Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 28.Surat Al-Qaşaş (The Stories) – سورة القصص

Surat Al-Qaşaş (The Stories) – سورة القصص

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

28:1

طسم

Pronunciation

Ta-seen-meem

Translation

Ta, Seen, Meem.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Tā sīn mīm: God knows best what He means by these [letters].

28:2

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ الْكِتَابِ الْمُبِينِ

Pronunciation

Tilka ayatu alkitabialmubeen

Translation

These are the verses of the clear Book.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those, namely, these signs, are the signs of the Manifest Book (the genitive annexation conveys the [partitive] sense of min, ‘of’ [‘verses from the Manifest Book’]), [the Manifest Book] which reveals truth from falsehood.

28:3

نَتْلُو عَلَيْكَ مِن نَّبَإِ مُوسَىٰ وَفِرْعَوْنَ بِالْحَقِّ لِقَوْمٍ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Natloo AAalayka min naba-i moosawafirAAawna bilhaqqi liqawmin yu/minoon

Translation

We recite to you from the news of Moses and Pharaoh in truth for a people who believe.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

We will recount, narrate, to you [something] of the tale of Moses and Pharaoh truthfully, for a people who believe, for their sake, since they are the ones to benefit from such [an account].

28:4

إِنَّ فِرْعَوْنَ عَلَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَجَعَلَ أَهْلَهَا شِيَعًا يَسْتَضْعِفُ طَائِفَةً مِّنْهُمْ يُذَبِّحُ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيِي نِسَاءَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مِنَ الْمُفْسِدِينَ

Pronunciation

Inna firAAawna AAala fee al-ardiwajaAAala ahlaha shiyaAAan yastadAAifu ta-ifatanminhum yuthabbihu abnaahum wayastahyeenisaahum innahu kana mina almufsideen

Translation

Indeed, Pharaoh exalted himself in the land and made its people into factions, oppressing a sector among them, slaughtering their [newborn] sons and keeping their females alive. Indeed, he was of the corrupters.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Truly Pharaoh had exalted himself in the land, the land of Egypt, and reduced its people into sects, groups, to serve him, oppressing a group of them, namely, the Children of Israel, slaughtering their sons, the new-born, and sparing their women, keeping them alive — for some of the [Egyptian] priests had told him, ‘A new-born of the Children of Israel shall bring about the end of your kingdom’. Indeed he was of those who cause corruption, through [the use of] slaughter and otherwise.

28:5

وَنُرِيدُ أَن نَّمُنَّ عَلَى الَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَنَجْعَلَهُمْ أَئِمَّةً وَنَجْعَلَهُمُ الْوَارِثِينَ

Pronunciation

Wanureedu an namunna AAala allatheenaistudAAifoo fee al-ardi wanajAAalahum a-immatanwanajAAalahumu alwaritheen

Translation

And We wanted to confer favor upon those who were oppressed in the land and make them leaders and make them inheritors

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We desired to show favour to those who were oppressed in the land, and to make them exemplars (read a’immatan, pronouncing both hamzas, or by replacing the second one with a yā’) whose good example would be followed, and to make them the inheritors, of Pharaoh’s kingdom;

28:6

وَنُمَكِّنَ لَهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَنُرِيَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَهَامَانَ وَجُنُودَهُمَا مِنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَحْذَرُونَ

Pronunciation

Wanumakkina lahum fee al-ardi wanuriyafirAAawna wahamana wajunoodahuma minhum makanoo yahtharoon

Translation

And establish them in the land and show Pharaoh and [his minister] Haman and their soldiers through them that which they had feared.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and to establish them in the land, the land of Egypt and Syria, and to show Pharaoh and Hāmān and their hosts (a variant reading has wa-yarā Fir‘awnu wa-Hāmānu wa-junūduhumā, ‘so that Pharaoh and Hāmān and their hosts might see’, with all three [nouns] in the nominative) from them that of which they were apprehensive, [that which] they feared of the new-born [Israelite] who would bring about the end of their kingdom.

28:7

وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمِّ مُوسَىٰ أَنْ أَرْضِعِيهِ ۖ فَإِذَا خِفْتِ عَلَيْهِ فَأَلْقِيهِ فِي الْيَمِّ وَلَا تَخَافِي وَلَا تَحْزَنِي ۖ إِنَّا رَادُّوهُ إِلَيْكِ وَجَاعِلُوهُ مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

Pronunciation

Waawhayna ila ommi moosaan ardiAAeehi fa-itha khifti AAalayhi faalqeehi feealyammi wala takhafee wala tahzaneeinna raddoohu ilayki wajaAAiloohu minaalmursaleen

Translation

And We inspired to the mother of Moses, “Suckle him; but when you fear for him, cast him into the river and do not fear and do not grieve. Indeed, We will return him to you and will make him [one] of the messengers.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We revealed, by inspiration or in a dream, to the mother of Moses — who was the said new-born; his sister was the only other person aware of his birth — ‘Suckle him, then, when you fear for him, cast him into the waters, namely, the Nile, and do not fear, that he should drown, or grieve, for being separated from him, for We will restore him to you and make him one of the messengers’. She suckled him for three months during which he never cried. She then began to fear for him and so she placed him in a basket coated with pitch and made as a cradle for him on the inside. She then closed it and cast it into the waters of the Nile at night.

28:8

فَالْتَقَطَهُ آلُ فِرْعَوْنَ لِيَكُونَ لَهُمْ عَدُوًّا وَحَزَنًا ۗ إِنَّ فِرْعَوْنَ وَهَامَانَ وَجُنُودَهُمَا كَانُوا خَاطِئِينَ

Pronunciation

Faltaqatahu alufirAAawna liyakoona lahum AAaduwwan wahazanan innafirAAawna wahamana wajunoodahuma kanookhati-een

Translation

And the family of Pharaoh picked him up [out of the river] so that he would become to them an enemy and a [cause of] grief. Indeed, Pharaoh and Haman and their soldiers were deliberate sinners.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then Pharaoh’s folk, aids, picked him up, with him [still] in the basket, the morning following that night — it was placed him in front of him [Pharaoh] and then opened and Moses was brought out of it, sucking milk from his thumb — to be, at the end of the affair, an enemy, slaying their menfolk, and a [cause of] grief to them, enslaving their womenfolk (a variant reading [for hazanan] is huznan, both of which are alternative forms of the verbal noun, and it functions as an active participle, derived from hazanahu, which is like ahzanahu, ‘he caused him grief’). Truly Pharaoh and, his minister, Hāmān, and their hosts were sinners, that is, disobedient, and so they were punished at his [Moses’s] hands.

28:9

وَقَالَتِ امْرَأَتُ فِرْعَوْنَ قُرَّتُ عَيْنٍ لِّي وَلَكَ ۖ لَا تَقْتُلُوهُ عَسَىٰ أَن يَنفَعَنَا أَوْ نَتَّخِذَهُ وَلَدًا وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ

Pronunciation

Waqalati imraatu firAAawna qurratuAAaynin lee walaka la taqtuloohu AAasa an yanfaAAanaaw nattakhithahu waladan wahum la yashAAuroon

Translation

And the wife of Pharaoh said, “[He will be] a comfort of the eye for me and for you. Do not kill him; perhaps he may benefit us, or we may adopt him as a son.” And they perceived not.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And Pharaoh’s wife said, after he and his aids had resolved to slay him: he is, ‘A joyous sight for me and you. Do not slay him. Perhaps he will be of benefit to us, or we will adopt him as a son’, and so they obeyed her [wish]. And they were not aware, of the sequel to their affair with him.

28:10

وَأَصْبَحَ فُؤَادُ أُمِّ مُوسَىٰ فَارِغًا ۖ إِن كَادَتْ لَتُبْدِي بِهِ لَوْلَا أَن رَّبَطْنَا عَلَىٰ قَلْبِهَا لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Waasbaha fu-adu ommimoosa farighan in kadat latubdee bihi lawlaan rabatna AAala qalbiha litakoonamina almu/mineen

Translation

And the heart of Moses’ mother became empty [of all else]. She was about to disclose [the matter concerning] him had We not bound fast her heart that she would be of the believers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And the heart of Moses’s mother, when she found out that they had picked him up, became empty, of everything other than him. Indeed (in, softened from the hardened form, its subject omitted, in other words [understand it as] innaha) she was about to expose him, that is, as being her son, had We not fortified her heart, with patience, that is, We made it at peace, that she might be of the believers, [of] those who have faith in God’s promise (the response to [the conditional] lawlā, ‘had … not’, is given by the preceding [statement]).

28:11

وَقَالَتْ لِأُخْتِهِ قُصِّيهِ ۖ فَبَصُرَتْ بِهِ عَن جُنُبٍ وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ

Pronunciation

Waqalat li-okhtihi qusseehifabasurat bihi AAan junubin wahum la yashAAuroon

Translation

And she said to his sister, “Follow him”; so she watched him from a distance while they perceived not.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And she said to his sister, Mary, ‘Follow him’, in other words, follow where he goes in order to find out his news. So she watched him from afar, from a distance, secretly, while they were not aware, that she was his sister, or that she was [even] watching him.

