Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 54.Surat Al-Qamar (The Moon) – سورة القمر

Surat Al-Qamar (The Moon) – سورة القمر

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

54:1

اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ

Pronunciation

Iqtarabati assaAAatu wanshaqqaalqamar

Translation

The Hour has come near, and the moon has split [in two].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The Hour has drawn near, the Resurrection is close at hand, and the moon has split, it broke in two at [Mount] Abū Qubays and Qu‘ayqa‘ān, as a sign for the Prophet (s), for it had been demanded of him, and [when it took place] he said, ‘Bear witness [now]!’ — as reported by the two Shaykhs [al-Bukhārī and Muslim].

54:2

وَإِن يَرَوْا آيَةً يُعْرِضُوا وَيَقُولُوا سِحْرٌ مُّسْتَمِرٌّ

Pronunciation

Wa-in yaraw ayatan yuAAridoowayaqooloo sihrun mustamirr

Translation

And if they see a miracle, they turn away and say, “Passing magic.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if they, the disbelievers among Quraysh, see a sign, a miracle of the Prophet (s), they turn away and say, this is: ‘A powerful sorcery!’ (mustamirr, ‘powerful’, derives from al-mirra, meaning ‘strength’; or it [mustamirr] means ‘incessant’).

54:3

وَكَذَّبُوا وَاتَّبَعُوا أَهْوَاءَهُمْ ۚ وَكُلُّ أَمْرٍ مُّسْتَقِرٌّ

Pronunciation

Wakaththaboo wattabaAAoo ahwaahumwakullu amrin mustaqirr

Translation

And they denied and followed their inclinations. But for every matter is a [time of] settlement.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they denied, the Prophet (s), and followed their own desires, as regards [their] falsehood; and every matter, that is good or evil, will be settled, with that person [who is responsible for it], either [by his ending up] in Paradise or in the Fire.

54:4

وَلَقَدْ جَاءَهُم مِّنَ الْأَنبَاءِ مَا فِيهِ مُزْدَجَرٌ

Pronunciation

Walaqad jaahum mina al-anba-i mafeehi muzdajar

Translation

And there has already come to them of information that in which there is deterrence –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily there has come to them such tidings, stories about the destruction of communities which denied their messengers, as contain a deterrent, to them (muzdajar is a verbal noun, or a noun of place; the dāl [of muzdajar] replaces the tā’ of [the 8th form] ifta‘ala; one may say, izdajartuhu or zajartuhu, to mean ‘I forbade him sternly’; mā, ‘such as’, either indicates a relative clause, or it is qualified by an adjective);

54:5

حِكْمَةٌ بَالِغَةٌ ۖ فَمَا تُغْنِ النُّذُرُ

Pronunciation

Hikmatun balighatun famatughnee annuthur

Translation

Extensive wisdom – but warning does not avail [them].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

wisdom (hikmatun is the predicate of an omitted subject, or a substitution for mā, ‘such as’, or for muzdajar, ‘deterrent’) [that is] far-reaching, complete; but warnings (nudhur is the plural of nadhīr, functioning in the [agent] sense of mundhir, ‘a warner’, that is to say, ‘those matters which warn them’; mā is either for negation, or it is an interrogative of denial, in which case it stands as a preceding direct object) are of no avail, [warnings] are of no use with them.

54:6

فَتَوَلَّ عَنْهُمْ ۘ يَوْمَ يَدْعُ الدَّاعِ إِلَىٰ شَيْءٍ نُّكُرٍ

Pronunciation

Fatawalla AAanhum yawma yadAAu addaAAiila shay-in nukur

Translation

So leave them, [O Muhammad]. The Day the Caller calls to something forbidding,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So turn away from them! (this is the import of the preceding statement and it completes what is being said). On the day when the Summoner, namely, Isrāfīl (yawma, ‘the day’, is rendered accusative by yakhrujūna, ‘they will emerge’, next [verse]), summons to an awful thing (read nukur or nukr, in the sense of munkar, ‘disagreeable’), [a thing] which the souls will find awful, and this is the Reckoning;

54:7

خُشَّعًا أَبْصَارُهُمْ يَخْرُجُونَ مِنَ الْأَجْدَاثِ كَأَنَّهُمْ جَرَادٌ مُّنتَشِرٌ

