Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 38.Surat Şād (The Letter Saad) – سورة ص

Surat Şād (The Letter “Saad”) – سورة ص

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

38:1

ص ۚ وَالْقُرْآنِ ذِي الذِّكْرِ

Pronunciation

Sad walqur-ani theeaththikr

Translation

Sad. By the Qur’an containing reminder…

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Sād: God knows best what He means by this [letter]. By the Qur’ān bearing the Remembrance, that is, [bearing] the Pronouncement; or [what is meant is that the Qur’ān is a Book] of renown (the response to this oath has been omitted, in other words: ‘It is not as the Meccan disbelievers say, that there are many gods’).

38:2

بَلِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فِي عِزَّةٍ وَشِقَاقٍ

Pronunciation

Bali allatheena kafaroo fee AAizzatinwashiqaq

Translation

But those who disbelieve are in pride and dissension.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Nay, but those who disbelieve, from among the people of Mecca, dwell in conceit, in self-glory and [in] disdain of faith, and defiance, disagreement with, and enmity towards, the Prophet (s).

38:3

كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّن قَرْنٍ فَنَادَوا وَّلَاتَ حِينَ مَنَاصٍ

Pronunciation

Kam ahlakna min qablihim min qarninfanadaw walata heena manas

Translation

How many a generation have We destroyed before them, and they [then] called out; but it was not a time for escape.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

How many — in other words, many — a generation, a community of past communities, We have destroyed before them, and they cried out, when the chastisement was sent down on them, when it was no longer the time for escape, that is to say, the time was not one for fleeing (the [suffixed] tā’ [of wa-lāta] is extra; the sentence is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of [the verb] nādaw, ‘they cried out’) in other words, they called for help but the situation was such that there could be no escape or deliverance; but still the Meccan disbelievers have not taken heed from their example.

38:4

وَعَجِبُوا أَن جَاءَهُم مُّنذِرٌ مِّنْهُمْ ۖ وَقَالَ الْكَافِرُونَ هَٰذَا سَاحِرٌ كَذَّابٌ

Pronunciation

WaAAajiboo an jaahum munthirunminhum waqala alkafiroona hatha sahirunkaththab

Translation

And they wonder that there has come to them a warner from among themselves. And the disbelievers say, “This is a magician and a liar.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they marvel that a warner has come to them from among themselves, a messenger from among their number, to warn them and to threaten them with [the punishment of] the Fire after resurrection — and this [warner] is the Prophet (s). And those who disbelieve (the overt noun [al-kāfirūnā] has replaced the [third person] pronominalisation) say, ‘This is a sorcerer, a liar.

38:5

أَجَعَلَ الْآلِهَةَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ عُجَابٌ

Pronunciation

AjaAAala al-alihata ilahan wahidaninna hatha lashay-on AAujab

Translation

Has he made the gods [only] one God? Indeed, this is a curious thing.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Has he made the gods One God? — for he had said to them, ‘Say: there is no god except God’ — in other words [they objected]: how could one god suffice for all of creation? Lo! that is indeed a curious thing’.

38:6

وَانطَلَقَ الْمَلَأُ مِنْهُمْ أَنِ امْشُوا وَاصْبِرُوا عَلَىٰ آلِهَتِكُمْ ۖ إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَشَيْءٌ يُرَادُ

Pronunciation

Wantalaqa almalao minhum aniimshoo wasbiroo AAala alihatikuminna hatha lashay-on yurad

Translation

And the eminent among them went forth, [saying], “Continue, and be patient over [the defense of] your gods. Indeed, this is a thing intended.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And the council from among them go about, from the place of their assembly at the house of Abū Tālib and [the place] where they heard the Prophet (s) say, ‘Say: there is no god except God’, saying, ‘Go!, they say to one another, go, and stand by your gods, adhere firmly to worship of them; lo! this, that has been mentioned concerning the Oneness of God, is indeed a thing sought, from us.

38:7

مَا سَمِعْنَا بِهَٰذَا فِي الْمِلَّةِ الْآخِرَةِ إِنْ هَٰذَا إِلَّا اخْتِلَاقٌ

Pronunciation

Ma samiAAna bihatha feealmillati al-akhirati in hatha illa ikhtilaq

Translation

We have not heard of this in the latest religion. This is not but a fabrication.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

We never heard of this in the latter-day creed, namely, the creed of Jesus. This is surely [nothing] but an invention, [mere] lies.

38:8

أَأُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ الذِّكْرُ مِن بَيْنِنَا ۚ بَلْ هُمْ فِي شَكٍّ مِّن ذِكْرِي ۖ بَل لَّمَّا يَذُوقُوا عَذَابِ

Pronunciation

Aonzila AAalayhi aththikru minbaynina bal hum fee shakkin min thikree bal lammayathooqoo AAathab

Translation

Has the message been revealed to him out of [all of] us?” Rather, they are in doubt about My message. Rather, they have not yet tasted My punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Has the Remembrance, the Qur’ān, been revealed to him, Muhammad (s), out of [all of] us’, when he is neither the elder nor the noblest among us? In other words, it could not have been revealed to him (read a-unzila pronouncing both hamzas, or not pronouncing the second one, but in both cases inserting an intervening alif or without [this insertion]). God, exalted be He, says: Nay, but they are in doubt concerning My Remembrance, My revelation, that is, the Qur’ān, for they deny the one who has brought it. Nay, but they have not yet tasted My chastisement, and if they were to taste it, they would certainly believe the Prophet (s) in what he has brought — but then [in such a case] their belief [in the Prophet] would be of no benefit to them.

38:9

أَمْ عِندَهُمْ خَزَائِنُ رَحْمَةِ رَبِّكَ الْعَزِيزِ الْوَهَّابِ

Pronunciation

Am AAindahum khaza-inu rahmatirabbika alAAazeezi alwahhab

Translation

Or do they have the depositories of the mercy of your Lord, the Exalted in Might, the Bestower?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Or do they possess the treasuries of your Lord’s mercy, the Mighty, the Victor, the Bestower?, [treasuries] such as prophethood and otherwise, so that they might give it to whomever they want?

38:10

أَمْ لَهُم مُّلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا ۖ فَلْيَرْتَقُوا فِي الْأَسْبَابِ

Pronunciation

Am lahum mulku assamawatiwal-ardi wama baynahuma falyartaqoofee al-asbab

Translation

Or is theirs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and what is between them? Then let them ascend through [any] ways of access.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Or do they possess the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them? If this is what they claim: Then let them ascend by the means, [of ascension] that lead to the heaven and bring [down] some revelation (wahy) and then assign it exclusively to whomever they wish (am in both verses represents the [rhetorical] hamza of denial).

