

Translation

I will drive him into Saqar.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

I shall [soon] admit him into Saqar! — Hell.

74:27

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا سَقَرُ

Pronunciation

Wama adraka ma saqar

Translation

And what can make you know what is Saqar?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And how would you know what is Saqar? — this [interrogative] is intended to emphasise its enormity.

74:28

لَا تُبْقِي وَلَا تَذَرُ

Pronunciation

La tubqee wala tathar

Translation

It lets nothing remain and leaves nothing [unburned],

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

It neither spares nor leaves behind, anything of flesh or nerve, but destroys it [all], after which he is restored to his former state.

74:29

لَوَّاحَةٌ لِّلْبَشَرِ

Pronunciation

Lawwahatun lilbashar

Translation

Blackening the skins.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

It burns away the flesh, scorching the surface of skin.

74:30

عَلَيْهَا تِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ

Pronunciation

AAalayha tisAAata AAashar

Translation

Over it are nineteen [angels].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

There are nineteen [keepers] standing over it, angels, its keepers; a certain disbeliever, who was a mighty stalwart, said, ‘I will avail you seventeen of them, if you avail me [just] two’. God, exalted be He, says:

74:31

وَمَا جَعَلْنَا أَصْحَابَ النَّارِ إِلَّا مَلَائِكَةً ۙ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا عِدَّتَهُمْ إِلَّا فِتْنَةً لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لِيَسْتَيْقِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَيَزْدَادَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِيمَانًا ۙ وَلَا يَرْتَابَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۙ وَلِيَقُولَ الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ وَالْكَافِرُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِهَٰذَا مَثَلًا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُضِلُّ اللَّهُ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَا يَعْلَمُ جُنُودَ رَبِّكَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ وَمَا هِيَ إِلَّا ذِكْرَىٰ لِلْبَشَرِ

Pronunciation

Wama jaAAalna as-habaannari illa mala-ikatan wamajaAAalna AAiddatahum illa fitnatan lillatheenakafaroo liyastayqina allatheena ootoo alkitabawayazdada allatheena amanoo eemananwala yartaba allatheena ootoo alkitabawalmu/minoona waliyaqoola allatheena feequloobihim maradun walkafiroona mathaarada Allahu bihatha mathalan kathalikayudillu Allahu man yashao wayahdee man yashaowama yaAAlamu junooda rabbika illa huwa wamahiya illa thikra lilbashar

Translation

And We have not made the keepers of the Fire except angels. And We have not made their number except as a trial for those who disbelieve – that those who were given the Scripture will be convinced and those who have believed will increase in faith and those who were given the Scripture and the believers will not doubt and that those in whose hearts is hypocrisy and the disbelievers will say, “What does Allah intend by this as an example?” Thus does Allah leave astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And none knows the soldiers of your Lord except Him. And mention of the Fire is not but a reminder to humanity.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We have appointed only angels as wardens of the Fire, in other words, and so they cannot be withstood as these [disbelievers are wont to] imagine; and We have made their number, so, only as a stumbling-block, a cause for error, for those who disbelieve, when they then say, ‘Why are there nineteen of them?’, so that those who were given the Scripture, namely, the Jews, may be certain, of the sincerity of the Prophet (s) in [saying that] they are nineteen, for this concords with what is in their Scripture; and that those who believe, from among the People of the Scripture, may increase in faith, in affirmation of the truth, given that what the Prophet (s) has said concords with what is in their Scripture, and that those given the Scripture and the believers, [those] other than these [Jews], may not be in doubt, concerning the number of [these] angels, and that those in whose hearts there is a sickness, an uncertainty, [those] in Medina, and the disbelievers, in Mecca, may say, ‘What did God mean by this, number [as a], similitude?’ (mathalan: they referred to it thus [as a mathal] on account of it being a curious matter; in terms of syntax, it [mathalan] is a circumstantial qualifier). Thus, that is, just as the one who rejects this number is led astray and the one who affirms the truth of it is guided, God leads astray whom He will and guides whom He will. And none knows the hosts of your Lord, namely, the angels, [none knows them] in terms of their strength and their assistants, except Him. And it, that is, Saqar, is nothing but a reminder for humans.

