Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 48.Surat Al-Fatĥ (The Victory) – سورة الفتح

Surat Al-Fatĥ (The Victory) – سورة الفتح

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

48:1

إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُّبِينًا

Pronunciation

Inna fatahna laka fathanmubeena

Translation

Indeed, We have given you, [O Muhammad], a clear conquest

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Verily We have given you, We have ordained [for you] the conquest (fath) of Mecca, and other places in the future by force, as a result of your struggle, a clear victory, [one that is] plain and manifest;

48:2

لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا

Pronunciation

Liyaghfira laka Allahu mataqaddama min thanbika wama taakhkhara wayutimmaniAAmatahu AAalayka wayahdiyaka siratan mustaqeema

Translation

That Allah may forgive for you what preceded of your sin and what will follow and complete His favor upon you and guide you to a straight path

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

that God may forgive you, by virtue of your struggle, what is past of your sin and what is to come, of it, so that your community might then desire to struggle [like you] — this [verse] also constitutes a justification of the [concept of the] infallibility (‘isma) of prophets, peace be upon them, against sin, by way of a definitive rational proof (the lām [in li-yaghfira, ‘that He may forgive’] is for [indicating] the ultimate reason [for the conquest], so that the content [of this latter statement] constitutes an effect and not the cause), and that He may perfect, by way of the mentioned victory, His favour to you and guide you, thereby, to a straight path, upon which He will confirm you — and this [straight path] is the religion of Islam;

48:3

وَيَنصُرَكَ اللَّهُ نَصْرًا عَزِيزًا

Pronunciation

Wayansuraka Allahu nasranAAazeeza

Translation

And [that] Allah may aid you with a mighty victory.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and that God may grant you, therein, a mighty victory, one of glory, involving no humiliation.

48:4

هُوَ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ فِي قُلُوبِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لِيَزْدَادُوا إِيمَانًا مَّعَ إِيمَانِهِمْ ۗ وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Huwa allathee anzala assakeenatafee quloobi almu/mineena liyazdadoo eemanan maAAaeemanihim walillahi junoodu assamawatiwal-ardi wakana Allahu AAaleeman hakeema

Translation

It is He who sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the believers that they would increase in faith along with their [present] faith. And to Allah belong the soldiers of the heavens and the earth, and ever is Allah Knowing and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He it is Who sent down the spirit of Peace, [Divine] reassurance, into the hearts of the believers, that they might add faith to their faith, by way of [their embracing of] the legal stipulations of religion: for every time He revealed one [of these], they would believe in it — including the [command to] struggle. And to God belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth, and so if He wanted to bring victory to His religion by means of others, He would have done so. And God is ever Knower, of His creatures, Wise, in His actions, in other words, He is ever possessed of such attributes;

48:5

لِّيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَيُكَفِّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عِندَ اللَّهِ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Liyudkhila almu/mineena walmu/minatijannatin tajree min tahtiha al-anharukhalideena feeha wayukaffira AAanhum sayyi-atihimwakana thalika AAinda Allahi fawzan AAatheema

Translation

[And] that He may admit the believing men and the believing women to gardens beneath which rivers flow to abide therein eternally and remove from them their misdeeds – and ever is that, in the sight of Allah, a great attainment –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

so that He may admit (li-yudkhila is semantically connected to an omitted clause, that is to say, amara bi’l-jihād, ‘He has enjoined the struggle [so that He may admit]’) the believing men and believing women into gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide, and that He may absolve them of their misdeeds; for that, in God’s sight, is a supreme triumph;

48:6

وَيُعَذِّبَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ وَالْمُشْرِكَاتِ الظَّانِّينَ بِاللَّهِ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ ۚ عَلَيْهِمْ دَائِرَةُ السَّوْءِ ۖ وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَنَهُمْ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

WayuAAaththiba almunafiqeena walmunafiqatiwalmushrikeena walmushrikati aththanneenabillahi thanna assaw-iAAalayhim da-iratu assaw-i waghadiba AllahuAAalayhim walaAAanahum waaAAadda lahum jahannama wasaat maseera