38:11

جُندٌ مَّا هُنَالِكَ مَهْزُومٌ مِّنَ الْأَحْزَابِ

Pronunciation

Jundun ma hunalika mahzoomunmina al-ahzab

Translation

[They are but] soldiers [who will be] defeated there among the companies [of disbelievers].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

A routed (mahzūmun is an adjectival qualification of jundun, ‘host’) host [is all that they are], in other words, they are [nothing but] a despicable host, nothing more — in their denial of you — from among the factions (mina’l-ahzābi, also an adjectival qualification of jundun) in other words, [they are] like those hosts of factions who were in confederation against prophets before you: these were defeated and destroyed, and likewise We shall destroy these [people].

38:12

كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ وَعَادٌ وَفِرْعَوْنُ ذُو الْأَوْتَادِ

Pronunciation

Kaththabat qablahum qawmu noohinwaAAadun wafirAAawnu thoo al-awtad

Translation

The people of Noah denied before them, and [the tribe of] ‘Aad and Pharaoh, the owner of stakes,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Before them the people of Noah denied (the inflection of [the verb kadhdabat, ‘denied’, that is governed by] qawmu, ‘people’, is in the feminine person because of the [implicit] sense), and [so did those of] ‘Ād and Pharaoh, he of the stakes — he used to fix four stakes for the person who incurred his wrath and tie to these [stakes] that person’s hands and feet and then torture him —

38:13

وَثَمُودُ وَقَوْمُ لُوطٍ وَأَصْحَابُ الْأَيْكَةِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ الْأَحْزَابُ

Pronunciation

Wathamoodu waqawmu lootin waas-habual-aykati ola-ika al-ahzab

Translation

And [the tribe of] Thamud and the people of Lot and the companions of the thicket. Those are the companies.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and Thamūd and the people of Lot and the dwellers in the wood, a small forest, namely, the people of Shu‘ayb, peace be upon him — those were the factions.

38:14

إِن كُلٌّ إِلَّا كَذَّبَ الرُّسُلَ فَحَقَّ عِقَابِ

Pronunciation

In kullun illa kaththaba arrusulafahaqqa AAiqab

Translation

Each of them denied the messengers, so My penalty was justified.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Each one, of the factions, did not but deny the messengers, for when they deny one, they have [in effect] denied them all, since their call [to God] is [the same] one, namely, the call to [affirmation of] His Oneness. So My retribution was justified, [it was] necessary.

38:15

وَمَا يَنظُرُ هَٰؤُلَاءِ إِلَّا صَيْحَةً وَاحِدَةً مَّا لَهَا مِن فَوَاقٍ

Pronunciation

Wama yanthuru haola-iilla sayhatan wahidatan ma lahamin fawaq

Translation

And these [disbelievers] await not but one blast [of the Horn]; for it there will be no delay.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And these, that is, the disbelievers of Mecca, do not await but a single Cry, namely, the Blast of the Resurrection that will herald chastisement for them, for which there will be no revoking (read fawāq or fuwāq).

38:16

وَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا عَجِّل لَّنَا قِطَّنَا قَبْلَ يَوْمِ الْحِسَابِ

Pronunciation

Waqaloo rabbana AAajjil lanaqittana qabla yawmi alhisab

Translation

And they say, “Our Lord, hasten for us our share [of the punishment] before the Day of Account”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they said — after the following [verse] was revealed, As for him who is given his book in his right hand … to the end [of the verse, Q. 69:19] — ‘Our Lord, hasten on for us the record of our deeds before the Day of Reckoning’ — they said this mockingly.

38:17

اصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ وَاذْكُرْ عَبْدَنَا دَاوُودَ ذَا الْأَيْدِ ۖ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ

Pronunciation

Isbir AAala mayaqooloona wathkur AAabdana dawooda thaal-aydi innahu awwab

Translation

Be patient over what they say and remember Our servant, David, the possessor of strength; indeed, he was one who repeatedly turned back [to Allah ].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God, exalted be He, says: Bear patiently what they say and remember Our servant David, the one of fortitude, that is to say, [the one] of fortitude in worship: he used to fast every other day and keep vigil for half the night, sleep for a third and then keep vigil for the [last] sixth. Indeed he was a penitent [soul], always returning to what pleases God.

38:18

إِنَّا سَخَّرْنَا الْجِبَالَ مَعَهُ يُسَبِّحْنَ بِالْعَشِيِّ وَالْإِشْرَاقِ

Pronunciation

Inna sakhkharna aljibalamaAAahu yusabbihna bilAAashiyyi wal-ishraq

Translation

Indeed, We subjected the mountains [to praise] with him, exalting [ Allah ] in the [late] afternoon and [after] sunrise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Truly We disposed the mountains to glorify [God] with him, with the same glorification, at evening, at the time of the night prayer, and at sunrise, at the time of the morning prayer, which is when the sun has fully risen with its light extending everywhere.

38:19

وَالطَّيْرَ مَحْشُورَةً ۖ كُلٌّ لَّهُ أَوَّابٌ

Pronunciation

Wattayra mahshooratankullun lahu awwab

Translation

And the birds were assembled, all with him repeating [praises].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, We disposed, the birds, mustered [in flocks], gathered before him, glorifying with him; each, of the mountains and birds, turning to him, reverting to obedience of him by glorifying [God with him].

38:20

وَشَدَدْنَا مُلْكَهُ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحِكْمَةَ وَفَصْلَ الْخِطَابِ

Pronunciation

Washadadna mulkahu waataynahualhikmata wafasla alkhitab

Translation

And We strengthened his kingdom and gave him wisdom and discernment in speech.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We strengthened his Kingdom, We reinforced it with guards and hosts: every night there thirty thousand men would be standing guard at his sanctuary; and gave him wisdom, prophethood and sound judgement in [all] matters, and decisive speech, [the ability to formulate] a satisfactory statement [for a decision] in any endeavour.

38:21

وَهَلْ أَتَاكَ نَبَأُ الْخَصْمِ إِذْ تَسَوَّرُوا الْمِحْرَابَ

Pronunciation

Wahal ataka nabao alkhasmi ithtasawwaroo almihrab

Translation

And has there come to you the news of the adversaries, when they climbed over the wall of [his] prayer chamber –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And has there come to you, O Muhammad (s) (the purpose of the interrogative [indicated by hal] here is to provoke curiosity and a desire to listen to what will follow) the tale of the disputants, when they scaled the sanctuary?, David’s sanctuary, that is, his place of prayer, for they had been prohibited from entering by the [front] gates because of his being engaged in worship, in other words, [has it come to you] their tale and their account?