28:12

وَحَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِ الْمَرَاضِعَ مِن قَبْلُ فَقَالَتْ هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَىٰ أَهْلِ بَيْتٍ يَكْفُلُونَهُ لَكُمْ وَهُمْ لَهُ نَاصِحُونَ

Pronunciation

Waharramna AAalayhi almaradiAAamin qablu faqalat hal adullukum AAala ahli baytinyakfuloonahu lakum wahum lahu nasihoon

Translation

And We had prevented from him [all] wet nurses before, so she said, “Shall I direct you to a household that will be responsible for him for you while they are to him [for his upbringing] sincere?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We had forbidden him to [take to the breasts of] fostermothers from before, that is to say, we prevented him from taking to the breasts of any suckling mother other than his own mother. Therefore he would not accept the breasts of any of the foster-mothers brought for him. So she, his sister, said, ‘Shall I show you a household — having seen their affection for him — who will take care of him for you, by having him suckled and so on, and who will act in good faith towards him?’ (the [suffixed] pronoun in lahu has been interpreted as referring to the king, as a response to them [when they asked Mary how she could be sure]). Her suggestion was accepted. So she brought his mother and he took to her breast. She explained to them that he had taken to her [breast] because of her pleasant scent and the wholesome taste of her milk. Permission was given to her to breast-feed him in her own house and so she returned with him, just as God, exalted be He, says:

28:13

فَرَدَدْنَاهُ إِلَىٰ أُمِّهِ كَيْ تَقَرَّ عَيْنُهَا وَلَا تَحْزَنَ وَلِتَعْلَمَ أَنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Faradadnahu ila ommihi kaytaqarra AAaynuha wala tahzana walitaAAlamaanna waAAda Allahi haqqun walakinnaaktharahum la yaAAlamoon

Translation

So We restored him to his mother that she might be content and not grieve and that she would know that the promise of Allah is true. But most of the people do not know.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thus We restored him to his mother so that her eyes might delight, in seeing him [again], and not grieve, thereat, and that she might know that God’s promise, to restore him to her, is true; but most of them, that is, the people, do not know, about this promise, or of the fact that this was his sister and the other was his mother. He [Moses] remained with her until he was weaned during which time she was paid wages at one dinar per day. She took this because it was money from enemy territory (harbī). She then brought him [back] to Pharaoh in whose household he was raised, as God recounts of him in sūrat al-Shu‘arā’ [Q. 26:18], Did we not rear you among us as a child, and did you not stay with us for years of your life?

28:14

وَلَمَّا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَاسْتَوَىٰ آتَيْنَاهُ حُكْمًا وَعِلْمًا ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Walamma balagha ashuddahu wastawaataynahu hukman waAAilman wakathalikanajzee almuhsineen

Translation

And when he attained his full strength and was [mentally] mature, We bestowed upon him judgement and knowledge. And thus do We reward the doers of good.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when he came of age, namely, at 30 or 33, and [then] was [fully] mature, that is, when he reached the age of 40, We gave him judgement, wisdom, and knowledge, comprehension of religious matters before he was sent as a prophet. And so, just as We rewarded him, do We reward those are virtuous, to their own souls.

28:15

وَدَخَلَ الْمَدِينَةَ عَلَىٰ حِينِ غَفْلَةٍ مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا فَوَجَدَ فِيهَا رَجُلَيْنِ يَقْتَتِلَانِ هَٰذَا مِن شِيعَتِهِ وَهَٰذَا مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ ۖ فَاسْتَغَاثَهُ الَّذِي مِن شِيعَتِهِ عَلَى الَّذِي مِنْ عَدُوِّهِ فَوَكَزَهُ مُوسَىٰ فَقَضَىٰ عَلَيْهِ ۖ قَالَ هَٰذَا مِنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۖ إِنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ مُّضِلٌّ مُّبِينٌ

Pronunciation

Wadakhala almadeenata AAala heenighaflatin min ahliha fawajada feeha rajulayniyaqtatilani hatha min sheeAAatihi wahathamin AAaduwwihi fastaghathahu allathee minsheeAAatihi AAala allathee min AAaduwwihifawakazahu moosa faqada AAalayhi qala hathamin AAamali ashshaytani innahu AAaduwwun mudillunmubeen

Translation

And he entered the city at a time of inattention by its people and found therein two men fighting: one from his faction and one from among his enemy. And the one from his faction called for help to him against the one from his enemy, so Moses struck him and [unintentionally] killed him. [Moses] said, “This is from the work of Satan. Indeed, he is a manifest, misleading enemy.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And he, Moses, entered the city, Pharaoh’s city, Memphis, having been absent from it for a while, at a time when its people were oblivious, the time of the afternoon nap, and found therein two men fighting, one of his own faction, namely, an Israelite, and the other of his enemies, in other words, an Egyptian, who was exploiting an Israelite to carry firewood to Pharaoh’s kitchen. So the one who was of his faction called to him for help against the one who was of his enemies, and so Moses said to him, ‘Leave him be!’, and it is said that he replied to Moses [thus]: ‘I am truly considering making you carry this [firewood]!’. So Moses punched him, that is, he hit him with his fist clenched — he [Moses] was a strong man with a powerful strike, and did away with him, that is, he killed him, but he had not intended to kill him. He buried him in the sand. He said, ‘This, killing of him, is of Satan’s doing, inciting my anger. Indeed he is an enemy, to the son of Adam, a manifest misleader’, of him.

28:16

قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي فَاغْفِرْ لِي فَغَفَرَ لَهُ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ

Pronunciation

Qala rabbi innee thalamtunafsee faghfir lee faghafara lahu innahu huwa alghafooruarraheem

Translation

He said, “My Lord, indeed I have wronged myself, so forgive me,” and He forgave him. Indeed, He is the Forgiving, the Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, remorsefully, ‘My Lord, I have indeed wronged myself, by killing him, so forgive me!’ So He forgave him. Truly He is the Forgiving, the Merciful, that is to say, the One Who has always possessed, and will always possess, these two attributes.

28:17

قَالَ رَبِّ بِمَا أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ فَلَنْ أَكُونَ ظَهِيرًا لِّلْمُجْرِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Qala rabbi bima anAAamtaAAalayya falan akoona thaheeran lilmujrimeen

Translation

He said, “My Lord, for the favor You bestowed upon me, I will never be an assistant to the criminals.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘My Lord, forasmuch as You have been gracious to me, with forgiveness, protect me [so], I will never be a partisan, a supporter, of the criminals’, the disbelievers henceforth, if you were to protect me.

28:18

فَأَصْبَحَ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي اسْتَنصَرَهُ بِالْأَمْسِ يَسْتَصْرِخُهُ ۚ قَالَ لَهُ مُوسَىٰ إِنَّكَ لَغَوِيٌّ مُّبِينٌ

Pronunciation

Faasbaha fee almadeenati kha-ifanyataraqqabu fa-itha allathee istansarahu bil-amsiyastasrikhuhu qala lahu moosa innakalaghawiyyun mubeen

Translation

And he became inside the city fearful and anticipating [exposure], when suddenly the one who sought his help the previous day cried out to him [once again]. Moses said to him, “Indeed, you are an evident, [persistent] deviator.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

In the morning he was in the city, fearful, vigilant, waiting to see what would happen to him [in reaction] from the side of the slain man; — when behold, the one who had sought his help the day before cried out to him for help [again], asking for his help against another Egyptian. Moses said to him, ‘Clearly you are a trouble-maker!’, whose trouble-making is evident, judging by what you did yesterday and today.

28:19

فَلَمَّا أَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يَبْطِشَ بِالَّذِي هُوَ عَدُوٌّ لَّهُمَا قَالَ يَا مُوسَىٰ أَتُرِيدُ أَن تَقْتُلَنِي كَمَا قَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا بِالْأَمْسِ ۖ إِن تُرِيدُ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَ جَبَّارًا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا تُرِيدُ أَن تَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِينَ

Pronunciation

Falamma an arada an yabtishabillathee huwa AAaduwwun lahuma qalaya moosa atureedu an taqtulanee kama qataltanafsan bil-amsi in tureedu illa an takoona jabbaranfee al-ardi wama tureedu an takoona mina almusliheen

Translation

And when he wanted to strike the one who was an enemy to both of them, he said, “O Moses, do you intend to kill me as you killed someone yesterday? You only want to be a tyrant in the land and do not want to be of the amenders.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But when (fa-lammā an: an is extra) he was about to strike the man who was an enemy to both of them, to Moses and the one seeking his help, he, the one seeking help, supposing that Moses was about to strike him, because of what he [Moses] had said to him, said: ‘O Moses, do you want to slay me just as you slew a soul yesterday? You merely want to be a tyrant in the land, and you do not want to be of the reformers’. The Egyptian heard this and realised that the slayer had been Moses. Thus he hurried off to Pharaoh to inform him of this. Pharaoh then ordered slaughterers to slay Moses, and they set off in his direction.