Translation

And [that] He may punish the hypocrite men and hypocrite women, and the polytheist men and polytheist women – those who assume about Allah an assumption of evil nature. Upon them is a misfortune of evil nature; and Allah has become angry with them and has cursed them and prepared for them Hell, and evil it is as a destination.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and so that He may chastise the hypocrites, men and women, and the idolaters, men and women, and those who make evil assumptions about God (read al-saw’ or al-sū’, ‘evil’, in all three places); they assumed that He will not assist Muhammad (s) and the believers. For them will be an evil turn of fortune, by way of abasement and chastisement; and God is wroth with them, and He has cursed them, He has banished them [far from His mercy], and has prepared for them Hell — and it is an evil destination!, [an evil] place to return to.

48:7

وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Walillahi junoodu assamawatiwal-ardi wakana Allahu AAazeezan hakeema

Translation

And to Allah belong the soldiers of the heavens and the earth. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And to God belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth; and God is ever Mighty, in His kingdom, Wise, in His actions, in other words, He is ever possessed of such attributes.

48:8

إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا

Pronunciation

Inna arsalnaka shahidanwamubashshiran wanatheera

Translation

Indeed, We have sent you as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed We have sent you as a witness, against your community at the Resurrection, and a bearer of good tidings, to them in this world, and a warner, to threaten those in it who do evil with [the punishment of] the Fire;

48:9

لِّتُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتُعَزِّرُوهُ وَتُوَقِّرُوهُ وَتُسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا

Pronunciation

Litu/minoo billahi warasoolihiwatuAAazziroohu watuwaqqiroohu watusabbihoohu bukratan waaseela

Translation

That you [people] may believe in Allah and His Messenger and honor him and respect the Prophet and exalt Allah morning and afternoon.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

that you may believe (li-tu’minū, may also here be read li-yu’minū, ‘that they may believe’; and similarly read either the second person plural or the third person plural in the next three instances) in God and His Messenger, and that you may support Him (tu‘azzirūhu: a variant reading has tu‘azzizūhu) and revere Him (the [third person suffixed] pronoun [-hu, ‘him’] may refer either to God or to His Messenger) and glorify Him, that is, God, morning and evening.

48:10

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ ۚ فَمَن نَّكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنكُثُ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِمَا عَاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena yubayiAAoonakainnama yubayiAAoona Allaha yadu Allahifawqa aydeehim faman nakatha fa-innama yankuthu AAalanafsihi waman awfa bima AAahada AAalayhu Allahafasayu/teehi ajran AAatheema

Translation

Indeed, those who pledge allegiance to you, [O Muhammad] – they are actually pledging allegiance to Allah . The hand of Allah is over their hands. So he who breaks his word only breaks it to the detriment of himself. And he who fulfills that which he has promised Allah – He will give him a great reward.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Truly those who pledge allegiance to you, the ‘Pledge of Beatitude’ (bay‘at al-ridwān) given at al-Hudaybiyya, in fact pledge allegiance to God — this [statement] is akin to: Whoever obeys the Messenger, verily obeys God [Q. 4:80]. The Hand of God is above their hands, [the hands] with which they pledged allegiance to the Prophet, in other words, God, exalted be He, has observed their pledge of allegiance and will requite them in accordance with [their adherence to] it. So whoever reneges, [whoever] breaches the pledge, reneges — [that is] the evil consequences of his breach will eventually be — against his own soul; and whoever fulfils the covenant which he has made with God, He will give him (fa-sa-yu’tīhi; or read fa-sa-nu’tīhi, ‘We will give him’) a great reward.