38:22

إِذْ دَخَلُوا عَلَىٰ دَاوُودَ فَفَزِعَ مِنْهُمْ ۖ قَالُوا لَا تَخَفْ ۖ خَصْمَانِ بَغَىٰ بَعْضُنَا عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَنَا بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا تُشْطِطْ وَاهْدِنَا إِلَىٰ سَوَاءِ الصِّرَاطِ

Pronunciation

Ith dakhaloo AAala dawoodafafaziAAa minhum qaloo la takhaf khasmanibagha baAAduna AAala baAAdinfahkum baynana bilhaqqi walatushtit wahdina ila sawa-iassirat

Translation

When they entered upon David and he was alarmed by them? They said, “Fear not. [We are] two adversaries, one of whom has wronged the other, so judge between us with truth and do not exceed [it] and guide us to the sound path.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When they entered upon David, and he was frightened by them. And they said, ‘Do not fear; we are, two disputants (some say that this means ‘two groups’, in order to agree with the plural person [of the verb dakhalū, ‘they entered’]; others say, ‘two individuals’ with the plural person actually denoting these two; al-khasm may refer to a one or more individuals. These two were angels who had come in the form of two disputants, between whom there [was supposed to have] occurred the situation mentioned — [but] only hypothetically — in order to alert David, peace be upon him, to what he had done: he had ninety nine women but desired the woman of a man who had only her and no other. He [David] had married her and consummated the marriage. One of us has infringed upon the [rights of the] other, so judge justly between us and do not transgress, [do not] be unjust, and guide us, direct us, to the right path’, the correct way.

38:23

إِنَّ هَٰذَا أَخِي لَهُ تِسْعٌ وَتِسْعُونَ نَعْجَةً وَلِيَ نَعْجَةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ فَقَالَ أَكْفِلْنِيهَا وَعَزَّنِي فِي الْخِطَابِ

Pronunciation

Inna hatha akhee lahu tisAAunwatisAAoona naAAjatan waliya naAAjatun wahidatun faqalaakfilneeha waAAazzanee fee alkhitab

Translation

Indeed this, my brother, has ninety-nine ewes, and I have one ewe; so he said, ‘Entrust her to me,’ and he overpowered me in speech.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

‘Behold, this brother of mine, in other words, my fellow co-religionist, has ninety-nine ewes — here used to represent the women — while I have a single ewe; yet he said, “Entrust it to me”, in other words, make me in charge of it, and he overcame me in speech’, in other words, in the argument; so the latter conceded charge of it to him.

38:24

قَالَ لَقَدْ ظَلَمَكَ بِسُؤَالِ نَعْجَتِكَ إِلَىٰ نِعَاجِهِ ۖ وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الْخُلَطَاءِ لَيَبْغِي بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَقَلِيلٌ مَّا هُمْ ۗ وَظَنَّ دَاوُودُ أَنَّمَا فَتَنَّاهُ فَاسْتَغْفَرَ رَبَّهُ وَخَرَّ رَاكِعًا وَأَنَابَ ۩

Pronunciation

Qala laqad thalamakabisu-ali naAAjatika ila niAAajihi wa-innakatheeran mina alkhulata-i layabghee baAAduhum AAalabaAAdin illa allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo assalihati waqaleelun mahum wathanna dawoodu annama fatannahufastaghfara rabbahu wakharra rakiAAan waanab

Translation

[David] said, “He has certainly wronged you in demanding your ewe [in addition] to his ewes. And indeed, many associates oppress one another, except for those who believe and do righteous deeds – and few are they.” And David became certain that We had tried him, and he asked forgiveness of his Lord and fell down bowing [in prostration] and turned in repentance [to Allah].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘He has certainly wronged you by asking for your ewe that he may add it to his sheep. And indeed many associates infringe upon [the rights of] one another, except such as believe and perform righteous deeds, but few are they!’ (mā emphasises the ‘fewness’). As the two angels were ascending to the heaven one said to the other, ‘He has certainly passed judgement on himself!’ David was thus alerted [to his deed]. God, exalted be He, says: And David thought, in other words, he became certain, that We had indeed tried him, that We had caused him to fall into a trial, that is, a test, through his love for that woman. So he sought forgiveness of his Lord and fell down bowing, in other words, prostrate, and repented.

38:25

فَغَفَرْنَا لَهُ ذَٰلِكَ ۖ وَإِنَّ لَهُ عِندَنَا لَزُلْفَىٰ وَحُسْنَ مَآبٍ

Pronunciation

Faghafarna lahu thalikawa-inna lahu AAindana lazulfa wahusna maab

Translation

So We forgave him that; and indeed, for him is nearness to Us and a good place of return.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So We forgave him that and indeed he has [a station of] nearness with Us, that is, [even] more good [things] in this world, and a fair return, in the Hereafter.

38:26

يَا دَاوُودُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوَىٰ فَيُضِلَّكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَضِلُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ بِمَا نَسُوا يَوْمَ الْحِسَابِ

Pronunciation

Ya dawoodu inna jaAAalnakakhaleefatan fee al-ardi fahkum bayna annasibilhaqqi wala tattabiAAi alhawa fayudillakaAAan sabeeli Allahi inna allatheena yadilloonaAAan sabeeli Allahi lahum AAathabun shadeedun bimanasoo yawma alhisab

Translation

[We said], “O David, indeed We have made you a successor upon the earth, so judge between the people in truth and do not follow [your own] desire, as it will lead you astray from the way of Allah .” Indeed, those who go astray from the way of Allah will have a severe punishment for having forgotten the Day of Account.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

‘O David! We have indeed made you a vicegerent on the earth, managing the affairs of people; so judge justly between people and do not follow desire, that is, the desires of the soul, that it then lead you astray from the way of God, that is to say, from the proofs that indicate [the truth of] His Oneness. Truly those who go astray from the way of God, in other words, from belief in God — for them there will be a severe chastisement because of their forgetting the Day of Reckoning’, as a result of their having neglected faith. For had they been certain of [the truth of] the Day of Reckoning, they would have [first] been believers in this world.