74:32

كَلَّا وَالْقَمَرِ

Pronunciation

Kalla walqamar

Translation

No! By the moon

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Nay, (kallā: denoting a commencement [of a new sentence], to be understood as alā) by the moon!

74:33

وَاللَّيْلِ إِذْ أَدْبَرَ

Pronunciation

Wallayli ith adbar

Translation

And [by] the night when it departs

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And by the night when it returns! (if read as idhā dabara), when it comes back after day (a variant reading has idh adbara, meaning ‘when it has receded’).

74:34

وَالصُّبْحِ إِذَا أَسْفَرَ

Pronunciation

Wassubhi ithaasfar

Translation

And [by] the morning when it brightens,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And by the dawn when it appears!

74:35

إِنَّهَا لَإِحْدَى الْكُبَرِ

Pronunciation

Innaha la-ihda alkubar

Translation

Indeed, the Fire is of the greatest [afflictions]

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Verily it, that is, Saqar, is one of the enormities, [one of] the greatest calamities —

74:36

نَذِيرًا لِّلْبَشَرِ

Pronunciation

Natheeran lilbashar

Translation

As a warning to humanity –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

a warning (nadhīran is a circumstantial qualifier referring to ihdā, ‘one of’, and it is masculine because it denotes [masculine] ‘adhāb, ‘chastisement’) to [all] humans;

74:37

لِمَن شَاءَ مِنكُمْ أَن يَتَقَدَّمَ أَوْ يَتَأَخَّرَ

Pronunciation

Liman shaa minkum an yataqaddama awyataakhkhar

Translation

To whoever wills among you to proceed or stay behind.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

[alike] to those of you who wish (li-man shā’a minkum is a substitution for li’l-bashar, ‘to [all] humans’) to advance, towards good, or towards Paradise by means of faith, or linger behind, in evil, or in Hell because of [their] disbelief.

74:38

كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ رَهِينَةٌ

Pronunciation

Kullu nafsin bima kasabat raheena

Translation

Every soul, for what it has earned, will be retained

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Every soul is held to ransom by what it earns, [it is] ransomed and requited for its deeds with the Fire,

74:39

إِلَّا أَصْحَابَ الْيَمِينِ

Pronunciation

Illa as-haba alyameen

Translation

Except the companions of the right,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

except those of the right [hand], namely, the believers who will be saved from it, and [who] will be,

74:40

فِي جَنَّاتٍ يَتَسَاءَلُونَ

Pronunciation

Fee jannatin yatasaaloon

Translation

[Who will be] in gardens, questioning each other

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

in gardens, questioning one another,

74:41

عَنِ الْمُجْرِمِينَ

Pronunciation

AAani almujrimeen

Translation

About the criminals,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

about the guilty, and their predicament; and they will say to them, after all those who believed in the One God (muwahhidūn) are brought out of the Fire:

74:42

مَا سَلَكَكُمْ فِي سَقَرَ

Pronunciation

Ma salakakum fee saqar

Translation

[And asking them], “What put you into Saqar?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

‘What has landed you in, [what has] made you enter, Saqar?’

74:43

قَالُوا لَمْ نَكُ مِنَ الْمُصَلِّينَ

Pronunciation

Qaloo lam naku mina almusalleen

Translation

They will say, “We were not of those who prayed,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They will say, ‘We were not of those who prayed.

74:44

وَلَمْ نَكُ نُطْعِمُ الْمِسْكِينَ

Pronunciation

Walam naku nutAAimu almiskeen

Translation

Nor did we used to feed the poor.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Nor did we [ever] feed the needy.