48:11

سَيَقُولُ لَكَ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ شَغَلَتْنَا أَمْوَالُنَا وَأَهْلُونَا فَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَنَا ۚ يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ فَمَن يَمْلِكُ لَكُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا إِنْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ ضَرًّا أَوْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ نَفْعًا ۚ بَلْ كَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا

Pronunciation

Sayaqoolu laka almukhallafoona mina al-aAArabishaghalatna amwaluna waahloona fastaghfirlana yaqooloona bi-alsinatihim ma laysa feequloobihim qul faman yamliku lakum mina Allahi shay-an inarada bikum darran aw arada bikum nafAAanbal kana Allahu bima taAAmaloona khabeera

Translation

Those who remained behind of the bedouins will say to you, “Our properties and our families occupied us, so ask forgiveness for us.” They say with their tongues what is not within their hearts. Say, “Then who could prevent Allah at all if He intended for you harm or intended for you benefit? Rather, ever is Allah , with what you do, Acquainted.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those of the Bedouins who were left behind, around Medina — that is to say, those whom God made to stay behind and not to accompany you when you had asked them to set out with you for Mecca, fearing that Quraysh would attack you upon your return, in the year of al-Hudaybiyya — will say to you, ‘Our possessions and our families kept us occupied, [preventing us] from going forth with you. So ask forgiveness for us!’, of God, for our failure to go forth with you. God, exalted be He, exposes their mendacity by saying: They say with their tongues, that is to say, in asking forgiveness, and in the preceding statement [of theirs], what is not in their hearts, and so they are lying in the excuse which they give. Say: ‘Who can (an interrogative meant [rhetorically] as a negation, that is to say, ‘none [can]’) avail you anything against God should He desire to cause you harm (read darran or durran) or desire to bring you benefit? Nay, but God is ever Aware of what you do, in other words, He is ever possessed of such an attribute.

48:12

بَلْ ظَنَنتُمْ أَن لَّن يَنقَلِبَ الرَّسُولُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِيهِمْ أَبَدًا وَزُيِّنَ ذَٰلِكَ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَظَنَنتُمْ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ وَكُنتُمْ قَوْمًا بُورًا

Pronunciation

Bal thanantum an lan yanqalibaarrasoolu walmu/minoona ila ahleehimabadan wazuyyina thalika fee quloobikum wathanantumthanna assaw-i wakuntum qawman boora

Translation

But you thought that the Messenger and the believers would never return to their families, ever, and that was made pleasing in your hearts. And you assumed an assumption of evil and became a people ruined.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Nay (bal in both instances marks a transition from one subject to another), but you thought that the Messenger and the believers would never return to their families, and that [thought] was adorned in your hearts, that is to say, [you thought] that they would be annihilated by being slain and would not return, and you thought evil thoughts, that [just mentioned], and other things, and you were a ruined lot’ (būr is the plural of bā’ir), in other words, [a lot to be] destroyed according to God for [having entertained] such [evil] thoughts.

48:13

وَمَن لَّمْ يُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ فَإِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ سَعِيرًا

Pronunciation

Waman lam yu/min billahiwarasoolihi fa-inna aAAtadna lilkafireenasaAAeera

Translation

And whoever has not believed in Allah and His Messenger – then indeed, We have prepared for the disbelievers a Blaze.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And whoever does not believe in God and His Messenger, We have prepared for the disbelievers a blaze, a severe fire.

48:14

وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ يَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Pronunciation

Walillahi mulku assamawatiwal-ardi yaghfiru liman yashao wayuAAaththibuman yashao wakana Allahu ghafooran raheema

Translation

And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth: He forgives whomever He will and chastises whomever He will; and God is ever Forgiving, Merciful, that is to say, He is ever possessed of the attributes mentioned.