28:20

وَجَاءَ رَجُلٌ مِّنْ أَقْصَى الْمَدِينَةِ يَسْعَىٰ قَالَ يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنَّ الْمَلَأَ يَأْتَمِرُونَ بِكَ لِيَقْتُلُوكَ فَاخْرُجْ إِنِّي لَكَ مِنَ النَّاصِحِينَ

Pronunciation

Wajaa rajulun min aqsaalmadeenati yasAAa qala ya moosa innaalmalaa ya/tamiroona bika liyaqtulooka fakhruj innee lakamina annasiheen

Translation

And a man came from the farthest end of the city, running. He said, “O Moses, indeed the eminent ones are conferring over you [intending] to kill you, so leave [the city]; indeed, I am to you of the sincere advisors.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And a man, who was the [only] believer among Pharaoh’s kinsfolk, came from the outskirts of the city, hastening, walking fast, via a route quicker than theirs. He said, ‘O Moses, lo! the council, of Pharaoh’s folk, are conspiring, discussing [the means], to slay you. So leave, the city. Truly I am speaking to you in good faith’, in bidding you to leave.

28:21

فَخَرَجَ مِنْهَا خَائِفًا يَتَرَقَّبُ ۖ قَالَ رَبِّ نَجِّنِي مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Fakharaja minha kha-ifanyataraqqabu qala rabbi najjinee mina alqawmi aththalimeen

Translation

So he left it, fearful and anticipating [apprehension]. He said, “My Lord, save me from the wrongdoing people.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So he departed from it, fearful, vigilant, lest any of the pursuers catch up with him, or [in the hope] that God might rescue him. He said, ‘My Lord, deliver me from the evildoing people’, Pharaoh’s people.

28:22

وَلَمَّا تَوَجَّهَ تِلْقَاءَ مَدْيَنَ قَالَ عَسَىٰ رَبِّي أَن يَهْدِيَنِي سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ

Pronunciation

Walamma tawajjaha tilqaamadyana qala AAasa rabbee an yahdiyanee sawaaassabeel

Translation

And when he directed himself toward Madyan, he said, “Perhaps my Lord will guide me to the sound way.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when he turned his face towards Midian, in the direction thereof — and this [Midian] was the town of [the prophet] Shu‘ayb, eight day’s journeying from Egypt, [so] named after Midian son of Abraham; he [Moses] did not know the route to it — he said, ‘Perhaps my Lord will show me the right way’, that is to say, which route to follow, in other words, the simplest route to it. God thus sent forth to him an angel with a goat, which he [Moses] set off following towards it [the town].

28:23

وَلَمَّا وَرَدَ مَاءَ مَدْيَنَ وَجَدَ عَلَيْهِ أُمَّةً مِّنَ النَّاسِ يَسْقُونَ وَوَجَدَ مِن دُونِهِمُ امْرَأَتَيْنِ تَذُودَانِ ۖ قَالَ مَا خَطْبُكُمَا ۖ قَالَتَا لَا نَسْقِي حَتَّىٰ يُصْدِرَ الرِّعَاءُ ۖ وَأَبُونَا شَيْخٌ كَبِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Walamma warada maa madyanawajada AAalayhi ommatan mina annasi yasqoonawawajada min doonihimu imraatayni tathoodani qalama khatbukuma qalata lanasqee hatta yusdira arriAAaowaaboona shaykhun kabeer

Translation

And when he came to the well of Madyan, he found there a crowd of people watering [their flocks], and he found aside from them two women driving back [their flocks]. He said, “What is your circumstance?” They said, “We do not water until the shepherds dispatch [their flocks]; and our father is an old man.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when he arrived at the Water of Midian, [the name of] a well therein, he found a group of people there watering, their flocks, and he found, besides them, two women holding back their flock, from the water. He, Moses, said, to the two: ‘What is your business?’, that is, ‘What is the matter with you, that you are not watering?’ They said, ‘We do not water [our flock] until the shepherds have moved on (ri‘ā’u, ‘shepherds’, the plural of rā‘in) that is to say, until they have returned from the watering, for fear of being crushed [by the throng], after which we go to water (a variant reading [for yasdiru, ‘move on’] is the 4th form [subjunctive] yusdira, ‘to drive away’, meaning, until they [the shepherds] have driven their flocks away from the water’) and our father is a very old man’, unable to [come and] water.

28:24

فَسَقَىٰ لَهُمَا ثُمَّ تَوَلَّىٰ إِلَى الظِّلِّ فَقَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي لِمَا أَنزَلْتَ إِلَيَّ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَقِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Fasaqa lahuma thumma tawallaila aththilli faqala rabbiinnee lima anzalta ilayya min khayrin faqeer

Translation

So he watered [their flocks] for them; then he went back to the shade and said, “My Lord, indeed I am, for whatever good You would send down to me, in need.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So he watered [their flock] for them, from another well nearby, by lifting a rock from on top of it, which only ten men could have lifted; then he retreated to the shade, of an acacia tree (samura), because of the extreme heat of the sun and he was hungry, and said, ‘My Lord, indeed I am in utter need of whatever good, [whatever] food, You send down to me’. The two women returned to their father quicker than usual and so he asked them why [it was so]. They told him about the man who had watered [their flock] for them. So he said to one of them, ‘Summon him to [come to] me’.

28:25

فَجَاءَتْهُ إِحْدَاهُمَا تَمْشِي عَلَى اسْتِحْيَاءٍ قَالَتْ إِنَّ أَبِي يَدْعُوكَ لِيَجْزِيَكَ أَجْرَ مَا سَقَيْتَ لَنَا ۚ فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُ وَقَصَّ عَلَيْهِ الْقَصَصَ قَالَ لَا تَخَفْ ۖ نَجَوْتَ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Fajaat-hu ihdahumatamshee AAala istihya-in qalat innaabee yadAAooka liyajziyaka ajra ma saqayta lanafalamma jaahu waqassa AAalayhi alqasasaqala la takhaf najawta mina alqawmi aththalimeen

Translation

Then one of the two women came to him walking with shyness. She said, “Indeed, my father invites you that he may reward you for having watered for us.” So when he came to him and related to him the story, he said, “Fear not. You have escaped from the wrongdoing people.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God, exalted be He, says: Then one of the two women came to him, walking bashfully — in other words, covering her face with the sleeve of her shirt, being shy of him — and said, ‘My father invites you, that he may pay you a wage for watering [our flock] for us’. He accepted her invitation, while inwardly he disapproved of accepting any wage, for it was as though she sought to remunerate him and as though he were of those who would want it [which he was not]. She walked in front of him but when the wind began to blow off her dress and reveal her legs, he said to her, ‘Walk behind me and show me the way’, which she did. Finally he came to her father, Shu‘ayb, peace be upon him, who was sitting with some supper in front of him. He said to him, ‘Sit and have some supper’. He [Moses] said, ‘I hope that this is not [some sort of] compensation for having watered [their flock] for them? For we are People of a House and do not demand compensation for good deeds’. He [Shu‘ayb] said, ‘No. It is [simply] a custom of mine and of my forefathers to be hospitable to guests and to offer them food’. Thus, he [Moses] ate and informed him of his predicament. God, exalted be He, says: So when he came to him and recounted to him the story (al-qasas is a verbal noun with the sense of al-maqsūs, ‘that which is recounted’), of his slaying of the Egyptian and their intention to slay him and his fear of Pharaoh, he [their father] said, ‘Do not be afraid. You have escaped from the evildoing people’, as Pharaoh had no authority over Midian.

28:26

قَالَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا يَا أَبَتِ اسْتَأْجِرْهُ ۖ إِنَّ خَيْرَ مَنِ اسْتَأْجَرْتَ الْقَوِيُّ الْأَمِينُ

Pronunciation

Qalat ihdahuma yaabati ista/jirhu inna khayra mani ista/jarta alqawiyyu al-ameen

Translation

One of the women said, “O my father, hire him. Indeed, the best one you can hire is the strong and the trustworthy.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

One of the two women, the one that had been sent [by her father], either the elder or the younger, said, ‘O my father, hire him, employ him in return for a wage, that he may tend our flock instead of us. Surely the best [man] you can hire is the strong, the trustworthy man’, in other words, hire him on account of his strength and trustworthiness. He [Shu‘ayb] asked her about him and she told him, as mentioned above, how he had lifted the rock off the well and that he had said to her, ‘Walk behind me’, in addition to his lowering his head when he realised that she was coming towards him, refusing to lift it [until she left]. He [Shu‘ayb] therefore was keen to have him marry [one of his daughters].

28:27

قَالَ إِنِّي أُرِيدُ أَنْ أُنكِحَكَ إِحْدَى ابْنَتَيَّ هَاتَيْنِ عَلَىٰ أَن تَأْجُرَنِي ثَمَانِيَ حِجَجٍ ۖ فَإِنْ أَتْمَمْتَ عَشْرًا فَمِنْ عِندِكَ ۖ وَمَا أُرِيدُ أَنْ أَشُقَّ عَلَيْكَ ۚ سَتَجِدُنِي إِن شَاءَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ

Pronunciation

Qala innee oreedu an onkihakaihda ibnatayya hatayni AAala anta/juranee thamaniya hijajin fa-in atmamta AAashranfamin AAindika wama oreedu an ashuqqa AAalayka satajiduneein shaa Allahu mina assaliheen

Translation

He said, “Indeed, I wish to wed you one of these, my two daughters, on [the condition] that you serve me for eight years; but if you complete ten, it will be [as a favor] from you. And I do not wish to put you in difficulty. You will find me, if Allah wills, from among the righteous.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘I desire to marry you to one of these two daughters of mine, either the elder or the younger one, on condition that you hire yourself to me, that you are employed by me to tend my flock, for eight years. And if you complete ten, that is, the tending of ten years, that, completion, shall be of your own accord. I do not want to be hard on you, by making it [the marriage] conditional on ten [years service]. God willing — [expressed] to seek [God’s] blessing — you shall find me to be one of the righteous’, of those who fulfil their covenants.