Pronunciation

KhushshaAAan absaruhum yakhrujoonamina al-ajdathi kaannahum jaradun muntashir

Translation

Their eyes humbled, they will emerge from the graves as if they were locusts spreading,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

with their downcast (khāshi‘an: a variant reading has khushsha‘an), humiliated, looks (absāruhum is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of the verb [yakhrujūna, ‘they will emerge’]) they, that is, mankind, will emerge from the graves as though they were scattered locusts, not knowing where to go, out of fear and perplexity (this sentence [ka’annahum jarādun muntashirun] is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of [the verb] yakhrujūna, ‘they will emerge’, and so is His saying [muhti‘īna]),

54:8

مُّهْطِعِينَ إِلَى الدَّاعِ ۖ يَقُولُ الْكَافِرُونَ هَٰذَا يَوْمٌ عَسِرٌ

Pronunciation

MuhtiAAeena ila addaAAiyaqoolu alkafiroona hatha yawmun AAasir

Translation

Racing ahead toward the Caller. The disbelievers will say, “This is a difficult Day.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

scrambling, hastening with their necks stretched out, toward the Summoner. The disbelievers, among them, will say: ‘This is a hard day!’, a difficult one for disbelievers — as is stated in [sūrat] al-Muddaththir, a day of hardship for the disbelievers [Q. 74:9-10].

54:9

كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ فَكَذَّبُوا عَبْدَنَا وَقَالُوا مَجْنُونٌ وَازْدُجِرَ

Pronunciation

Kaththabat qablahum qawmu noohinfakaththaboo AAabdana waqaloo majnoonun wazdujir

Translation

The people of Noah denied before them, and they denied Our servant and said, “A madman,” and he was repelled.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The people of Noah denied (kadhdhabat has feminine inflection on account of the import [referring to a feminine noun], qawm, ‘tribe’) before them, before Quraysh. Thus they denied Our servant, Noah, and said, ‘A madman!’, and he was reviled: they repulsed him with insults and in other ways.

54:10

فَدَعَا رَبَّهُ أَنِّي مَغْلُوبٌ فَانتَصِرْ

Pronunciation

FadaAAa rabbahu annee maghloobun fantasir

Translation

So he invoked his Lord, “Indeed, I am overpowered, so help.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And so he invoked his Lord, [saying,] ‘I have been (annī, to be understood as bi-annī) overcome, so help [me]!’

54:11

فَفَتَحْنَا أَبْوَابَ السَّمَاءِ بِمَاءٍ مُّنْهَمِرٍ

Pronunciation

Fafatahna abwaba assama-ibima-in munhamir

Translation

Then We opened the gates of the heaven with rain pouring down

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then We opened (read fa-fatahnā or fa-fattahnā) the gates of the heaven with torrential waters, [waters] pouring down intensely,

54:12

وَفَجَّرْنَا الْأَرْضَ عُيُونًا فَالْتَقَى الْمَاءُ عَلَىٰ أَمْرٍ قَدْ قُدِرَ

Pronunciation

Wafajjarna al-arda AAuyoonanfaltaqa almao AAala amrin qad qudir

Translation

And caused the earth to burst with springs, and the waters met for a matter already predestined.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and We made the earth burst forth with springs, that flowed forth, and the waters, the waters of the heaven and the earth, met for a purpose, a circumstance, that was preordained, [a matter] which had been decreed since pre-eternity, namely, their destruction by drowning.

54:13

وَحَمَلْنَاهُ عَلَىٰ ذَاتِ أَلْوَاحٍ وَدُسُرٍ

Pronunciation

Wahamalnahu AAala thatialwahin wadusur

Translation

And We carried him on a [construction of] planks and nails,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We bore him, that is, Noah, on one, a ship, [made] of planks and nails (dusur is what boards are fastened down with of nails and the like; the singular is disār, similar [in pattern] to [kutub] kitāb, ‘book’),

54:14

تَجْرِي بِأَعْيُنِنَا جَزَاءً لِّمَن كَانَ كُفِرَ

Pronunciation

Tajree bi-aAAyunina jazaanliman kana kufir

Translation

Sailing under Our observation as reward for he who had been denied.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

sailing before Our eyes, that is, in Our sights, in other words, [it was being] protected, as retaliation (jazā’an is in the accusative because of the implied verbal clause, that is to say, ‘they were drowned by way of revenge’) for [the sake of] him who was rejected, namely, Noah, peace be upon him (a variant reading [for passive kufira] has kafara, ‘him who disbelieved’, in other words, they were drowned as a punishment for them).