48:15

سَيَقُولُ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ إِذَا انطَلَقْتُمْ إِلَىٰ مَغَانِمَ لِتَأْخُذُوهَا ذَرُونَا نَتَّبِعْكُمْ ۖ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يُبَدِّلُوا كَلَامَ اللَّهِ ۚ قُل لَّن تَتَّبِعُونَا كَذَٰلِكُمْ قَالَ اللَّهُ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ فَسَيَقُولُونَ بَلْ تَحْسُدُونَنَا ۚ بَلْ كَانُوا لَا يَفْقَهُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Pronunciation

Sayaqoolu almukhallafoona itha intalaqtumila maghanima lita/khuthooha tharoonanattabiAAkum yureedoona an yubaddiloo kalama Allahiqul lan tattabiAAoona kathalikum qala Allahumin qablu fasayaqooloona bal tahsudoonana bal kanoola yafqahoona illa qaleela

Translation

Those who remained behind will say when you set out toward the war booty to take it, “Let us follow you.” They wish to change the words of Allah . Say, “Never will you follow us. Thus did Allah say before.” So they will say, “Rather, you envy us.” But [in fact] they were not understanding except a little.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those, mentioned, who were left behind will say, when you set forth after spoils, namely, the spoils of Khaybar, in order to capture them, ‘Let us follow you’, that we might [also] take a share of it. They desire, thereby, to change the words of God (kalāma’Llāhi: a variant reading has kalima’Llāhi), in other words, His promising of the spoils of Khaybar exclusively for those who were at al-Hudaybiyya. Say: ‘You shall never follow us! Thus has God said beforehand’, that is, prior to our return. Then they will say, ‘Nay, but you are envious of us’, lest we might acquire a share of the spoils, and therefore you say this [that you say]. Nay, but they never understood, anything of religion, [all] except a few, of them.

48:16

قُل لِّلْمُخَلَّفِينَ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ سَتُدْعَوْنَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ أُولِي بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ تُقَاتِلُونَهُمْ أَوْ يُسْلِمُونَ ۖ فَإِن تُطِيعُوا يُؤْتِكُمُ اللَّهُ أَجْرًا حَسَنًا ۖ وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوْا كَمَا تَوَلَّيْتُم مِّن قَبْلُ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Qul lilmukhallafeena mina al-aAArabisatudAAawna ila qawmin olee ba/sin shadeedin tuqatiloonahumaw yuslimoona fa-in tuteeAAoo yu/tikumu Allahuajran hasanan wa-in tatawallaw kama tawallaytum minqablu yuAAaththibkum AAathaban aleema

Translation

Say to those who remained behind of the bedouins, “You will be called to [face] a people of great military might; you may fight them, or they will submit. So if you obey, Allah will give you a good reward; but if you turn away as you turned away before, He will punish you with a painful punishment.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say to those of the Bedouins, mentioned, who were left behind, to test them: ‘You shall be called against a people possessed of great might — these are said to have been the [tribe of] Banū Hanīfa, the inhabitants of [the region of] al-Yamāma; but it is also said that these were the Persians and the Byzantines — you shall fight them (tuqātilūnahum is a circumstancial qualifier referring to an implied [future] situation, which constitutes that to which the ‘call’ will be made); or they will submit, so that you will not [have to] fight. So if you obey, [the command] to fight them, God will give you a good reward; but if you turn away like you turned away before, He will chastise you with a painful chastisement’.

48:17

لَّيْسَ عَلَى الْأَعْمَىٰ حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى الْأَعْرَجِ حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى الْمَرِيضِ حَرَجٌ ۗ وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ يُعَذِّبْهُ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Laysa AAala al-aAAma harajunwala AAala al-aAAraji harajun walaAAala almareedi harajun waman yutiAAiAllaha warasoolahu yudkhilhu jannatin tajree min tahtihaal-anharu waman yatawalla yuAAaththibhu AAathabanaleema

Translation

There is not upon the blind any guilt or upon the lame any guilt or upon the ill any guilt [for remaining behind]. And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger – He will admit him to gardens beneath which rivers flow; but whoever turns away – He will punish him with a painful punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

There is no blame on the blind, nor [is there] blame on the lame, nor [is there] blame on the sick, to refrain from [participating in] the struggle. And whoever obeys God and His Messenger, He will admit him (read yudkhilhu, or nudkhilhu, ‘We will admit him’) into gardens underneath which rivers flow; and whoever turns away, him He will chastise (read yu‘adhdhibhu, or nu‘adhdhibhu, ‘him We will chastise’) with a painful chastisement.