28:28

قَالَ ذَٰلِكَ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكَ ۖ أَيَّمَا الْأَجَلَيْنِ قَضَيْتُ فَلَا عُدْوَانَ عَلَيَّ ۖ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ مَا نَقُولُ وَكِيلٌ

Pronunciation

Qala thalika baynee wabaynakaayyama al-ajalayni qadaytu fala AAudwanaAAalayya wallahu AAala ma naqooluwakeel

Translation

[Moses] said, “That is [established] between me and you. Whichever of the two terms I complete – there is no injustice to me, and Allah , over what we say, is Witness.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He, Moses, said, ‘That, which you have said, is [settled then] between me and you. Whichever of the two terms, the eight or the ten (the mā [in ayyamā, ‘whichever of the two’] is extra), in other words, the tending thereof, I complete, there shall be no injustice [done] to me, by demanding [of me] to do more [tending]. And God is Guardian, Keeper or Witness, over what we, you and I, say’. The contract was agreed in this way. Shu‘ayb bid his daughter to give Moses a staff with which to beat off predatory beasts from his sheep — the staffs of the prophets were in his keeping. It was Adam’s staff, made from the myrtle of Paradise, that fell into her hands and so Moses took it, with Shu‘ayb’s knowledge.

28:29

فَلَمَّا قَضَىٰ مُوسَى الْأَجَلَ وَسَارَ بِأَهْلِهِ آنَسَ مِن جَانِبِ الطُّورِ نَارًا قَالَ لِأَهْلِهِ امْكُثُوا إِنِّي آنَسْتُ نَارًا لَّعَلِّي آتِيكُم مِّنْهَا بِخَبَرٍ أَوْ جَذْوَةٍ مِّنَ النَّارِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَصْطَلُونَ

Pronunciation

Falamma qada moosaal-ajala wasara bi-ahlihi anasa min janibi attoorinaran qala li-ahlihi omkuthoo innee anastu naranlaAAallee ateekum minha bikhabarin aw jathwatinmina annari laAAallakum tastaloon

Translation

And when Moses had completed the term and was traveling with his family, he perceived from the direction of the mount a fire. He said to his family, “Stay here; indeed, I have perceived a fire. Perhaps I will bring you from there [some] information or burning wood from the fire that you may warm yourselves.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So when Moses had completed the term, of his tending — of eight years, or of ten years, which is what is generally assumed — and was travelling with his family, his wife, with the permission of her father, in the direction of Egypt, he saw in the distance on the side of the Mount [Tūr] a fire (al-Tūr is the name of a mountain). He said to his family, ‘Wait, here; I see a fire in the distance. Maybe I will bring you from it news, about [how to rejoin] the route [to Egypt] — for he had strayed from it [along the way] — or a brand (read with any of the three vowels [jadhwa, jidhwa, or judhwa], which [either] means ‘a bundle’, or ‘a flame’) from the fire, that you may warm yourselves’ (tastalūna: the tā’ replaces the tā’ of the [8th verbal paradigm] ifta‘ala of the verb saliya, or salaya).

28:30

فَلَمَّا أَتَاهَا نُودِيَ مِن شَاطِئِ الْوَادِ الْأَيْمَنِ فِي الْبُقْعَةِ الْمُبَارَكَةِ مِنَ الشَّجَرَةِ أَن يَا مُوسَىٰ إِنِّي أَنَا اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Pronunciation

Falamma ataha noodiyamin shati-i alwadi al-aymani fee albuqAAati almubarakatimina ashshajarati an ya moosa innee anaAllahu rabbu alAAalameen

Translation

But when he came to it, he was called from the right side of the valley in a blessed spot – from the tree, “O Moses, indeed I am Allah , Lord of the worlds.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when he reached it, a call came from the right bank, [the right] side, of the valley, to Moses, at the blessed spot, [blessed] for Moses, because of his hearing God’s speech therein, from the tree (mina’l-shajarati substitutes for min shāti’i, ‘from the [right] bank’, and the preposition [min, ‘from’] has been repeated because it [the tree] grows there) — the tree was a jujube, a bramble, or a boxthorn — [saying] that (an here is explicative, and not in its softened form) ‘O Moses! Indeed I am God, the Lord of the Worlds’.

28:31

وَأَنْ أَلْقِ عَصَاكَ ۖ فَلَمَّا رَآهَا تَهْتَزُّ كَأَنَّهَا جَانٌّ وَلَّىٰ مُدْبِرًا وَلَمْ يُعَقِّبْ ۚ يَا مُوسَىٰ أَقْبِلْ وَلَا تَخَفْ ۖ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الْآمِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Waan alqi AAasaka falamma raahatahtazzu kaannaha jannun walla mudbiranwalam yuAAaqqib ya moosa aqbil wala takhafinnaka mina al-amineen

Translation

And [he was told], “Throw down your staff.” But when he saw it writhing as if it was a snake, he turned in flight and did not return. [ Allah said], “O Moses, approach and fear not. Indeed, you are of the secure.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And: ‘Throw down your staff’, and he threw it down. And when he saw it quivering, moving, as if it were a serpent (jānn: is a small snake [so called] because of the speed of its movement) he turned his back, to flee from it, and did not look back, in other words, he did not return, and so there called out [the voice]: ‘O Moses! Come forward, and do not be afraid. Indeed you are safe.

28:32

اسْلُكْ يَدَكَ فِي جَيْبِكَ تَخْرُجْ بَيْضَاءَ مِنْ غَيْرِ سُوءٍ وَاضْمُمْ إِلَيْكَ جَنَاحَكَ مِنَ الرَّهْبِ ۖ فَذَانِكَ بُرْهَانَانِ مِن رَّبِّكَ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَئِهِ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا قَوْمًا فَاسِقِينَ

Pronunciation

Osluk yadaka fee jaybika takhruj baydaamin ghayri soo-in wadmum ilayka janahakamina arrahbi fathanika burhanani minrabbika ila firAAawna wamala-ihi innahum kanooqawman fasiqeen

Translation

Insert your hand into the opening of your garment; it will come out white, without disease. And draw in your arm close to you [as prevention] from fear, for those are two proofs from your Lord to Pharaoh and his establishment. Indeed, they have been a people defiantly disobedient.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Insert your, right, hand, meaning, the palm, into your bosom (jayb is the neck [area] of the shirt) and [then] take it out, and it will emerge, not in its usual skin colour [but], white, without any blemish, any [vestige of] leprosy. So he inserted it and took it out and it shone as bright as the sun, blinding the eyes; and draw your arm [back] to your side [as a precaution] against fear (read rahab, rahb or ruhb), in other words, [against] the fear produced by the glow of the hand, so that you insert it [back] into your bosom and it is restored to its former state; it [the arm] is referred to as jināh, ‘wing’, because they are for humans what wings are for birds. These then (read fa-dhānika or fa-dhānnika) namely, the staff and the hand (both of which [‘asā and yad] are feminine nouns, but the demonstrative pronoun [dhānika] used for them, being the subject, is in the masculine because its predicate is masculine) shall be two proofs, to be sent, from your Lord to Pharaoh and his council; for surely they are an immoral people’.

28:33

قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي قَتَلْتُ مِنْهُمْ نَفْسًا فَأَخَافُ أَن يَقْتُلُونِ

Pronunciation

Qala rabbi innee qataltu minhumnafsan faakhafu an yaqtuloon

Translation

He said, “My Lord, indeed, I killed from among them someone, and I fear they will kill me.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘My Lord, I have indeed slain a soul among them — the mentioned Egyptian — and so I fear that they will slay me, because of him.

28:34

وَأَخِي هَارُونُ هُوَ أَفْصَحُ مِنِّي لِسَانًا فَأَرْسِلْهُ مَعِيَ رِدْءًا يُصَدِّقُنِي ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَن يُكَذِّبُونِ

Pronunciation

Waakhee haroonu huwa afsahuminnee lisanan faarsilhu maAAiya rid-an yusaddiquneeinnee akhafu an yukaththiboon

Translation

And my brother Aaron is more fluent than me in tongue, so send him with me as support, verifying me. Indeed, I fear that they will deny me.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And my brother Aaron is more eloquent, more intelligible, than me in speech. So send him with me as a helper, as an aid (a variant reading [for rid’an, ‘helper’] is ridan) to confirm me (read [either] in apocopated form, yusadiqnī, as a response to the request, or [as an indicative] with damma inflection, yusadiqunī, as an adjectival qualification of rid’an, ‘helper’), for I truly fear that they will deny me’.