54:15

وَلَقَد تَّرَكْنَاهَا آيَةً فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ

Pronunciation

Walaqad taraknaha ayatanfahal min muddakir

Translation

And We left it as a sign, so is there any who will remember?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily We left it, We preserved this [deed], as a sign, for whomever might be admonished by it, in other words, the news of this [deed] became widely-known and endured. So is there anyone who will remember?, [anyone who] will take heed from, or be admonished by, it? (muddakir is actually mudhtakir, but the tā’ has been replaced with a dāl, likewise the dhāl, and it [the dāl] has been assimilated with it [the other dāl]).

54:16

فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ

Pronunciation

Fakayfa kana AAathabee wanuthur

Translation

And how [severe] were My punishment and warning.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

How [dreadful] then were My chastisement and My warnings? (this is an interrogative meant as an affirmative; kayfa, ‘how’, is the predicate of kāna, ‘was’, and it is here being used to inquire about a ‘state’; the intention is to prompt those who are being addressed to affirm the fact that God’s chastisement of those who denied Noah was fully deserved).

54:17

وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ

Pronunciation

Walaqad yassarna alqur-ana liththikrifahal min muddakir

Translation

And We have certainly made the Qur’an easy for remembrance, so is there any who will remember?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily We have made the Qur’ān easy to remember, We have facilitated its memorisation and disposed it to serve as a remembrance. So is there anyone who remember?, [anyone who] will be admonished by it and memorise it? (the interrogative here is intended as an imperative: in other words, memorise it and be admonished by it; none of God’s scriptures is memorised by heart other than it [the Qur’ān]).

54:18

كَذَّبَتْ عَادٌ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ

Pronunciation

Kaththabat AAadun fakayfa kanaAAathabee wanuthur

Translation

‘Aad denied; and how [severe] were My punishment and warning.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

‘Ād denied, their prophet Hūd and so they were chastised. How then were My chastisement and My warnings?, [how then was] My warning them of the chastisement before it was sent down? In other words, it was justified, and He explains this [chastisement] by saying:

54:19

إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِيحًا صَرْصَرًا فِي يَوْمِ نَحْسٍ مُّسْتَمِرٍّ

Pronunciation

Inna arsalna AAalayhim reehansarsaran fee yawmi nahsin mustamirr

Translation

Indeed, We sent upon them a screaming wind on a day of continuous misfortune,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed We unleashed upon them a clamorous wind, intensely noisy, on a day of prolonged ill fortune, (nahsin mustamirr means) either one of continuous ill fortune, or one of severe ill fortune — and this was the last Wednesday of the month —

54:20

تَنزِعُ النَّاسَ كَأَنَّهُمْ أَعْجَازُ نَخْلٍ مُّنقَعِرٍ

Pronunciation

TanziAAu annasa kaannahumaAAjazu nakhlin munqaAAir

Translation

Extracting the people as if they were trunks of palm trees uprooted.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

tearing people away, wrenching them from the holes in the ground in which they had been embedded and flinging them down [to the ground] head first, thereby crushing their necks and severing [their] heads from [their] bodies, as if they were, [while lying] in this mentioned state, trunks of uprooted palm-trees, severed and thrown on the ground — they are likened to palm-trees because of their tallness (nakhlun, ‘palm-trees’, is masculine here but feminine in [sūrat] al-Hāqqa, nakhlun khāwiya, ‘fallen down [or hollow] palm-trees’, [Q. 69:7], in order to harmonise with the end-rhyme of the verses in both instances).

54:21

فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ

Pronunciation

Fakayfa kana AAathabee wanuthur

Translation

And how [severe] were My punishment and warning.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

How then were My chastisement and My warnings?

54:22

وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ

Pronunciation

Walaqad yassarna alqur-ana liththikrifahal min muddakir

Translation

And We have certainly made the Qur’an easy for remembrance, so is there any who will remember?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily We have made the Qur’ān easy to remember. So is there anyone who will remember?