48:18

لَّقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا

Pronunciation

Laqad radiya Allahu AAanialmu/mineena ith yubayiAAoonaka tahta ashshajaratifaAAalima ma fee quloobihim faanzala asakeenataAAalayhim waathabahum fathan qareeba

Translation

Certainly was Allah pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, [O Muhammad], under the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquillity upon them and rewarded them with an imminent conquest

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Verily God was pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, at al-Hudaybiyya, under the tree, this was an acacia — they [these believers] numbered 1300 or more; he took an oath of allegiance from them that they would fight against Quraysh and not [attempt to] flee from death. And He, God, knew what was in their hearts, of sincerity and loyalty, so He sent down the spirit of Peace upon them, and rewarded them with a near victory, which was the conquest of Khaybar, following their departure from al-Hudaybiyya,

48:19

وَمَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً يَأْخُذُونَهَا ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wamaghanima katheeratan ya/khuthoonahawakana Allahu AAazeezan hakeema

Translation

And much war booty which they will take. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and abundant spoils which they will capture, from Khaybar, and God is ever Mighty, Wise, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such attributes.

48:20

وَعَدَكُمُ اللَّهُ مَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً تَأْخُذُونَهَا فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَٰذِهِ وَكَفَّ أَيْدِيَ النَّاسِ عَنكُمْ وَلِتَكُونَ آيَةً لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا

Pronunciation

WaAAadakumu Allahu maghanimakatheeratan ta/khuthoonaha faAAajjala lakum hathihiwakaffa aydiya annasi AAankum walitakoona ayatanlilmu/mineena wayahdiyakum siratan mustaqeema

Translation

Allah has promised you much booty that you will take [in the future] and has hastened for you this [victory] and withheld the hands of people from you – that it may be a sign for the believers and [that] He may guide you to a straight path.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God has promised you abundant spoils which you will capture, through the [various] conquests. So He has expedited this one, the spoils of Khaybar, for you, and withheld men’s hands from you, with regard to your families, after you had set off [on the campaign], as the Jews had intended [to plot] against them; but God cast terror into their hearts; so that it, the expedited one (wa-li-takūna is a supplement to an implied verb, that is to say, li-tashkurūhu, ‘that you may give thanks to Him’) may be a sign for the believers, of their being assisted [by God], and that He may guide you on a straight path, that is to say, the way in which you should rely on Him and entrust any affair to Him, exalted be He;

48:21

وَأُخْرَىٰ لَمْ تَقْدِرُوا عَلَيْهَا قَدْ أَحَاطَ اللَّهُ بِهَا ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرًا

Pronunciation

Waokhra lam taqdiroo AAalayhaqad ahata Allahu biha wakana AllahuAAala kulli shay-in qadeera

Translation

And [He promises] other [victories] that you were [so far] unable to [realize] which Allah has already encompassed. And ever is Allah , over all things, competent.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and others (wa-ukhrā is an adjectival qualification of the implied subject maghānima, ‘spoils’) which you were not able to capture — namely, [spoils] from the Persians and the Byzantines; God has verily encompassed these [already], that is to say, He knows that they will be yours. And God has power over all things, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such an attribute.

48:22

وَلَوْ قَاتَلَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوَلَّوُا الْأَدْبَارَ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُونَ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Walaw qatalakumu allatheenakafaroo lawallawoo al-adbara thumma la yajidoonawaliyyan wala naseera

Translation

And if those [Makkans] who disbelieve had fought you, they would have turned their backs [in flight]. Then they would not find a protector or a helper.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if those who disbelieve had fought you, at al-Hudaybiyya, they would have turned their backs [to flee] — then they would not have found any protector, to guard them, or helper.