28:35

قَالَ سَنَشُدُّ عَضُدَكَ بِأَخِيكَ وَنَجْعَلُ لَكُمَا سُلْطَانًا فَلَا يَصِلُونَ إِلَيْكُمَا ۚ بِآيَاتِنَا أَنتُمَا وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَكُمَا الْغَالِبُونَ

Pronunciation

Qala sanashuddu AAadudakabi-akheeka wanajAAalu lakuma sultanan falayasiloona ilaykuma bi-ayatinaantuma wamani ittabaAAakuma alghaliboon

Translation

[ Allah ] said, “We will strengthen your arm through your brother and grant you both supremacy so they will not reach you. [It will be] through Our signs; you and those who follow you will be the predominant.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘We will strengthen your arm, We will make you strong, by means of your brother, and We will give authority, victory, so that they will not be able to touch [either of] you, with any evil; go both of you, with Our signs the two of you, and those who follow you [two], will be the victors’, over them.

28:36

فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُم مُّوسَىٰ بِآيَاتِنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ قَالُوا مَا هَٰذَا إِلَّا سِحْرٌ مُّفْتَرًى وَمَا سَمِعْنَا بِهَٰذَا فِي آبَائِنَا الْأَوَّلِينَ

Pronunciation

Falamma jaahum moosabi-ayatina bayyinatin qaloo mahatha illa sihrun muftaran wamasamiAAna bihatha fee aba-inaal-awwaleen

Translation

But when Moses came to them with Our signs as clear evidences, they said, “This is not except invented magic, and we have not heard of this [religion] among our forefathers.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But when Moses brought them Our clear signs (bayyinātin, a circumstantial qualifier) they said, ‘This is nothing but concocted, invented, sorcery. And we never heard of such [a thing], to have [ever] existed, in, the days of, our forefathers’.

28:37

وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ رَبِّي أَعْلَمُ بِمَن جَاءَ بِالْهُدَىٰ مِنْ عِندِهِ وَمَن تَكُونُ لَهُ عَاقِبَةُ الدَّارِ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ

Pronunciation

Waqala moosa rabbee aAAlamubiman jaa bilhuda min AAindihi wamantakoonu lahu AAaqibatu addari innahu layuflihu aththalimoon

Translation

And Moses said, “My Lord is more knowing [than we or you] of who has come with guidance from Him and to whom will be succession in the home. Indeed, wrongdoers do not succeed.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And Moses said, (wa-qāla, or qāla, without the ‘and’) ‘My Lord knows best who brings guidance from Him (the suffixed pronoun [in ‘indihi] refers to the Lord) and whose (man here is a supplement to the previous man) will be (read takūna or yakūna) the sequel of the [Blissful] Abode, that is to say, the praiseworthy sequel in the Abode of the Hereafter, in other words, it is I [Moses], in both cases, and I speak truthfully in what I have brought [you]. Truly the evildoers, the disbelievers, will not be successful’.

28:38

وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يَا أَيُّهَا الْمَلَأُ مَا عَلِمْتُ لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرِي فَأَوْقِدْ لِي يَا هَامَانُ عَلَى الطِّينِ فَاجْعَل لِّي صَرْحًا لَّعَلِّي أَطَّلِعُ إِلَىٰ إِلَٰهِ مُوسَىٰ وَإِنِّي لَأَظُنُّهُ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَ

Pronunciation

Waqala firAAawnu ya ayyuhaalmalao ma AAalimtu lakum min ilahin ghayreefaawqid lee ya hamanu AAala atteenifajAAal lee sarhan laAAallee attaliAAuila ilahi moosa wa-innee laathunnuhumina alkathibeen

Translation

And Pharaoh said, “O eminent ones, I have not known you to have a god other than me. Then ignite for me, O Haman, [a fire] upon the clay and make for me a tower that I may look at the God of Moses. And indeed, I do think he is among the liars.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And Pharaoh said, ‘O [members of the] council, I do not know of any god for you other than me. So kindle for me, O Hāmān, [a fire] over the clay, and bake for me bricks [of clay], and make me a tower, a lofty palace, that I may take a look at the god of Moses, to observe him and inspect him; for truly I consider him to be a liar’, in his claim of [the existence of] some other god and that he is his messenger.

28:39

وَاسْتَكْبَرَ هُوَ وَجُنُودُهُ فِي الْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْنَا لَا يُرْجَعُونَ

Pronunciation

Wastakbara huwa wajunooduhu feeal-ardi bighayri alhaqqi wathannooannahum ilayna la yurjaAAoon

Translation

And he was arrogant, he and his soldiers, in the land, without right, and they thought that they would not be returned to Us.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And he and his hosts acted arrogantly in the land, the land of Egypt, without right, and thought they would not return to Us (read active yarji‘ūna, or passive yurja‘ūna, ‘they would [not] be brought back’).

28:40

فَأَخَذْنَاهُ وَجُنُودَهُ فَنَبَذْنَاهُمْ فِي الْيَمِّ ۖ فَانظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الظَّالِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Faakhathnahu wajunoodahufanabathnahum fee alyammi fanthurkayfa kana AAaqibatu aththalimeen

Translation

So We took him and his soldiers and threw them into the sea. So see how was the end of the wrongdoers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So We seized him and his hosts, and flung them into the waters, the sea, and they drowned. So behold how was the sequel for the evildoers, when they ended up being destroyed.

28:41

وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ ۖ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا يُنصَرُونَ

Pronunciation

WajaAAalnahum a-immatan yadAAoona ilaannari wayawma alqiyamati la yunsaroon

Translation

And We made them leaders inviting to the Fire, and on the Day of Resurrection they will not be helped.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We made them, in this world, leaders (read a-imma, pronouncing both hamzas, or by changing the second one into a yā’), chieftains of idolatry, who invite to the Fire, by inviting to idolatry, and on the Day of Resurrection they will not be helped, by having the chastisement averted from them.

28:42

وَأَتْبَعْنَاهُمْ فِي هَٰذِهِ الدُّنْيَا لَعْنَةً ۖ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ هُم مِّنَ الْمَقْبُوحِينَ

Pronunciation

WaatbaAAnahum fee hathihi addunyalaAAnatan wayawma alqiyamati hum mina almaqbooheen

Translation

And We caused to overtake them in this world a curse, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be of the despised.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We made a curse, ignominy, pursue them in this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be among the spurned, those banished [from God’s mercy].

28:43

وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا أَهْلَكْنَا الْقُرُونَ الْأُولَىٰ بَصَائِرَ لِلنَّاسِ وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ

Pronunciation

Walaqad atayna moosaalkitaba min baAAdi ma ahlakna alquroonaal-oola basa-ira linnasi wahudanwarahmatan laAAallahum yatathakkaroon

Translation

And We gave Moses the Scripture, after We had destroyed the former generations, as enlightenment for the people and guidance and mercy that they might be reminded.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily We gave Moses the Scripture, the Torah, after We had destroyed the former generations, the people of Noah, ‘Ād, Thamūd and others, [containing] eye-openers for mankind (basā’ira, is a circumstantial qualifier referring to al-kitāb, ‘the Scripture’, the plural of basīra, which is the [perceptive] light of the heart), in other words, illumination for the hearts [of mankind], and as guidance, from error, for those who implement it, and mercy, for those who believe therein, that perhaps they might remember, [that] they might be admonished by the admonitions it [the Scripture] contains.

28:44

وَمَا كُنتَ بِجَانِبِ الْغَرْبِيِّ إِذْ قَضَيْنَا إِلَىٰ مُوسَى الْأَمْرَ وَمَا كُنتَ مِنَ الشَّاهِدِينَ

Pronunciation

Wama kunta bijanibialgharbiyyi ith qadayna ila moosaal-amra wama kunta mina ashshahideen

Translation

And you, [O Muhammad], were not on the western side [of the mount] when We revealed to Moses the command, and you were not among the witnesses [to that].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And you were not, O Muhammad (s), on the western side, of the mountain, the valley, or the spot, [to the west] of Moses at the time of the communion, when We decreed, revealed, to Moses the commandment, to deliver the Message to Pharaoh and his people, nor were you among the witnesses, to this, to know it and inform of it;

28:45

وَلَٰكِنَّا أَنشَأْنَا قُرُونًا فَتَطَاوَلَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْعُمُرُ ۚ وَمَا كُنتَ ثَاوِيًا فِي أَهْلِ مَدْيَنَ تَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِنَا وَلَٰكِنَّا كُنَّا مُرْسِلِينَ

Pronunciation

Walakinna ansha-naquroonan fatatawala AAalayhimu alAAumuru wama kuntathawiyan fee ahli madyana tatloo AAalayhim ayatinawalakinna kunna mursileen

Translation

But We produced [many] generations [after Moses], and prolonged was their duration. And you were not a resident among the people of Madyan, reciting to them Our verses, but We were senders [of this message].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

but We brought forth generations, communities, after Moses, and life was prolonged in their case, in other words, they lived long lives and so they forgot the covenants [made with God], knowledge disappeared and revelation ceased. Then We brought you as Messenger and revealed to you the story of Moses and others. And you were not a dweller, a resident, among the people of Midian reciting to them Our revelations (tatlū ‘alayhim āyātinā, a second predicate [after thāwiyan, ‘dweller’), to know their story and inform of it; but truly We are the senders, of you [as Messenger] and [the senders] to you of the stories of former generations.