54:23

كَذَّبَتْ ثَمُودُ بِالنُّذُرِ

Pronunciation

Kaththabat thamoodu binnuthur

Translation

Thamud denied the warning

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thamūd denied the warnings (nudhur is the plural of nadhīr, with the sense of mundhir), that is to say, [they denied] those matters which their prophet Sālih warned them of if they refused to believe in him and to follow him,

54:24

فَقَالُوا أَبَشَرًا مِّنَّا وَاحِدًا نَّتَّبِعُهُ إِنَّا إِذًا لَّفِي ضَلَالٍ وَسُعُرٍ

Pronunciation

Faqaloo abasharan minna wahidannattabiAAuhu inna ithan lafee dalalinwasuAAur

Translation

And said, “Is it one human being among us that we should follow? Indeed, we would then be in error and madness.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and they said, ‘Is it a mortal (basharan is in the accusative because it is governed [by a succeeding verb]) alone among us (minnā wāhidan are both adjectives of basharan) that we are to follow? (nattabi‘uhu, this explains the verb which renders it [basharan, ‘mortal’] accusative; the interrogative is meant as a negative, in other words: why should we follow him when there are many of us and he is only one among us and not a king? That is to say, we will not follow him). Then indeed, if we were to follow him, we would be in error, a parting with reason, and insanity!

54:25

أَأُلْقِيَ الذِّكْرُ عَلَيْهِ مِن بَيْنِنَا بَلْ هُوَ كَذَّابٌ أَشِرٌ

Pronunciation

Aolqiya aththikru AAalayhimin baynina bal huwa kaththabun ashir

Translation

Has the message been sent down upon him from among us? Rather, he is an insolent liar.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Has the Reminder, the revelation, been cast (read a-ulqiya pronouncing both hamzas, or by not pronouncing the second one but in both cases inserting an intervening alif, or leaving this [insertion] out) upon him [alone] from among us?, in other words, nothing has been revealed to him. Nay, but he is a conceited, an arrogant and insolent, liar, in his saying that the mentioned has been revealed to him. God, exalted be He, says:

54:26

سَيَعْلَمُونَ غَدًا مَّنِ الْكَذَّابُ الْأَشِرُ

Pronunciation

SayaAAlamoona ghadan mani alkaththabual-ashir

Translation

They will know tomorrow who is the insolent liar.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

‘They will know tomorrow, in the Hereafter, who is the conceited liar, and it is them, for they will be chastised for having denied their prophet Sālih.

54:27

إِنَّا مُرْسِلُو النَّاقَةِ فِتْنَةً لَّهُمْ فَارْتَقِبْهُمْ وَاصْطَبِرْ

Pronunciation

Inna mursiloo annaqatifitnatan lahum fartaqibhum wastabir

Translation

Indeed, We are sending the she-camel as trial for them, so watch them and be patient.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Lo! We are sending the She-camel, We will bring it forth out of the mountain, the rock, as they demanded, as a trial, a test, for them, that We may try them. So watch them, O Sālih, await [to see] what they will do and what will be done with them, and remain patient (istabir: the tā’ here has replaced the tā’ of [the 8th form] ifta‘ala), in other words, endure their harm.

54:28

وَنَبِّئْهُمْ أَنَّ الْمَاءَ قِسْمَةٌ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ كُلُّ شِرْبٍ مُّحْتَضَرٌ

Pronunciation

Wanabbi/hum anna almaa qismatunbaynahum kullu shirbin muhtadar

Translation

And inform them that the water is shared between them, each [day of] drink attended [by turn].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And inform them that the water is to be divided between them, and the She-camel: one day for them and the next for it, every drinking, [every] portion of water, will be attended’, by the people [drawing water] on their [designated] day, and by the She-camel on its day. They adhered to this [regime] but eventually became impatient with it and decided to slaughter the She-camel.

54:29

فَنَادَوْا صَاحِبَهُمْ فَتَعَاطَىٰ فَعَقَرَ

Pronunciation

Fanadaw sahibahum fataAAatafaAAaqar

Translation

But they called their companion, and he dared and hamstrung [her].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But they called their companion, Qudār, to slay it, so he took, he drew his sword, and he hamstrung, with it the She-camel, in other words, he slew her in compliance with their wish.