48:23

سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلًا

Pronunciation

Sunnata Allahi allatee qad khalat minqablu walan tajida lisunnati Allahi tabdeela

Translation

[This is] the established way of Allah which has occurred before. And never will you find in the way of Allah any change.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

[That is] the way of God (sunnata’Llāhi is a verbal noun emphasising the import of the preceding sentence about the defeat of the disbelievers and the victory of the believers, that is to say, sanna’Llāhu dhālika sunnatan, ‘God has established this as [His] way [of dealing with believers and disbelievers]’) which has taken its course before, and you will never find in God’s way any change, by Him.

48:24

وَهُوَ الَّذِي كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُم بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِن بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Wahuwa allathee kaffa aydiyahumAAankum waaydiyakum AAanhum bibatni makkata min baAAdi anathfarakum AAalayhim wakana Allahubima taAAmaloona baseera

Translation

And it is He who withheld their hands from you and your hands from them within [the area of] Makkah after He caused you to overcome them. And ever is Allah of what you do, Seeing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And it is He Who withheld their hands from you, and your hands from them, in the valley of Mecca, at al-Hudaybiyya, after He had made you victors over them: for eighty of them surrounded your camp in order to inflict losses upon you, but they were captured and taken to the Prophet (s), who pardoned them and set them free, and this resulted in the truce. And God is ever Seer of what you do (read ta‘malūna, or ya‘malūna, ‘they do’), that is to say, He is ever possessed of this attribute.

48:25

هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْهَدْيَ مَعْكُوفًا أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْلَا رِجَالٌ مُّؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَاءٌ مُّؤْمِنَاتٌ لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَن تَطَئُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكُم مِّنْهُم مَّعَرَّةٌ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۖ لِّيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِي رَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ لَوْ تَزَيَّلُوا لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Humu allatheena kafaroo wasaddookumAAani almasjidi alharami walhadyamaAAkoofan an yablugha mahillahu walawla rijalunmu/minoona wanisaon mu/minatun lam taAAlamoohum antataoohum fatuseebakum minhum maAAarratun bighayriAAilmin liyudkhila Allahu fee rahmatihi man yashaolaw tazayyaloo laAAaththabna allatheenakafaroo minhum AAathaban aleema

Translation

They are the ones who disbelieved and obstructed you from al-Masjid al-Haram while the offering was prevented from reaching its place of sacrifice. And if not for believing men and believing women whom you did not know – that you might trample them and there would befall you because of them dishonor without [your] knowledge – [you would have been permitted to enter Makkah]. [This was so] that Allah might admit to His mercy whom He willed. If they had been apart [from them], We would have punished those who disbelieved among them with painful punishment

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They are the ones who disbelieved and barred you from the Sacred Mosque, that is, [barred you] from reaching it, and [prevented] the offering (wa’l-hadya is a supplement to the [suffixed pronoun] –kum, ‘you’ [of saddūkum, ‘they barred you’]), which was detained (ma‘kūfan is a circumstantial qualifier), from reaching its destination, that is, [from] the place at which it is customarily sacrificed, namely, the Sanctuary [itself] (an yablugha mahillahu, is an inclusive substitution). And were it not for [some of] the believing men and believing women, being present at Mecca alongside the disbelievers, whom you did not know, to be believers — lest you should trample them, that is to say, [lest] you should slay them together with the disbelievers, had you been given permission to embark on the conquest (an tata’ūhum is an inclusive substitution for –hum, ‘them’ [of lam ta‘lamūhum, ‘whom you did not know’]), and thus incur sin on account of them without, your, knowing, it … (the third person pronouns in both groups [of people] predominantly imply males; the response to lawlā, ‘were it not’, has been omitted [through ellipsis], being [something along the lines of] la-udhina lakum fī’l-fathi, ‘you would have been permitted to embark on the conquest’), but permission for this was not given at the time, so that God may admit into His mercy whom He will, such as those believers mentioned. Had they been clearly separated, [had] they [the believers] been distinguishable from the disbelievers, We would have surely chastised the disbelievers among them, of the people of Mecca [immediately] thereat, by permitting you to go ahead with the conquest thereof, with a painful chastisement.