28:46

وَمَا كُنتَ بِجَانِبِ الطُّورِ إِذْ نَادَيْنَا وَلَٰكِن رَّحْمَةً مِّن رَّبِّكَ لِتُنذِرَ قَوْمًا مَّا أَتَاهُم مِّن نَّذِيرٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ

Pronunciation

Wama kunta bijanibi attooriith nadayna walakin rahmatanmin rabbika litunthira qawman ma atahum minnatheerin min qablika laAAallahum yatathakkaroon

Translation

And you were not at the side of the mount when We called [Moses] but [were sent] as a mercy from your Lord to warn a people to whom no warner had come before you that they might be reminded.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And you were not on the side of the Mount when We called out, to Moses to take the Scripture earnestly; but, We have sent you, as a mercy from your Lord, that you may warn a people to whom no warner came before you — these are the people of Mecca — and that perhaps they may remember, they may be admonished.

28:47

وَلَوْلَا أَن تُصِيبَهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَيَقُولُوا رَبَّنَا لَوْلَا أَرْسَلْتَ إِلَيْنَا رَسُولًا فَنَتَّبِعَ آيَاتِكَ وَنَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Walawla an tuseebahum museebatunbima qaddamat aydeehim fayaqooloo rabbana lawlaarsalta ilayna rasoolan fanattabiAAa ayatikawanakoona mina almu/mineen

Translation

And if not that a disaster should strike them for what their hands put forth [of sins] and they would say, “Our Lord, why did You not send us a messenger so we could have followed Your verses and been among the believers?”…

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Otherwise, if an affliction, a punishment, should befall them because of what their own hands have sent before them, in the way of disbelief and otherwise, they might say, ‘Our Lord, why did You not send a messenger to us, that we might have followed Your signs, the ones sent with the messengers, and been of the believers?’ (the response to [the conditional particle] lawlā, ‘if’, has been omitted, and what follows it is a [new] subject; the meaning is: ‘were it not for the affliction that is the cause of their saying’, or, ‘were it not for their saying that is the cause of their affliction, We would have hastened on for them their punishment and We would not have sent you as a messenger to them’).

28:48

فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمُ الْحَقُّ مِنْ عِندِنَا قَالُوا لَوْلَا أُوتِيَ مِثْلَ مَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ ۚ أَوَلَمْ يَكْفُرُوا بِمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ قَالُوا سِحْرَانِ تَظَاهَرَا وَقَالُوا إِنَّا بِكُلٍّ كَافِرُونَ

Pronunciation

Falamma jaahumu alhaqqumin AAindina qaloo lawla ootiya mithla maootiya moosa awa lam yakfuroo bima ootiya moosamin qablu qaloo sihrani tathaharawaqaloo inna bikullin kafiroon

Translation

But when the truth came to them from Us, they said, “Why was he not given like that which was given to Moses?” Did they not disbelieve in that which was given to Moses before? They said, “[They are but] two works of magic supporting each other, and indeed we are, in both, disbelievers.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But when the truth, namely, Muhammad (s), came to them from Us, they said, ‘Why has he not been given the like of what Moses was given?’, in the way of signs, such as the glowing hand, the staff and others, or [by having] the Book revealed all at once. God, exalted be He, says: And did they not disbelieve in what was given to Moses before?; [before] when, they said, regarding him and Muhammad (s), ‘Two sorcerers (sāhirān; a variant reading has sihrān, ‘two sorceries’, namely [what they said regarding] the Qur’ān and the Torah) abetting each other.’ And they said, ‘We indeed disbelieve in both’, the two prophets and the two Scriptures [of Moses and Muhammad].

28:49

قُلْ فَأْتُوا بِكِتَابٍ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ هُوَ أَهْدَىٰ مِنْهُمَا أَتَّبِعْهُ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Pronunciation

Qul fa/too bikitabin min AAindi Allahihuwa ahda minhuma attabiAAhu in kuntum sadiqeen

Translation

Say, “Then bring a scripture from Allah which is more guiding than either of them that I may follow it, if you should be truthful.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say, to them: ‘Then bring some Scripture from God that is better in guidance than these two, Scriptures, that I may follow it, if you are truthful’, in what you say.

28:50

فَإِن لَّمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَكَ فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّمَا يَتَّبِعُونَ أَهْوَاءَهُمْ ۚ وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنِ اتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ بِغَيْرِ هُدًى مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Fa-in lam yastajeeboo laka faAAlamannama yattabiAAoona ahwaahum waman adallumimmani ittabaAAa hawahu bighayri hudan mina Allahiinna Allaha la yahdee alqawma aththalimeen

Translation

But if they do not respond to you – then know that they only follow their [own] desires. And who is more astray than one who follows his desire without guidance from Allah ? Indeed, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then if they do not respond to you, regarding your invitation [to them] to bring a Scripture, know that they are only following their desires, in [persisting in] their disbelief. And who is more astray than he who follows his desire without any guidance from God?, in other words, there is no one more astray than such [a person]. Truly God does not guide the evildoing, the disbelieving, folk.

28:51

وَلَقَدْ وَصَّلْنَا لَهُمُ الْقَوْلَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ

Pronunciation

Walaqad wassalna lahumualqawla laAAallahum yatathakkaroon

Translation

And We have [repeatedly] conveyed to them the Qur’an that they might be reminded.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And now verily We have brought, We have explained [to], them the Word, the Qur’ān, that perhaps they might remember, [they might] be admonished and believe.

28:52

الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِهِ هُم بِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Allatheena ataynahumualkitaba min qablihi hum bihi yu/minoon

Translation

Those to whom We gave the Scripture before it – they are believers in it.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those to whom We gave the Scripture before this, that is, [before] the Qur’ān, they believe in it, too. This was revealed regarding certain Jews who became Muslims, such as ‘Abd Allāh b. Salām and others, and [certain] Christians who had come from Abyssinia and Syria [who also became Muslims].

28:53

وَإِذَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِهِ إِنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّنَا إِنَّا كُنَّا مِن قَبْلِهِ مُسْلِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha yutla AAalayhim qalooamanna bihi innahu alhaqqu min rabbinainna kunna min qablihi muslimeen

Translation

And when it is recited to them, they say, “We have believed in it; indeed, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed we were, [even] before it, Muslims [submitting to Allah ].”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, when it is recited to them, the Qur’ān, they say, ‘We believe in it. It is indeed the Truth from our Lord. Lo! [even] before it we had submitted’, we affirmed God’s Oneness.

28:54

أُولَٰئِكَ يُؤْتَوْنَ أَجْرَهُم مَّرَّتَيْنِ بِمَا صَبَرُوا وَيَدْرَءُونَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ السَّيِّئَةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ

Pronunciation

Ola-ika yu/tawna ajrahum marrataynibima sabaroo wayadraoona bilhasanatiassayyi-ata wamimma razaqnahum yunfiqoon

Translation

Those will be given their reward twice for what they patiently endured and [because] they avert evil through good, and from what We have provided them they spend.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those will be given their reward twice over, for believing in both Scriptures, for the patience they showed, for having been steadfast in implementing [the prescriptions in] them; and they ward off, from themselves, evil with good, and expend, give as voluntary alms, of that which We have provided them.

28:55

وَإِذَا سَمِعُوا اللَّغْوَ أَعْرَضُوا عَنْهُ وَقَالُوا لَنَا أَعْمَالُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَالُكُمْ سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُمْ لَا نَبْتَغِي الْجَاهِلِينَ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha samiAAoo allaghwa aAAradooAAanhu waqaloo lana aAAmaluna walakumaAAmalukum salamun AAalaykum la nabtagheealjahileen

Translation

And when they hear ill speech, they turn away from it and say, “For us are our deeds, and for you are your deeds. Peace will be upon you; we seek not the ignorant.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when they hear vanity, vile words and hurtful intent from the disbelievers, they disregard it and say, ‘To us [belong] our deeds and to you [belong] your deeds. Peace to you — a parting truce (salām mutāraka), in other words you are secure from any abuse or the like on our part. We do not desire [friendship with] the ignorant’, we do not seek companionship with them.

28:56

إِنَّكَ لَا تَهْدِي مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ

Pronunciation

Innaka la tahdee man ahbabtawalakinna Allaha yahdee man yashao wahuwaaAAlamu bilmuhtadeen

Translation

Indeed, [O Muhammad], you do not guide whom you like, but Allah guides whom He wills. And He is most knowing of the [rightly] guided.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed regarding the Prophet’s longing for his uncle Abū Tālib to embrace faith: You cannot guide whom you like, to be guided, but [it is] God [Who] guides whomever He will, and He knows best those who will be guided.