54:30

فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ

Pronunciation

Fakayfa kana AAathabee wanuthur

Translation

And how [severe] were My punishment and warning.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

How then were My chastisement and My warnings?, My warning them of chastisement before it was sent down? In other words, it was justified. He explains it [their chastisement] by saying:

54:31

إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ صَيْحَةً وَاحِدَةً فَكَانُوا كَهَشِيمِ الْمُحْتَظِرِ

Pronunciation

Inna arsalna AAalayhim sayhatanwahidatan fakanoo kahasheemi almuhtathir

Translation

Indeed, We sent upon them one blast from the sky, and they became like the dry twig fragments of an [animal] pen.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed We unleashed upon them a single Cry, and they became like the chaff of a corral builder (al-muhtazir is one who makes a pen from dried tree-branches and thorns for his sheep, to protect them from wolves and beasts of prey; the fallen parts which they tread are called hashīm).

54:32

وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ

Pronunciation

Walaqad yassarna alqur-ana liththikrifahal min muddakir

Translation

And We have certainly made the Qur’an easy for remembrance, so is there any who will remember?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily We have made the Qur’ān easy to remember. So is there anyone who will remember?

54:33

كَذَّبَتْ قَوْمُ لُوطٍ بِالنُّذُرِ

Pronunciation

Kaththabat qawmu lootin binnuthur

Translation

The people of Lot denied the warning.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The people of Lot denied the warnings, [they denied] those issues of which they were warned by his [Lot’s] tongue.

54:34

إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ حَاصِبًا إِلَّا آلَ لُوطٍ ۖ نَّجَّيْنَاهُم بِسَحَرٍ

Pronunciation

Inna arsalna AAalayhim hasibanilla ala lootin najjaynahum bisahar

Translation

Indeed, We sent upon them a storm of stones, except the family of Lot – We saved them before dawn

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed We unleashed upon them a squall of pebbles, a wind hurling at them pebbles, namely, small stones, a single one [of these] being no larger than the palm of the hand, and they were destroyed; [all] except the family of Lot, namely, his two daughters, together with him, whom We delivered at dawn, from among the dawns, the morning time of an unspecified day (had a specific day been meant [for that mentioned dawn], it [sahar] would have been treated as a diptote [instead of the declined form saharin], being a definite noun derived from al-sahar, for with definite nouns one ought to use [the preceding definite article] al). So was the squall unleashed at first with the family of Lot [still there]? There are two opinions regarding this: in the case of the former [that it was unleashed upon them including the family of Lot] the exception is understood as a continuous one, while in the case of the latter [opinion that they were delivered before the squall] the exception is understood as a discontinuous one, even if it [‘the family of Lot’] is actually subsumed by the collective noun [‘the people of Lot’, and so they were delivered] as a kindness [from God];

54:35

نِّعْمَةً مِّنْ عِندِنَا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي مَن شَكَرَ

Pronunciation

NiAAmatan min AAindina kathalikanajzee man shakar

Translation

As favor from us. Thus do We reward he who is grateful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

as a grace (ni‘matan is a verbal noun, that is to say in‘āman, ‘an act of grace’) from Us. So, like that requital, do We requite him who gives thanks, for Our graces and is a believer, or [it means] him who is a believer in God and His messenger and is obedient to both.

54:36

وَلَقَدْ أَنذَرَهُم بَطْشَتَنَا فَتَمَارَوْا بِالنُّذُرِ

Pronunciation

Walaqad antharahum batshatanafatamaraw binnuthur

Translation

And he had already warned them of Our assault, but they disputed the warning.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily he had warned them, Lot had threatened them, of Our strike, Our seizing them with chastisement, but they disputed, they contested and denied, the warnings, his warning.

54:37

وَلَقَدْ رَاوَدُوهُ عَن ضَيْفِهِ فَطَمَسْنَا أَعْيُنَهُمْ فَذُوقُوا عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ

Pronunciation

Walaqad rawadoohu AAan dayfihifatamasna aAAyunahum fathooqoo AAathabeewanuthur

Translation

And they had demanded from him his guests, but We obliterated their eyes, [saying], “Taste My punishment and warning.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they had even solicited of him his guests, that he should let them have their own way with those who had come to him as guests, that they may do wicked things with them — and these [guests] were angels. So We blotted out their eyes, We blinded them and made them without slits [so that they were continuous folds of skin] like the rest of the face, by having Gabriel smack them with his wing. ‘So taste [now], so We said to them: taste, My chastisement and My warnings’, that is to say, [taste] the effects and the substance of My warning and My threat.