74:45

وَكُنَّا نَخُوضُ مَعَ الْخَائِضِينَ

Pronunciation

Wakunna nakhoodu maAAa alkha-ideen

Translation

And we used to enter into vain discourse with those who engaged [in it],

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And we used to delve, into falsehood, along with those who delved,

74:46

وَكُنَّا نُكَذِّبُ بِيَوْمِ الدِّينِ

Pronunciation

Wakunna nukaththibu biyawmi addeen

Translation

And we used to deny the Day of Recompense

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and we used to deny the Day of Judgement, [the Day] of Resurrection and Requital,

74:47

حَتَّىٰ أَتَانَا الْيَقِينُ

Pronunciation

Hatta atanaalyaqeen

Translation

Until there came to us the certainty.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

until [finally] the inevitable came to us’ — death.

74:48

فَمَا تَنفَعُهُمْ شَفَاعَةُ الشَّافِعِينَ

Pronunciation

Fama tanfaAAuhum shafaAAatu ashshafiAAeen

Translation

So there will not benefit them the intercession of [any] intercessors.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thus the intercession of the intercessors, from among the angels, the prophets and the righteous, will not avail them, in other words, there will be no intercession for them.

74:49

فَمَا لَهُمْ عَنِ التَّذْكِرَةِ مُعْرِضِينَ

Pronunciation

Fama lahum AAani attathkiratimuAArideen

Translation

Then what is [the matter] with them that they are, from the reminder, turning away

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So what (fa-mā: the subject) is wrong with them (lahum: the predicate thereof, semantically connected to an omitted clause, the person of which has been transposed onto it) that they turn away (mu‘ridīna is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the [suffixed] pronoun [in lahum, ‘them’]) from the Reminder — in other words, ‘what has happened to them that they have turned away from admonition’ —

74:50

كَأَنَّهُمْ حُمُرٌ مُّسْتَنفِرَةٌ

Pronunciation

Kaannahum humurun mustanfira

Translation

As if they were alarmed donkeys

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

as if they were wild asses

74:51

فَرَّتْ مِن قَسْوَرَةٍ

Pronunciation

Farrat min qaswara

Translation

Fleeing from a lion?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

fleeing from a lion?, that is to say, fleeing from it with absolute fright.

74:52

بَلْ يُرِيدُ كُلُّ امْرِئٍ مِّنْهُمْ أَن يُؤْتَىٰ صُحُفًا مُّنَشَّرَةً

Pronunciation

Bal yureedu kullu imri-in minhum an yu/tasuhufan munashshara

Translation

Rather, every person among them desires that he would be given scriptures spread about.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Nay, but everyone of them desires to be given unrolled scrolls, from God, exalted be He, [enjoining them] to follow the Prophet (s), as they said [before], ‘And [even then] we will not believe your ascension until you bring down for us a book that we may read’ [Q. 17:93].

74:53

كَلَّا ۖ بَل لَّا يَخَافُونَ الْآخِرَةَ

Pronunciation

Kalla bal la yakhafoonaal-akhira

Translation

No! But they do not fear the Hereafter.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

No indeed! (kallā: a deterrent of what they desire). Rather they do not fear the Hereafter, that is, the chastisement thereof.

74:54

كَلَّا إِنَّهُ تَذْكِرَةٌ

Pronunciation

Kalla innahu tathkira

Translation

No! Indeed, the Qur’an is a reminder

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

No indeed! (kallā: a commencement [of a new sentence]) Assuredly it, that is, the Qur’ān, is a Reminder, an admonition.

74:55

فَمَن شَاءَ ذَكَرَهُ

Pronunciation

Faman shaa thakarah

Translation

Then whoever wills will remember it.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So whoever wills shall remember it, he shall read it and be admonished by it.

74:56

وَمَا يَذْكُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ هُوَ أَهْلُ التَّقْوَىٰ وَأَهْلُ الْمَغْفِرَةِ

Pronunciation

Wama yathkuroona illaan yashaa Allahu huwa ahlu attaqwawaahlu almaghfirat

Translation

And they will not remember except that Allah wills. He is worthy of fear and adequate for [granting] forgiveness.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they will not remember (yadhkurūna or [read second person plural] tadhkurūna) unless God wills [it]. He is [the One] worthy of [your] fear, and [the One] worthy to forgive, by forgiving those who fear Him.

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