38:27

وَمَا خَلَقْنَا السَّمَاءَ وَالْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا بَاطِلًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ ظَنُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنَ النَّارِ

Pronunciation

Wama khalaqna assamaawal-arda wama baynahuma batilanthalika thannu allatheena kafaroofawaylun lillatheena kafaroo mina annar

Translation

And We did not create the heaven and the earth and that between them aimlessly. That is the assumption of those who disbelieve, so woe to those who disbelieve from the Fire.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We did not create the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in vain, frivolously. That, namely, the creation of what has been mentioned as being for no [particular] purpose, is the supposition of those who disbelieve, from among the people of Mecca. So woe — a valley [in hell-fire] — to the disbelievers from the Fire!

38:28

أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ كَالْمُفْسِدِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَمْ نَجْعَلُ الْمُتَّقِينَ كَالْفُجَّارِ

Pronunciation

Am najAAalu allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo assalihati kalmufsideenafee al-ardi am najAAalu almuttaqeena kalfujjar

Translation

Or should we treat those who believe and do righteous deeds like corrupters in the land? Or should We treat those who fear Allah like the wicked?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Or shall We treat those who believe and perform righteous deeds like those who cause corruption in the earth; or shall We treat the God-fearing like the profligate? This was revealed when the Meccan disbelievers said to the believers, ‘In the Hereafter we will receive the same [reward] as that which you will receive’ (am, ‘or’, contains the [rhetorical] hamza of denial).

38:29

كِتَابٌ أَنزَلْنَاهُ إِلَيْكَ مُبَارَكٌ لِّيَدَّبَّرُوا آيَاتِهِ وَلِيَتَذَكَّرَ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

Pronunciation

Kitabun anzalnahu ilayka mubarakunliyaddabbaroo ayatihi waliyatathakkara olooal-albab

Translation

[This is] a blessed Book which We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], that they might reflect upon its verses and that those of understanding would be reminded.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

A Book (kitābun, the predicate of a missing subject, namely, hādhā, ‘this is’) that We have revealed to you, full of blessing, that they may contemplate (yaddabbarū is actually yatadabbarū, but the tā’ has been assimilated with the dāl) its signs, [that] they may reflect upon its meanings and become believers, and that they may remember, that they may be admonished — those people of pith, those possessors of intellect.

38:30

وَوَهَبْنَا لِدَاوُودَ سُلَيْمَانَ ۚ نِعْمَ الْعَبْدُ ۖ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ

Pronunciation

Wawahabna lidawooda sulaymananiAAma alAAabdu innahu awwab

Translation

And to David We gave Solomon. An excellent servant, indeed he was one repeatedly turning back [to Allah ].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We bestowed on David, Solomon, his son — what an excellent servant!, that is, Solomon. Truly he was a penitent [soul], always returning [to God] with glorification and remembrance at all times.

38:31

إِذْ عُرِضَ عَلَيْهِ بِالْعَشِيِّ الصَّافِنَاتُ الْجِيَادُ

Pronunciation

Ith AAurida AAalayhi bilAAashiyyiassafinatu aljiyad

Translation

[Mention] when there were exhibited before him in the afternoon the poised [standing] racehorses.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When one evening — which is the period after midday — there were displayed before him the prancing steeds (al-sāfināt, ‘horses’, is the plural of sāfina, which denotes [a horse] standing on three legs with the fourth supported on the edge of the hoof, and derives from [the verb] safana, yasfinu sufūnan; al-jiyād is the plural of jawād, which is a ‘racer’; the meaning is that these [horses] are such that when they are halted they stand still and when they run they surpass [others] in speed). One thousand horses were displayed before him after he had performed the midday prayer, for he had wanted to use them in a holy struggle (jihād) against an enemy. But when the display reached the nine-hundredth [horse], the sun set and he had not performed the afternoon prayer. So he was greatly distressed.

38:32

فَقَالَ إِنِّي أَحْبَبْتُ حُبَّ الْخَيْرِ عَن ذِكْرِ رَبِّي حَتَّىٰ تَوَارَتْ بِالْحِجَابِ

Pronunciation

Faqala innee ahbabtu hubbaalkhayri AAan thikri rabbee hatta tawaratbilhijab

Translation

And he said, “Indeed, I gave preference to the love of good [things] over the remembrance of my Lord until the sun disappeared into the curtain [of darkness].”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Lo! I have loved, I have desired, the love of [worldly] good things, that is, [of] horses, over the remembrance of my Lord’, that is, [over] the afternoon prayer, until it, that is, the sun, disappeared behind the [night’s] veil, [until] it was concealed by that which veils it from sight.

38:33

رُدُّوهَا عَلَيَّ ۖ فَطَفِقَ مَسْحًا بِالسُّوقِ وَالْأَعْنَاقِ

Pronunciation

Ruddooha AAalayya fatafiqa mashanbissooqi wal-aAAnaq

Translation

[He said], “Return them to me,” and set about striking [their] legs and necks.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Bring them back to me!, that is, the horses that were displayed; and they so brought them back. Then he set about slashing, with his sword, [their] legs (al-sūq is the plural of sāq) and necks, in other words, he slaughtered them and cut off their legs as an offering [of atonement] to God, exalted be He, for having been distracted by them from the prayer. He gave all the meat thereof as voluntary alms and so God compensated him what was better and faster that these [horses], and this was the wind, which blew at his command as he wished.

38:34

وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا سُلَيْمَانَ وَأَلْقَيْنَا عَلَىٰ كُرْسِيِّهِ جَسَدًا ثُمَّ أَنَابَ

Pronunciation

Walaqad fatanna sulaymanawaalqayna AAala kursiyyihi jasadan thumma anab

Translation

And We certainly tried Solomon and placed on his throne a body; then he returned.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We certainly tried Solomon: We tested him by wresting his kingdom from him, because he had married a woman [solely] out of his desire for her. She used to worship idols in his [own] home without his knowledge. Now, [control of] his kingdom lay in his ring. On one occasion, needing to withdraw [to relieve himself], he took it off and left it with this woman of his, whose name was al-Amīna, as was his custom; but a jinn, [disguised] in the form of Solomon, came to her and seized it from her. And We cast upon his throne a [lifeless] body, which was that [very] jinn, and he was [the one known as] Sakhr — or it was some other [jinn]; he sat upon Solomon’s throne and so [as was the case with Solomon] the birds and other [creatures] devoted themselves to him [in service]. When Solomon came out [of his palace], having seen him [the jinn] upon his throne, he said to the people, ‘I am Solomon [not him]!’ But they did not recognise him. Then he repented — Solomon returned to his kingdom, many days later, after he had managed to acquire the ring. He wore it and sat upon his throne [again].