54:38

وَلَقَدْ صَبَّحَهُم بُكْرَةً عَذَابٌ مُّسْتَقِرٌّ

Pronunciation

Walaqad sabbahahum bukratanAAathabun mustaqirr

Translation

And there came upon them by morning an abiding punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily there greeted them in the early morning, the morning time of an unspecified day, an abiding chastisement, a permanent [chastisement], continuous with the chastisement of the Hereafter.

54:39

فَذُوقُوا عَذَابِي وَنُذُرِ

Pronunciation

Fathooqoo AAathabee wanuthur

Translation

So taste My punishment and warning.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

‘So taste [now] My chastisement and My warnings!’

54:40

وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ

Pronunciation

Walaqad yassarna alqur-ana liththikrifahal min muddakir

Translation

And We have certainly made the Qur’an easy for remembrance, so is there any who will remember?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily We have made the Qur’ān easy to remember. So is there anyone who will remember?

54:41

وَلَقَدْ جَاءَ آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ النُّذُرُ

Pronunciation

Walaqad jaa ala firAAawna annuthur

Translation

And there certainly came to the people of Pharaoh warning.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily there came to Pharaoh’s folk, his people, together with him, the warnings, the warning by the tongue of Moses and Aaron, but they did not believe.

54:42

كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا كُلِّهَا فَأَخَذْنَاهُمْ أَخْذَ عَزِيزٍ مُّقْتَدِرٍ

Pronunciation

Kaththaboo bi-ayatinakulliha faakhathnahum akhthaAAazeezin muqtadir

Translation

They denied Our signs, all of them, so We seized them with a seizure of one Exalted in Might and Perfect in Ability.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Rather: They denied Our signs, all, nine, of them, which were given to Moses. So We seized them, by way of chastisement, with the seizing of One [Who is] Mighty, Strong, Omnipotent, Powerful, Whom nothing can thwart.

54:43

أَكُفَّارُكُمْ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أُولَٰئِكُمْ أَمْ لَكُم بَرَاءَةٌ فِي الزُّبُرِ

Pronunciation

Akuffarukum khayrun min ola-ikumam lakum baraatun fee azzubur

Translation

Are your disbelievers better than those [former ones], or have you immunity in the scripture?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Are your disbelievers, O Quraysh, better than those?, mentioned [beginning] from the people of Noah to those of Pharaoh, which is why they have not been chastised? Or have you, O disbelievers of Quraysh, [been granted] some immunity, from chastisement, in the Scriptures?, the Books? (the interrogative in both instances is meant as a denial, in other words: it is not so).

54:44

أَمْ يَقُولُونَ نَحْنُ جَمِيعٌ مُّنتَصِرٌ

Pronunciation

Am yaqooloona nahnu jameeAAun muntasir

Translation

Or do they say, “We are an assembly supporting [each other]”?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Or do they, the disbelievers of Quraysh, say: ‘We are a host that will be helped to victory’?, against Muhammad (s)? When Abū Jahl, on the day of Badr, said: ‘We are a host that will be helped to victory’, the following was revealed:

54:45

سَيُهْزَمُ الْجَمْعُ وَيُوَلُّونَ الدُّبُرَ

Pronunciation

Sayuhzamu aljamAAu wayuwalloona addubur

Translation

[Their] assembly will be defeated, and they will turn their backs [in retreat].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The host will [truly] be routed and turn its back [to flee], and so they were defeated at Badr and God’s Messenger (s) was granted victory over them.

54:46

بَلِ السَّاعَةُ مَوْعِدُهُمْ وَالسَّاعَةُ أَدْهَىٰ وَأَمَرُّ

Pronunciation

Bali assaAAatu mawAAiduhum wassaAAatuadha waamar

Translation

But the Hour is their appointment [for due punishment], and the Hour is more disastrous and more bitter.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Nay, but the Hour is their tryst, for chastisement, and the Hour, that is, the chastisement thereat, will be more calamitous, greater in affliction, and more bitter, than the chastisement of this world.

54:47

إِنَّ الْمُجْرِمِينَ فِي ضَلَالٍ وَسُعُرٍ

Pronunciation

Inna almujrimeena fee dalalinwasuAAur

Translation

Indeed, the criminals are in error and madness.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed the guilty are in error, in the destruction of being killed in this world, and in a blazing fire, a fire that has been set ablaze (musa‘‘ara), that is, fiercely ignited in the Hereafter.