48:26

إِذْ جَعَلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْحَمِيَّةَ حَمِيَّةَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَأَنزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ التَّقْوَىٰ وَكَانُوا أَحَقَّ بِهَا وَأَهْلَهَا ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Ith jaAAala allatheena kafaroofee quloobihimu alhamiyyata hamiyyata aljahiliyyatifaanzala Allahu sakeenatahu AAala rasoolihi waAAalaalmu/mineena waalzamahum kalimata attaqwa wakanooahaqqa biha waahlaha wakana Allahubikulli shay-in AAaleema

Translation

When those who disbelieved had put into their hearts chauvinism – the chauvinism of the time of ignorance. But Allah sent down His tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers and imposed upon them the word of righteousness, and they were more deserving of it and worthy of it. And ever is Allah , of all things, Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When those who disbelieve (alladhīna kafarū is the subject [of the following verb ja‘ala]) nourished (idh ja‘ala is semantically connected to ‘adhdhabnā) in their hearts zealotry (al-hamiyya, [means] ‘disdain of something’), the zealotry of pagandom (hamiyyata’l-jāhiliyyati substitutes for al-hamiyyata, ‘zealotry’), namely, their barring of the Prophet and his Companions from [visiting] the Sacred Mosque, [but] then God sent down His spirit of Peace upon His Messenger and the believers, and so they [the disbelievers] made a truce with them on the condition that they [the believers] would [be allowed to] return the following year, and [such] zealotry would not overcome them [the believers] as it did the disbelievers [then] until they would come to fight them [later], and He made them, the believers, abide by the word of God-fearing (kalimata’l-taqwā): ‘there is no god except God, [and] Muhammad is His Messenger’ (it [kalima, ‘word’] is annexed to al-taqwā because it is the cause of it), for they were worthier of it, of the word, than the disbelievers, and deserving of it (wa-ahlahā is an explanatory supplement). And God is ever Knower of all things, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such an attribute, and among the things He knows is that they are worthy of it.

48:27

لَّقَدْ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ الرُّؤْيَا بِالْحَقِّ ۖ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ إِن شَاءَ اللَّهُ آمِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لَا تَخَافُونَ ۖ فَعَلِمَ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا فَجَعَلَ مِن دُونِ ذَٰلِكَ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا

Pronunciation

Laqad sadaqa Allahu rasoolahuarru/ya bilhaqqi latadkhulunnaalmasjida alharama in shaa Allahu amineenamuhalliqeena ruoosakum wamuqassireena latakhafoona faAAalima ma lam taAAlamoo fajaAAala mindooni thalika fathan qareeba

Translation

Certainly has Allah showed to His Messenger the vision in truth. You will surely enter al-Masjid al-Haram, if Allah wills, in safety, with your heads shaved and [hair] shortened, not fearing [anyone]. He knew what you did not know and has arranged before that a conquest near [at hand].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Verily God has fulfilled the vision for His Messenger in all truth: The Messenger of God (s) saw in his sleep, in the year of al-Hudaybiyya before his departure [from Medina], that he would enter Mecca together with his Companions safely, whereafter they would shave [completely] or shorten [their hair]. He informed his Companions of this and they rejoiced. But when they set off with him [from Medina], and the disbelievers impeded them at al-Hudaybiyya such that they had to retreat, which was distressing for them, for some of the hypocrites began to have doubts [about the Prophet’s sincerity], this [verse] was revealed (bi’l-haqqi, ‘in all truth’, is semantically connected to sadaqa, ‘fulfilled’, or it is a circumstantial qualifier referring to al-ru’yā, ‘the vision’, and what comes after it is the explanation thereof): ‘You will assuredly enter the Sacred Mosque, God willing — this is [said] to secure blessings — in safety, to shave your heads, that is, all the hair, or to shorten [it], [to shorten] some of the hair (both muhalliqīna and muqassirīna are implied circumstantial qualifiers), without any fear’, ever. So He knew, [there to be] in the truce, what you did not know, in the way of reconciliation [between the believers and the Meccans], and assigned [you] before that, entry, a near victory, namely, the conquest of Khaybar — the vision was fulfilled in the following year.