38:35

قَالَ رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَهَبْ لِي مُلْكًا لَّا يَنبَغِي لِأَحَدٍ مِّن بَعْدِي ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْوَهَّابُ

Pronunciation

Qala rabbi ighfir lee wahab leemulkan la yanbaghee li-ahadin min baAAdee innakaanta alwahhab

Translation

He said, “My Lord, forgive me and grant me a kingdom such as will not belong to anyone after me. Indeed, You are the Bestower.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘My Lord! Forgive me and grant me a kingdom that shall not belong to anyone after me, in other words, other than me (this [use of min ba‘dī to mean ‘other than me’] is similar to [Q. 45:23] fa-man yahdīh min ba‘di’Llāh, ‘who will guide him other than God?’). Truly You are the Bestower’.

38:36

فَسَخَّرْنَا لَهُ الرِّيحَ تَجْرِي بِأَمْرِهِ رُخَاءً حَيْثُ أَصَابَ

Pronunciation

Fasakhkharna lahu arreehatajree bi-amrihi rukhaan haythu asab

Translation

So We subjected to him the wind blowing by his command, gently, wherever he directed,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So We disposed for him the wind, which blew softly, gently, at his command wherever he intended.

38:37

وَالشَّيَاطِينَ كُلَّ بَنَّاءٍ وَغَوَّاصٍ

Pronunciation

Washshayateena kulla banna-inwaghawwas

Translation

And [also] the devils [of jinn] – every builder and diver

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And the devils [also We disposed], every builder, building marvellous edifices, and diver, in the sea, bringing up pearls,

38:38

وَآخَرِينَ مُقَرَّنِينَ فِي الْأَصْفَادِ

Pronunciation

Waakhareena muqarraneena fee al-asfad

Translation

And others bound together in shackles.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and others too, from among them, bounded together in fetters, in shackles with their hands tied to their necks.

38:39

هَٰذَا عَطَاؤُنَا فَامْنُنْ أَوْ أَمْسِكْ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

Pronunciation

Hatha AAataona famnunaw amsik bighayri hisab

Translation

[We said], “This is Our gift, so grant or withhold without account.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We said to him: ‘This is Our gift. So bestow, grant thereof to whomever you wish, or withhold, from giving, without any reckoning’, in other words, without your being called to account for any of this.

38:40

وَإِنَّ لَهُ عِندَنَا لَزُلْفَىٰ وَحُسْنَ مَآبٍ

Pronunciation

Wa-inna lahu AAindana lazulfawahusna maab

Translation

And indeed, for him is nearness to Us and a good place of return.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And indeed he has [a station of] nearness with Us and a fair resort — a similar [statement] has already appeared [in another verse above].

38:41

وَاذْكُرْ عَبْدَنَا أَيُّوبَ إِذْ نَادَىٰ رَبَّهُ أَنِّي مَسَّنِيَ الشَّيْطَانُ بِنُصْبٍ وَعَذَابٍ

Pronunciation

Wathkur AAabdanaayyooba ith nada rabbahu annee massaniya ashshaytanubinusbin waAAathab

Translation

And remember Our servant Job, when he called to his Lord, “Indeed, Satan has touched me with hardship and torment.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And mention also Our servant Job, when he called out to his Lord, [saying], ‘Lo! Satan has afflicted me with hardship, harm, and suffering’, pain: he attributes all this to Satan, even though all things are from God, to show reverence [in his call] to Him, exalted be He.

38:42

ارْكُضْ بِرِجْلِكَ ۖ هَٰذَا مُغْتَسَلٌ بَارِدٌ وَشَرَابٌ

Pronunciation

Orkud birijlika hathamughtasalun baridun washarab

Translation

[So he was told], “Strike [the ground] with your foot; this is a [spring for] a cool bath and drink.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And it was said to him: ‘Stamp your foot, on the ground — and he stamped [it] and a spring of water gushed forth, and it was said: This is a cool bath, [cool] water for you to wash with, and a drink’, for you to drink of. So he washed himself and drank [from it] whereat every ailment that had affected him internally and externally disappeared.

38:43

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ أَهْلَهُ وَمِثْلَهُم مَّعَهُمْ رَحْمَةً مِّنَّا وَذِكْرَىٰ لِأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ

Pronunciation

Wawahabna lahu ahlahu wamithlahummaAAahum rahmatan minna wathikrali-olee al-albab

Translation

And We granted him his family and a like [number] with them as mercy from Us and a reminder for those of understanding.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We gave him [back] his family along with others like them, that is, God brought back to life all the children of his that had died and provided him with as many [in addition to them], as a mercy, a grace, from us, and a reminder, an admonition, to people of pith, possessors of intellect.

38:44

وَخُذْ بِيَدِكَ ضِغْثًا فَاضْرِب بِّهِ وَلَا تَحْنَثْ ۗ إِنَّا وَجَدْنَاهُ صَابِرًا ۚ نِّعْمَ الْعَبْدُ ۖ إِنَّهُ أَوَّابٌ

Pronunciation

Wakhuth biyadika dighthan fadribbihi wala tahnath inna wajadnahu sabiranniAAma alAAabdu innahu awwab

Translation

[We said], “And take in your hand a bunch [of grass] and strike with it and do not break your oath.” Indeed, We found him patient, an excellent servant. Indeed, he was one repeatedly turning back [to Allah].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And [We said to him], ‘Take in your hand a bunch of twigs, or some blades of grass, and smite therewith, your wife — for he had sworn to smite her a hundred times on one occasion when she was late in coming to him — and do not break [your] oath’, by not smiting her: so he took a hundred rushes and smote her with them once [and that sufficed to fulfil his oath]. Truly We found him to be steadfast. What an excellent servant!, [was] Job. Indeed he was a penitent [soul], always returning to God, exalted be He.

38:45

وَاذْكُرْ عِبَادَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ أُولِي الْأَيْدِي وَالْأَبْصَارِ

Pronunciation

Wathkur AAibadanaibraheema wa-ishaqa wayaAAqooba olee al-aydee wal-absar

Translation

And remember Our servants, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob – those of strength and [religious] vision.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And mention [also] Our servants Abraham, and Isaac and Jacob — men of fortitude, vigorous in their worship, and insight, deep understanding of religion (a variant reading [for ‘ibādanā, ‘Our servants’] has [singular] ‘abdanā, ‘Our servant’, with Ibrāhīma as the explication thereof, and what follows as being a supplement to ‘abdanā, ‘Our servant’).