54:48

يَوْمَ يُسْحَبُونَ فِي النَّارِ عَلَىٰ وُجُوهِهِمْ ذُوقُوا مَسَّ سَقَرَ

Pronunciation

Yawma yushaboona fee annariAAala wujoohihim thooqoo massa saqar

Translation

The Day they are dragged into the Fire on their faces [it will be said], “Taste the touch of Saqar.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The day when they are dragged into the Fire on their faces, in the Hereafter and it is said to them: ‘Taste [now] the touch of Saqar’, Hell’s affliction of you.

54:49

إِنَّا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَاهُ بِقَدَرٍ

Pronunciation

Inna kulla shay-in khalaqnahubiqadar

Translation

Indeed, all things We created with predestination.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Truly everything (read inna kulla shay’in is [in the accusative as a] dependent clause because of a verb governing it) have We created in a measure, by ordainment (bi-qadarin, ‘in a measure’, is a circumstantial qualifier referring to kulla, ‘every’, in other words, ‘[already] predetermined’; a variant reading [for kulla] has [nominative] kullu as the subject, the predicate of which is khalaqnāhu, ‘We have created’).

54:50

وَمَا أَمْرُنَا إِلَّا وَاحِدَةٌ كَلَمْحٍ بِالْبَصَرِ

Pronunciation

Wama amruna illa wahidatunkalamhin bilbasar

Translation

And Our command is but one, like a glance of the eye.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And Our command, for a thing which We want to bring into existence, is but a single word, like the twinkling of an eye, in terms of speed, and this is the saying of kun, ‘Be’, whereat it comes into existence. His command, when He wills a thing, is just to say to it ‘Be’, and it is [Q. 36:82].

54:51

وَلَقَدْ أَهْلَكْنَا أَشْيَاعَكُمْ فَهَلْ مِن مُّدَّكِرٍ

Pronunciation

Walaqad ahlakna ashyaAAakumfahal min muddakir

Translation

And We have already destroyed your kinds, so is there any who will remember?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily We have destroyed the likes of you, the likes of you in terms of disbelief, from among past communities. So is there anyone who will remember? (this is an interrogative meant as an imperative, that is to say, ‘Remember and be admonished!’).

54:52

وَكُلُّ شَيْءٍ فَعَلُوهُ فِي الزُّبُرِ

Pronunciation

Wakullu shay-in faAAaloohu fee azzubur

Translation

And everything they did is in written records.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And everything they, that is, servants, have done is, recorded, in the scrolls, the books of the Guardian Angels (al-hafaza),

54:53

وَكُلُّ صَغِيرٍ وَكَبِيرٍ مُّسْتَطَرٌ

Pronunciation

Wakullu sagheerin wakabeerin mustatar

Translation

And every small and great [thing] is inscribed.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and every small and great, sin, or deed, is inscribed, is recorded in the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfūz).

54:54

إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِي جَنَّاتٍ وَنَهَرٍ

Pronunciation

Inna almuttaqeena fee jannatinwanahar

Translation

Indeed, the righteous will be among gardens and rivers,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Assuredly the God-fearing will be amid gardens, orchards, and rivers (the collective noun is meant here; a variant reading [for nahar] has the plural nuhur, similar [in form] to asad, ‘lion’, [plural] usud), the meaning being that they will drink from its rivers water milk, honey and wine;

54:55

فِي مَقْعَدِ صِدْقٍ عِندَ مَلِيكٍ مُّقْتَدِرٍ

Pronunciation

Fee maqAAadi sidqin AAinda maleekinmuqtadir

Translation

In a seat of honor near a Sovereign, Perfect in Ability.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

in an abode of truth, a place of truth, wherein there is no idle talk or cause for sin — (the collective noun [maq‘ad] is meant here; a variant reading has maqā‘id, ‘abodes’), in other words, they are in congregations in Paradise that are free from idle talk and cause for sin, in contrast to the congregations of this world, which are rarely free from such things (syntactically, this statement is considered a second predicate and also a substitution; it [the ‘abode’] may be understood as being ‘one of truth’ regardless of whether one reads the substitution as being of the part [for the whole] or otherwise); before a King (malīk: this form is hyperbolic, that is to say, One of a mighty and vast kingdom) [Who is] Omnipotent, Powerful, Whom nothing can thwart, namely, God, exalted be He (‘inda indicates [glorious] rank and closeness to His bounty, exalted be He).

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