48:28

هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا

Pronunciation

Huwa allathee arsala rasoolahu bilhudawadeeni alhaqqi liyuthhirahu AAala addeenikullihi wakafa billahi shaheeda

Translation

It is He who sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth to manifest it over all religion. And sufficient is Allah as Witness.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

It is He Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, that He may make it, that is, the religion of truth, prevail over all religion, over all the other religions. And God suffices as witness, to the fact that you have been sent with what has been mentioned, as God, exalted be He, says:

48:29

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا ۖ سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ ۚ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ ۗ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Muhammadun rasoolu Allahi wallatheenamaAAahu ashiddao AAala alkuffari ruhamaobaynahum tarahum rukkaAAan sujjadan yabtaghoona fadlanmina Allahi waridwanan seemahum feewujoohihim min athari assujoodi thalika mathaluhumfee attawrati wamathaluhum fee al-injeelikazarAAin akhraja shat-ahu faazarahu fastaghlathafastawa AAala sooqihi yuAAjibu azzurraAAaliyagheetha bihimu alkuffara waAAada Allahuallatheena amanoo waAAamiloo assalihatiminhum maghfiratan waajran AAatheema

Translation

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers – so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Muhammad (the subject) is the Messenger of God (its predicate) and those who are with him, that is, his Companions from among the believers (wa’lladhīna ma‘ahu, [another] subject, the predicate of which [is the following, ashiddā’u]) are hard, tough, against the disbelievers, showing them no mercy [but], merciful among themselves (ruhamā’u is a second predicate [of wa’lladhīna ma‘ahu, ‘and those who are with him’]), that is to say, they show mutual sympathy and affection for one another, much like a father and a son. You see, you observe, them bowing, prostrating [in worship] (both rukka‘an and sujjadan are circumstantial qualifiers). They seek (yabtaghūna is the beginning of a new sentence) bounty from God and beatitude. Their mark (sīmāhum is a subject), their distinguishing feature, is on their faces (fī wujūhihim is its predicate): this is a light and a radiance by which, in the Hereafter, they will be recognised as having been those who used to prostrate in this world, from the effect of prostration (min athari’l-sujūdi is semantically connected to the same thing to which the predicate is semantically connected, that is to say, kā’inatan, ‘[this] being [from the effect of prostration]’; syntactically, it is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject [of kā’inatan], which is also the subject of the predicate [sc. wujūhihim, ‘their faces’]). That, mentioned description, is their description (mathaluhum is the subject) in the Torah (fī’l-tawrāti is the predicate thereof); and their description in the Gospel (wa-mathaluhum fī’l-injīli, is a subject, the predicate of which is [what follows]) is as a seed that sends forth its shoot (read shat’ahu or shata’ahu) and strengthens it (read āzarahu or azarahu), nourishing it and assisting it, and it grows stout and rises firmly, becoming strong and upright, upon its stalk, its roots (sūq is the plural of sāq), delighting the sowers, that is to say those who planted it, on account of its fairness. The Companions, may God be pleased with them, are being described in this way, for at the outset they were weak and very few in number; but then their number grew and they acquired strength in the most wholesome way, so that He may enrage the disbelievers by them (li-yaghīza bihimu’l-kuffāra is semantically connected to an omitted clause, which is suggested by what preceded, that is to say, ‘they are likened to this [so that God may enrage the disbelievers]’). God has promised those of them who believe and perform righteous deeds, the Companions (minhum, ‘of them’: min, ‘of’, is an indicator of the genus and not partitive, for they are all possessed of the mentioned attributes) forgiveness and a great reward — Paradise. Both of these [rewards] will also be given to those who will come after them, as is stated in other verses.

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