38:46

إِنَّا أَخْلَصْنَاهُم بِخَالِصَةٍ ذِكْرَى الدَّارِ

Pronunciation

Inna akhlasnahum bikhalisatinthikra addar

Translation

Indeed, We chose them for an exclusive quality: remembrance of the home [of the Hereafter].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Assuredly We purified them with an exclusive [thought], namely, the remembrance of the Abode, of the Hereafter: in other words to [always] remember it and to work for it (a variant reading [for bi-khālisatin dhikrā’l-dār] has the genitive construction [bi-khālisati dhikrā’l-dār], making this [dhikrā al-dār, ‘remembrance of the Abode’] the explicative thereof).

38:47

وَإِنَّهُمْ عِندَنَا لَمِنَ الْمُصْطَفَيْنَ الْأَخْيَارِ

Pronunciation

Wa-innahum AAindana lamina almustafaynaal-akhyar

Translation

And indeed they are, to Us, among the chosen and outstanding.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And indeed in Our sight they are of the elect, the excellent (akhyār is the plural of khayyir).

38:48

وَاذْكُرْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ وَالْيَسَعَ وَذَا الْكِفْلِ ۖ وَكُلٌّ مِّنَ الْأَخْيَارِ

Pronunciation

Wathkur ismaAAeelawa-ilyasaAAa watha alkifli wakullun mina al-akhyar

Translation

And remember Ishmael, Elisha and Dhul-Kifl, and all are among the outstanding.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And mention [also] Our servants Ishmael, and Elisha, who was a prophet (the lām [here in al-Yasa‘] is extra) and Dhū’l-Kifl — there is disagreement over whether he was a prophet; it is said that [he was so called because] he looked after (kafala) a hundred prophets who had sought refuge with him from being killed. Each, that is, every one of them, was among the excellent (akhyār is the plural of khayyir).

38:49

هَٰذَا ذِكْرٌ ۚ وَإِنَّ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ لَحُسْنَ مَآبٍ

Pronunciation

Hatha thikrun wa-innalilmuttaqeena lahusna maab

Translation

This is a reminder. And indeed, for the righteous is a good place of return

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

This is a remembrance, of them, [made] by [the mention of] fair praise [of them] here; and indeed for the God-fearing, who comprise them, there will truly be a fair return, in the Hereafter —

38:50

جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ مُّفَتَّحَةً لَّهُمُ الْأَبْوَابُ

Pronunciation

Jannati AAadnin mufattahatanlahumu al-abwab

Translation

Gardens of perpetual residence, whose doors will be opened to them.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Gardens of Eden (jannāti ‘Adnin is either a substitution for, or an explicative supplement to, husna ma’ābin, ‘a fair return’) whose gates are [flung] open for them;

38:51

مُتَّكِئِينَ فِيهَا يَدْعُونَ فِيهَا بِفَاكِهَةٍ كَثِيرَةٍ وَشَرَابٍ

Pronunciation

Muttaki-eena feeha yadAAoona feehabifakihatin katheeratin washarab

Translation

Reclining within them, they will call therein for abundant fruit and drink.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

reclining therein, on couches; therein they call for plenteous fruit and drink.

38:52

وَعِندَهُمْ قَاصِرَاتُ الطَّرْفِ أَتْرَابٌ

Pronunciation

WaAAindahum qasiratu attarfiatrab

Translation

And with them will be women limiting [their] glances and of equal age.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And with them [there] will be maidens of restrained glances, restricting their eyes to their spouses, of a like age, of the same age, girls who are thirty three years of age (atrāb is the plural of tirb).

38:53

هَٰذَا مَا تُوعَدُونَ لِيَوْمِ الْحِسَابِ

Pronunciation

Hatha ma tooAAadoona liyawmialhisab

Translation

This is what you, [the righteous], are promised for the Day of Account.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

‘This, that is mentioned, is what you are promised, by way of the unseen (there is a shift in the address away from the third [to the second] person]) for the Day of Reckoning.

38:54

إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَرِزْقُنَا مَا لَهُ مِن نَّفَادٍ

Pronunciation

Inna hatha larizquna malahu min nafad

Translation

Indeed, this is Our provision; for it there is no depletion.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

This is indeed Our provision, which will never be exhausted’, in other words, one which will never cease (this [last] sentence [mā lahu min nafādin] is a circumstantial qualifier referring to rizqunā, ‘Our provision’; or it is a second predicate of inna, ‘indeed’, meaning that it will be ‘everlasting’).

38:55

هَٰذَا ۚ وَإِنَّ لِلطَّاغِينَ لَشَرَّ مَآبٍ

Pronunciation

Hatha wa-inna littagheenalasharra maab

Translation

This [is so]. But indeed, for the transgressors is an evil place of return –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

That, which is mentioned, will be [the reward] for the believers [is so]; but for the insolent (this is a new sentence) there will surely be an evil [place of] return —

38:56

جَهَنَّمَ يَصْلَوْنَهَا فَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ

Pronunciation

Jahannama yaslawnaha fabi/saalmihad

Translation

Hell, which they will [enter to] burn, and wretched is the resting place.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Hell, which they will enter — an evil resting place!

38:57

هَٰذَا فَلْيَذُوقُوهُ حَمِيمٌ وَغَسَّاقٌ

Pronunciation

Hatha falyathooqoohu hameemunwaghassaq

Translation

This – so let them taste it – is scalding water and [foul] purulence.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

This, chastisement — inferred [as so] by what follows — let them then taste it: burning hot water and pus (read ghasāq or ghassāq), the festering matter excreted by the inhabitants of the Fire;

38:58

وَآخَرُ مِن شَكْلِهِ أَزْوَاجٌ

Pronunciation

Waakharu min shaklihi azwaj

Translation

And other [punishments] of its type [in various] kinds.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and other (ākhar may be plural or singular) kinds [of torment] resembling it, in other words, like the boiling water and pus mentioned, in pairs, of all sorts, in other words, their chastisement will consist of various kinds.

38:59

هَٰذَا فَوْجٌ مُّقْتَحِمٌ مَّعَكُمْ ۖ لَا مَرْحَبًا بِهِمْ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ صَالُو النَّارِ

Pronunciation

Hatha fawjun muqtahimunmaAAakum la marhaban bihim innahum saloo annar

Translation

[Its inhabitants will say], “This is a company bursting in with you. No welcome for them. Indeed, they will burn in the Fire.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And it will be said to them as they enter the Fire with their followers: ‘This is a horde about to plunge, to enter, with you, into the Fire violently — at which point those who used to be followed say: no welcome [is there] for them [here]!, in other words, [they will find] no comfort for them [here]. They will indeed roast in the Fire’.