28:57

وَقَالُوا إِن نَّتَّبِعِ الْهُدَىٰ مَعَكَ نُتَخَطَّفْ مِنْ أَرْضِنَا ۚ أَوَلَمْ نُمَكِّن لَّهُمْ حَرَمًا آمِنًا يُجْبَىٰ إِلَيْهِ ثَمَرَاتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ رِّزْقًا مِّن لَّدُنَّا وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Waqaloo in nattabiAAi alhudamaAAaka nutakhattaf min ardina awa lamnumakkin lahum haraman aminan yujba ilayhithamaratu kulli shay-in rizqan min ladunna walakinnaaktharahum la yaAAlamoon

Translation

And they say, “If we were to follow the guidance with you, we would be swept from our land.” Have we not established for them a safe sanctuary to which are brought the fruits of all things as provision from Us? But most of them do not know.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they, his people, say, ‘If we were to follow the Guidance with you, we will be deprived from our land’, torn out of it swiftly. God, exalted be He, says: Have We not established for them a secure Sanctuary, [one] in which they are secure from the raids and killings that occur among the Arab tribes, to which are brought (read tujbā or yujbā) fruits of all kinds, [fruits] from every direction, as a provision, for them, from Us? But most of them do not know, that what We say is the truth.

28:58

وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا مِن قَرْيَةٍ بَطِرَتْ مَعِيشَتَهَا ۖ فَتِلْكَ مَسَاكِنُهُمْ لَمْ تُسْكَن مِّن بَعْدِهِمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا ۖ وَكُنَّا نَحْنُ الْوَارِثِينَ

Pronunciation

Wakam ahlakna min qaryatin batiratmaAAeeshataha fatilka masakinuhum lam tuskan minbaAAdihim illa qaleelan wakunna nahnu alwaritheen

Translation

And how many a city have We destroyed that was insolent in its [way of] living, and those are their dwellings which have not been inhabited after them except briefly. And it is We who were the inheritors.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And how many a town We have destroyed whose lifestyle was one of arrogant ungratefulness — by ‘town’ is meant the inhabitants thereof. Those are their dwellings, which have not been dwelt in after them except a little, by passers-by, for a day or part of it. And it was We Who were the [sole] inheritors, after them.

28:59

وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ مُهْلِكَ الْقُرَىٰ حَتَّىٰ يَبْعَثَ فِي أُمِّهَا رَسُولًا يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِنَا ۚ وَمَا كُنَّا مُهْلِكِي الْقُرَىٰ إِلَّا وَأَهْلُهَا ظَالِمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wama kana rabbuka muhlikaalqura hatta yabAAatha fee ommiharasoolan yatloo AAalayhim ayatina wamakunna muhlikee alqura illa waahluha thalimoon

Translation

And never would your Lord have destroyed the cities until He had sent to their mother a messenger reciting to them Our verses. And We would not destroy the cities except while their people were wrongdoers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And your Lord never destroyed the towns, because of evildoing on their part, until He had raised up in their mother-town, that is, the major [town] among them, a messenger to recite Our signs to them. And We never destroyed the towns unless their inhabitants were committing evil, by denying the messengers.

28:60

وَمَا أُوتِيتُم مِّن شَيْءٍ فَمَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَزِينَتُهَا ۚ وَمَا عِندَ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَىٰ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ

Pronunciation

Wama ooteetum min shay-in famataAAualhayati addunya wazeenatuhawama AAinda Allahi khayrun waabqa afalataAAqiloon

Translation

And whatever thing you [people] have been given – it is [only for] the enjoyment of worldly life and its adornment. And what is with Allah is better and more lasting; so will you not use reason?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And whatever things you have been given are [only] the [short-lived] enjoyment of the life of this world and an ornament thereof, in other words, [things] which you enjoy and adorn yourselves with for the days of your lives, after which they perish; and what is with God, in other words, His reward, is better and more lasting. Will you not understand? (ta‘qilūna; or read ya‘qilūna, ‘will they [not] understand’) that what lasts is better than what perishes.

28:61

أَفَمَن وَعَدْنَاهُ وَعْدًا حَسَنًا فَهُوَ لَاقِيهِ كَمَن مَّتَّعْنَاهُ مَتَاعَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ثُمَّ هُوَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ مِنَ الْمُحْضَرِينَ

Pronunciation

Afaman waAAadnahu waAAdan hasananfahuwa laqeehi kaman mattaAAnahu mataAAa alhayatiaddunya thumma huwa yawma alqiyamati minaalmuhdareen

Translation

Then is he whom We have promised a good promise which he will obtain like he for whom We provided enjoyment of worldly life [but] then he is, on the Day of Resurrection, among those presented [for punishment in Hell]?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Is he to whom We have given a fair promise, which he will receive, which he will attain, and that [promise] is Paradise, like him to whom We have given the enjoyment of the life of this world, [enjoyment] which will disappear soon, then on the Day of Resurrection he will be of those arraigned?, before the Fire. The former is the believer, the latter the disbeliever: in other words the two are not equal.

28:62

وَيَوْمَ يُنَادِيهِمْ فَيَقُولُ أَيْنَ شُرَكَائِيَ الَّذِينَ كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wayawma yunadeehim fayaqoolu aynashuraka-iya allatheena kuntum tazAAumoon

Translation

And [warn of] the Day He will call them and say, “Where are My ‘partners’ which you used to claim?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, the day when He, God, will call to them and say, ‘Where [then] are My partners, those whom you used to claim?’, were partners of Mine.

28:63

قَالَ الَّذِينَ حَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقَوْلُ رَبَّنَا هَٰؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ أَغْوَيْنَا أَغْوَيْنَاهُمْ كَمَا غَوَيْنَا ۖ تَبَرَّأْنَا إِلَيْكَ ۖ مَا كَانُوا إِيَّانَا يَعْبُدُونَ

Pronunciation

Qala allatheena haqqaAAalayhimu alqawlu rabbana haola-i allatheenaaghwayna aghwaynahum kama ghawaynatabarra/na ilayka ma kanoo iyyanayaAAbudoon

Translation

Those upon whom the word will have come into effect will say, “Our Lord, these are the ones we led to error. We led them to error just as we were in error. We declare our disassociation [from them] to You. They did not used to worship us.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those against whom the Word [of punishment] will have become due, the justified [Word], that they be admitted into the Fire — and these are the leaders of misguidance — they shall say, ‘Our Lord! These are the ones whom we led astray (hā’ūlā’i’lladhīna aghwaynā is both a subject and an adjectival qualification). We led them astray (aghwaynāhum, the predicate thereof) and they went astray, even as we went astray — we did not compel them to [follow] error. We declare our innocence, of them, before You; it was not us that they worshipped’ (mā, ‘not’, is for negation; the direct object [iyyānā, ‘us’] precedes [the verb ya‘budūna, ‘they worshipped’] in order to concord with the end-rhyme of the verses).

28:64

وَقِيلَ ادْعُوا شُرَكَاءَكُمْ فَدَعَوْهُمْ فَلَمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَهُمْ وَرَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ ۚ لَوْ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يَهْتَدُونَ

Pronunciation

Waqeela odAAoo shurakaakumfadaAAawhum falam yastajeeboo lahum waraawoo alAAathabalaw annahum kanoo yahtadoon

Translation

And it will be said, “Invoke your ‘partners’ ” and they will invoke them; but they will not respond to them, and they will see the punishment. If only they had followed guidance!

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And it shall be said, ‘Call [now] to your associates!’, namely, the idols you alleged to be partners of God. So they will call to them, but they will not answer them, their call, and they, the former, will see, they will sight, the chastisement: [they will wish] if only they had been guided!, in this world, they would not have seen it in the Hereafter.

28:65

وَيَوْمَ يُنَادِيهِمْ فَيَقُولُ مَاذَا أَجَبْتُمُ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

Pronunciation

Wayawma yunadeehim fayaqoolu mathaajabtumu almursaleen

Translation

And [mention] the Day He will call them and say, “What did you answer the messengers?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, the day when He will call to them and say, ‘What response did you give to those [messengers] who were sent?’, to you.

28:66

فَعَمِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الْأَنبَاءُ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَهُمْ لَا يَتَسَاءَلُونَ

Pronunciation

FaAAamiyat AAalayhimu al-anbaoyawma-ithin fahum la yatasaaloon

Translation

But the information will be unapparent to them that Day, so they will not [be able to] ask one another.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The tidings, the news of deliverance contained in the response, will be obscured to them on that day, in other words, they will not find any statement that might contain [hope of] deliverance for them; so they will not question one other, about this, and will fall silent.

28:67

فَأَمَّا مَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَعَسَىٰ أَن يَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُفْلِحِينَ

Pronunciation

Faamma man taba waamanawaAAamila salihan faAAasa an yakoona minaalmufliheen

Translation

But as for one who had repented, believed, and done righteousness, it is promised by Allah that he will be among the successful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But as for him who repents, of idolatry, and believes, in the affirmation of God’s Oneness, and acts righteously, he observes the duties [of religion], maybe he will be among the successful, those delivered according to God’s promise.

28:68

وَرَبُّكَ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيَخْتَارُ ۗ مَا كَانَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ ۚ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

Pronunciation

Warabbuka yakhluqu ma yashaowayakhtaru ma kana lahumu alkhiyaratu subhanaAllahi wataAAala AAamma yushrikoon

Translation

And your Lord creates what He wills and chooses; not for them was the choice. Exalted is Allah and high above what they associate with Him.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And your Lord creates whatever He will and chooses, whatever He will. They, the idolaters, do not have the choice, the right to choose anything. Glory be to God and exalted be He above what they associate, [above] their idolatry.