38:60

قَالُوا بَلْ أَنتُمْ لَا مَرْحَبًا بِكُمْ ۖ أَنتُمْ قَدَّمْتُمُوهُ لَنَا ۖ فَبِئْسَ الْقَرَارُ

Pronunciation

Qaloo bal antum la marhabanbikum antum qaddamtumoohu lana fabi/sa alqarar

Translation

They will say, “Nor you! No welcome for you. You, [our leaders], brought this upon us, and wretched is the settlement.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They, the followers, say, ‘Nay, but for you [there is] no welcome! You prepared this, that is, disbelief, for us. So what an evil abode!’, for us and for you, is the Fire.

38:61

قَالُوا رَبَّنَا مَن قَدَّمَ لَنَا هَٰذَا فَزِدْهُ عَذَابًا ضِعْفًا فِي النَّارِ

Pronunciation

Qaloo rabbana man qaddama lanahatha fazidhu AAathaban diAAfan fee annar

Translation

They will say, “Our Lord, whoever brought this upon us – increase for him double punishment in the Fire.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They, also, say, ‘Our Lord, whoever prepared this for us, give him double his chastisement, that is, [give him in addition] the like of his chastisement, for his disbelief, in the Fire!’

38:62

وَقَالُوا مَا لَنَا لَا نَرَىٰ رِجَالًا كُنَّا نَعُدُّهُم مِّنَ الْأَشْرَارِ

Pronunciation

Waqaloo ma lana lanara rijalan kunna naAAudduhum mina al-ashrar

Translation

And they will say, “Why do we not see men whom we used to count among the worst?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they, the disbelievers of Mecca, say, while they are in the Fire: ‘What is the matter with us that we do not see [here] men whom we used to count, in the world, among the wicked?

38:63

أَتَّخَذْنَاهُمْ سِخْرِيًّا أَمْ زَاغَتْ عَنْهُمُ الْأَبْصَارُ

Pronunciation

Attakhathnahum sikhriyyan am zaghatAAanhumu al-absar

Translation

Is it [because] we took them in ridicule, or has [our] vision turned away from them?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Did we treat them mockingly? (read sukhriyyan, or sikhriyyan), did we use to deride them in [the life of] the world (the [final] yā’ [in sikhriyyā] is attributive). In other words, are they missing? Or have [our] eyes missed them [here]?’, so that we have not caught sight of them. Such [men] were the poor among the Muslims, like ‘Ammār [b. Yāsir], Bilāl [al-Habashī], Suhayb [al-Rūmī] and Salmān [al-Fārisī].

38:64

إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ لَحَقٌّ تَخَاصُمُ أَهْلِ النَّارِ

Pronunciation

Inna thalika lahaqqun takhasumuahli annar

Translation

Indeed, that is truth – the quarreling of the people of the Fire.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Assuredly that is true: such [a scene] will necessarily take place, which is, the wrangling of the inhabitants of the Fire — as shown above.

38:65

قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا مُنذِرٌ ۖ وَمَا مِنْ إِلَٰهٍ إِلَّا اللَّهُ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ

Pronunciation

Qul innama ana munthirunwama min ilahin illa Allahu alwahidualqahhar

Translation

Say, [O Muhammad], “I am only a warner, and there is not any deity except Allah , the One, the Prevailing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say, O Muhammad (s), to the disbelievers of Mecca: ‘I am only a warner, to threaten [disbelievers] with [punishment in] the Fire. And there is no god except God, the One, the All-Compelling, of [all] His creatures;

38:66

رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا الْعَزِيزُ الْغَفَّارُ

Pronunciation

Rabbu assamawati wal-ardiwama baynahuma alAAazeezu alghaffar

Translation

Lord of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them, the Exalted in Might, the Perpetual Forgiver.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, the Mighty, Whose way [always] prevails, the [ever] Forgiving’, of His friends.

38:67

قُلْ هُوَ نَبَأٌ عَظِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Qul huwa nabaon AAatheem

Translation

Say, “It is great news

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say, to them: ‘It is a tremendous tiding

38:68

أَنتُمْ عَنْهُ مُعْرِضُونَ

Pronunciation

Antum AAanhu muAAridoon

Translation

From which you turn away.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

from which you are turning away, namely, the Qur’ān, of which I have informed you and in which I have brought you what can only be known by revelation, and that is God’s saying:

38:69

مَا كَانَ لِيَ مِنْ عِلْمٍ بِالْمَلَإِ الْأَعْلَىٰ إِذْ يَخْتَصِمُونَ

Pronunciation

Ma kana liya min AAilmin bilmala-ial-aAAla ith yakhtasimoon

Translation

I had no knowledge of the exalted assembly [of angels] when they were disputing [the creation of Adam].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

I had no knowledge of the High Council, that is to say, [of] the angels, when they disputed, in the matter of Adam, when God, exalted be He, said [to them]: ‘I am appointing on earth a vicegerent’, to the end [of the verse, Q. 2:30].

38:70

إِن يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ إِلَّا أَنَّمَا أَنَا نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ

Pronunciation

In yooha ilayya illa annamaana natheerun mubeen

Translation

It has not been revealed to me except that I am a clear warner.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

All that is revealed to me is that I am just a plain warner’, one whose warning is clear.

38:71

إِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي خَالِقٌ بَشَرًا مِّن طِينٍ

Pronunciation

Ith qala rabbuka lilmala-ikatiinnee khaliqun basharan min teen

Translation

[So mention] when your Lord said to the angels, “Indeed, I am going to create a human being from clay.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Mention, when your Lord said to the angels, ‘Indeed I am about to create a human being out of clay, and this was Adam.

38:72

فَإِذَا سَوَّيْتُهُ وَنَفَخْتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِي فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ

Pronunciation

Fa-itha sawwaytuhu wanafakhtu feehimin roohee faqaAAoo lahu sajideen

Translation

So when I have proportioned him and breathed into him of My [created] soul, then fall down to him in prostration.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So when I have proportioned him, completed him, and breathed in him, [when I have] caused to flow [therein], My spirit, so that he becomes a living [being] — the addition of ‘the spirit’ to Adam is an honour for him; the ‘spirit’ is a subtle body that gives life to a human being by permeating him — then fall down in prostration before him!’ — a prostration of salutation [that is actually] a bow.

38:73

فَسَجَدَ الْمَلَائِكَةُ كُلُّهُمْ أَجْمَعُونَ

Pronunciation

Fasajada almala-ikatu kulluhumajmaAAoon

Translation

So the angels prostrated – all of them entirely.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thereat the angels prostrated, all of them together (there are two emphases here [kulluhum and ajma‘ūn]);

38:74

إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ اسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Illa ibleesa istakbara wakanamina alkafireen

Translation

Except Iblees; he was arrogant and became among the disbelievers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

except Iblīs, the father of the jinn, who was among the [audience of] angels; he was disdainful and he was one of the disbelievers, according to God’s knowledge, exalted be He.

38:75

قَالَ يَا إِبْلِيسُ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَن تَسْجُدَ لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ ۖ أَسْتَكْبَرْتَ أَمْ كُنتَ مِنَ الْعَالِينَ

Pronunciation

Qala ya ibleesu mamanaAAaka an tasjuda lima khalaqtu biyadayya astakbarta amkunta mina alAAaleen

Translation

[Allah] said, “O Iblees, what prevented you from prostrating to that which I created with My hands? Were you arrogant [then], or were you [already] among the haughty?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘O Iblīs! What prevents you from prostrating before that which I have created with My own hands?, in other words, whose creation I [Myself] have undertaken. This [in itself] is an honour for Adam, as God has [Himself] undertaken the [unmediated] creation of all creatures. Are you being arrogant, now, in refraining from prostrating (an interrogative meant as a rebuke); or are you of the exalted?’, of the proud, and have therefore disdained to prostrate yourself, because you are one of them?

38:76

قَالَ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْهُ ۖ خَلَقْتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقْتَهُ مِن طِينٍ

Pronunciation

Qala ana khayrun minhukhalaqtanee min narin wakhalaqtahu min teen

Translation

He said, “I am better than him. You created me from fire and created him from clay.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘I am better than him. You created me from fire and You created him from clay’.

38:77

قَالَ فَاخْرُجْ مِنْهَا فَإِنَّكَ رَجِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Qala fakhruj minhafa-innaka rajeem

Translation

[Allah] said, “Then get out of Paradise, for indeed, you are expelled.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Then begone hence, that is, from Paradise — or, it is said, [begone] from the heavens — for you are indeed accursed, outcast.

38:78

وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكَ لَعْنَتِي إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

Pronunciation

Wa-inna AAalayka laAAnatee ila yawmiaddeen

Translation

And indeed, upon you is My curse until the Day of Recompense.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And indeed My curse shall be on you until the Day of Judgement’, [the Day] of Requital.

38:79

قَالَ رَبِّ فَأَنظِرْنِي إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَ

Pronunciation

Qala rabbi faanthirneeila yawmi yubAAathoon

Translation

He said, “My Lord, then reprieve me until the Day they are resurrected.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘My Lord, then reprieve me until the day when they, mankind, will be raised’.

38:80

قَالَ فَإِنَّكَ مِنَ الْمُنظَرِينَ

Pronunciation

Qala fa-innaka mina almunthareen

Translation

[Allah] said, “So indeed, you are of those reprieved

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Then you will indeed be among the reprieved

38:81

إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْوَقْتِ الْمَعْلُومِ

Pronunciation

Ila yawmi alwaqti almaAAloom

Translation

Until the Day of the time well-known.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

until the day of the known time’, the time of the First Blast.

38:82

قَالَ فَبِعِزَّتِكَ لَأُغْوِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

Pronunciation

Qala fabiAAizzatika laoghwiyannahumajmaAAeen

Translation

[Iblees] said, “By your might, I will surely mislead them all

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Now, by Your might, I shall surely pervert them all,

38:83

إِلَّا عِبَادَكَ مِنْهُمُ الْمُخْلَصِينَ

Pronunciation

Illa AAibadaka minhumualmukhlaseen

Translation

Except, among them, Your chosen servants.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

except those servants of Yours among them who will be saved’, namely, the believers.

38:84

قَالَ فَالْحَقُّ وَالْحَقَّ أَقُولُ

Pronunciation

Qala falhaqqu walhaqqaaqool

Translation

[ Allah ] said, “The truth [is My oath], and the truth I say –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘So the truth is — and the truth I [always] speak (read both [words] in the accusative [fa’l-haqqa wa’l-haqqa]; or with the first in the nominative and the second in the accusative because of the verb [aqūlu, ‘I speak’] that follows. As for reading the first one in the accusative, this would be on account of the mentioned verb [qāla, ‘he said’]; but it is also said to be on account of its being a verbal noun, the sense being uhiqqu l-haqqa, ‘I establish the truth’; or [it is in the accusative by implication] if the particle for the oath [fa] is removed. It [the first haqq] could also be in the nominative because of its being the subject of a missing predicate, as in fa’l-haqqu minnī, ‘truth [comes] from Me’. It is also said that [the sentence means] fa’l-haqqu qasamī, ‘the truth is [this] oath from Me’, the response to which is the following [la-amla’anna …]) —

38:85

لَأَمْلَأَنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكَ وَمِمَّن تَبِعَكَ مِنْهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

Pronunciation

Laamlaanna jahannama minka wamimmantabiAAaka minhum ajmaAAeen

Translation

[That] I will surely fill Hell with you and those of them that follow you all together.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

I shall assuredly fill Hell with you, by way of [filling it with] your progeny, and with whoever of them follows you, that is, of mankind, all together’.

38:86

قُلْ مَا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ أَجْرٍ وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُتَكَلِّفِينَ

Pronunciation

Qul ma as-alukum AAalayhi min ajrinwama ana mina almutakallifeen

Translation

Say, [O Muhammad], “I do not ask you for the Qur’an any payment, and I am not of the pretentious

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say: ‘I do not ask of you, in return for this, for delivering the Message [to you], any reward, any fee; nor am I an impostor, so as to make up the Qur’ān myself.

38:87

إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا ذِكْرٌ لِّلْعَالَمِينَ

Pronunciation

In huwa illa thikrun lilAAalameen

Translation

It is but a reminder to the worlds.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

It is only, in other words, the Qur’ān is only, a reminder, an admonition, for all worlds, [those of] humans, jinn and [other] rational beings, [but] excluding the angels.

38:88

وَلَتَعْلَمُنَّ نَبَأَهُ بَعْدَ حِينٍ

Pronunciation

WalataAAlamunna nabaahu baAAda heen

Translation

And you will surely know [the truth of] its information after a time.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And you will assuredly come to know, O disbelievers of Mecca, its tiding, the news of its truth, in [due] time’, that is to say, on the Day of Resurrection (‘ilm, ‘knowing’, is here being used in the sense of ‘urf, ‘experience’; the prefixed lām [in la-ta‘lamunna, ‘you will assuredly know’] is for an implicit oath, in other words [what is meant is] wa’Llāhi [la-ta‘lamunna, ‘By God you will assuredly know’]).

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