28:69

وَرَبُّكَ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُكِنُّ صُدُورُهُمْ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Warabbuka yaAAlamu ma tukinnu sudooruhumwama yuAAlinoon

Translation

And your Lord knows what their breasts conceal and what they declare.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And your Lord knows what their breasts conceal, [what] their hearts keep secret of disbelief and otherwise, and what they proclaim, by their tongues of such things.

28:70

وَهُوَ اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي الْأُولَىٰ وَالْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَلَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

Pronunciation

Wahuwa Allahu la ilahailla huwa lahu alhamdu fee al-oola wal-akhiratiwalahu alhukmu wa-ilayhi turjaAAoon

Translation

And He is Allah; there is no deity except Him. To Him is [due all] praise in the first [life] and the Hereafter. And His is the [final] decision, and to Him you will be returned.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And He is God; there is no god except Him. To Him belongs [all] praise in the former, namely, the life of this world, and in the latter, Paradise. And to Him belongs the judgement, the decree effective in [the case of] all things, and to Him you will be returned, through resurrection.

28:71

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِن جَعَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمُ اللَّيْلَ سَرْمَدًا إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مَنْ إِلَٰهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَأْتِيكُم بِضِيَاءٍ ۖ أَفَلَا تَسْمَعُونَ

Pronunciation

Qul araaytum in jaAAala AllahuAAalaykumu allayla sarmadan ila yawmi alqiyamatiman ilahun ghayru Allahi ya/teekum bidiya-inafala tasmaAAoon

Translation

Say, “Have you considered: if Allah should make for you the night continuous until the Day of Resurrection, what deity other than Allah could bring you light? Then will you not hear?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say, to the people of Mecca: ‘Have you considered, in other words, inform Me: if God were to make the night everlasting over you until the Day of Resurrection, what god other than God, as you [are wont to] claim, could bring you light?, daylight [hours] during which you could earn [a living]. Will you not then listen?’, to this in a way so as to understand it and so repent of your idolatry.

28:72

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِن جَعَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمُ النَّهَارَ سَرْمَدًا إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ مَنْ إِلَٰهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ يَأْتِيكُم بِلَيْلٍ تَسْكُنُونَ فِيهِ ۖ أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُونَ

Pronunciation

Qul araaytum in jaAAala AllahuAAalaykumu annahara sarmadan ila yawmialqiyamati man ilahun ghayru Allahiya/teekum bilaylin taskunoona feehi afala tubsiroon

Translation

Say, “Have you considered: if Allah should make for you the day continuous until the Day of Resurrection, what deity other than Allah could bring you a night in which you may rest? Then will you not see?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say, to them: ‘Have you considered, if God were to make the day everlasting over you until the Day of Resurrection, what god other than God, as you [are wont to] claim, could bring you night wherein you rest?, from [any] weariness. Will you not then see?, the error you are upon when you ascribe partners [to God], and so repent of it.

28:73

وَمِن رَّحْمَتِهِ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لِتَسْكُنُوا فِيهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِهِ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Pronunciation

Wamin rahmatihi jaAAala lakumuallayla wannahara litaskunoo feehi walitabtaghoomin fadlihi walaAAallakum tashkuroon

Translation

And out of His mercy He made for you the night and the day that you may rest therein and [by day] seek from His bounty and [that] perhaps you will be grateful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And of His mercy, exalted be He, He has made for you night and day, that you may rest therein, in the night, and that you may seek, in the day, of His bounty, to earn [your livelihood], that perhaps you might give thanks’, for the grace [of God] during both of these [times].

28:74

وَيَوْمَ يُنَادِيهِمْ فَيَقُولُ أَيْنَ شُرَكَائِيَ الَّذِينَ كُنتُمْ تَزْعُمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wayawma yunadeehim fayaqoolu aynashuraka-iya allatheena kuntum tazAAumoon

Translation

And [warn of] the Day He will call them and say, “Where are my ‘partners’ which you used to claim?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, the day when He will call to them and say, ‘Where [now] are My associates those whom you used to claim?’ — this is mentioned again in order to expound upon it:

28:75

وَنَزَعْنَا مِن كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ شَهِيدًا فَقُلْنَا هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ فَعَلِمُوا أَنَّ الْحَقَّ لِلَّهِ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ

Pronunciation

WanazaAAna min kulli ommatinshaheedan faqulna hatoo burhanakumfaAAalimoo anna alhaqqa lillahi wadallaAAanhum ma kanoo yaftaroon

Translation

And We will extract from every nation a witness and say, “Produce your proof,” and they will know that the truth belongs to Allah , and lost from them is that which they used to invent.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We shall draw, bring forth, from every community a witness, and this will be their prophet, who will bear witness against what they say, and We shall say, to them: ‘Produce your evidence’, for [the justification of] the idolatry which you asserted. Then they will know that the right, to divineness, is God’s — none share it with Him. And that which they used to invent, in this world, of His having an associate, exalted be He [high] above such [associations], will fail them.

28:76

إِنَّ قَارُونَ كَانَ مِن قَوْمِ مُوسَىٰ فَبَغَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ وَآتَيْنَاهُ مِنَ الْكُنُوزِ مَا إِنَّ مَفَاتِحَهُ لَتَنُوءُ بِالْعُصْبَةِ أُولِي الْقُوَّةِ إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ قَوْمُهُ لَا تَفْرَحْ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَرِحِينَ

Pronunciation

Inna qaroona kana min qawmimoosa fabagha AAalayhim waataynahumina alkunoozi ma inna mafatihahu latanoo-obilAAusbati olee alquwwati ith qalalahu qawmuhu la tafrah inna Allaha layuhibbu alfariheen

Translation

Indeed, Qarun was from the people of Moses, but he tyrannized them. And We gave him of treasures whose keys would burden a band of strong men; thereupon his people said to him, “Do not exult. Indeed, Allah does not like the exultant.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed Korah belonged to the people of Moses — [being] his paternal and maternal cousin, and he had believed in him [in Moses] — but he became insolent towards them, through [his] disdain, haughtiness and great wealth. For We had given him so many treasures that [the number of] their keys would verily have burdened a group of strong men, in other words, they would have been too heavy for such [men] (the bā’ of [bi’l-‘usbati, ‘a group’] is to render transitive [the intransitive] verb); the number of such [men required] is estimated to be 70, 40 or 10; other estimates are also given. Mention, when his people, the believers among the Children of Israel, said to him, ‘Do not be exultant, in [your] great wealth, an exultation of insolence; truly God does not love the exultant, in such [things];

28:77

وَابْتَغِ فِيمَا آتَاكَ اللَّهُ الدَّارَ الْآخِرَةَ ۖ وَلَا تَنسَ نَصِيبَكَ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَأَحْسِن كَمَا أَحْسَنَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْكَ ۖ وَلَا تَبْغِ الْفَسَادَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُفْسِدِينَ

Pronunciation

Wabtaghi feema atakaAllahu addara al-akhirata walatansa naseebaka mina addunya waahsinkama ahsana Allahu ilayka wala tabghialfasada fee al-ardi inna Allaha layuhibbu almufsideen

Translation

But seek, through that which Allah has given you, the home of the Hereafter; and [yet], do not forget your share of the world. And do good as Allah has done good to you. And desire not corruption in the land. Indeed, Allah does not like corrupters.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

but seek, in that which God has given you, of wealth, the Abode of the Hereafter, by expending it in obedience to God, and do not forget your share of this world, that is, [do not forget] to strive in it for the sake of the Hereafter; and be good, to people, by [giving] voluntary alms, just as God has been good to you. And do not seek to cause corruption in the earth, by committing acts of disobedience. Surely God does not love the agents of corruption’, meaning that He will punish them.

28:78

قَالَ إِنَّمَا أُوتِيتُهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ عِندِي ۚ أَوَلَمْ يَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَهْلَكَ مِن قَبْلِهِ مِنَ الْقُرُونِ مَنْ هُوَ أَشَدُّ مِنْهُ قُوَّةً وَأَكْثَرُ جَمْعًا ۚ وَلَا يُسْأَلُ عَن ذُنُوبِهِمُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ

Pronunciation

Qala innama ooteetuhu AAalaAAilmin AAindee awa lam yaAAlam anna Allaha qad ahlaka minqablihi mina alqurooni man huwa ashaddu minhu quwwatan waaktharujamAAan wala yus-alu AAan thunoobihimu almujrimoon

Translation

He said, “I was only given it because of knowledge I have.” Did he not know that Allah had destroyed before him of generations those who were greater than him in power and greater in accumulation [of wealth]? But the criminals, about their sins, will not be asked.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘In fact I have been given it, that is, [this] wealth, because of knowledge I possess’, in other words, in return for it — he was the most knowledgeable of the Children of Israel in the Torah, after Moses and Aaron. God, exalted be He, says: Does he not know that God had already destroyed before him generations, communities, of men stronger than him in might and greater in the amassing?, of wealth; in other words, he does know this. And God destroys them, and the guilty will not be questioned about their sins, because of God’s knowledge of these [sins], and so they will be admitted into the Fire without a reckoning.

28:79

فَخَرَجَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ فِي زِينَتِهِ ۖ قَالَ الَّذِينَ يُرِيدُونَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا يَا لَيْتَ لَنَا مِثْلَ مَا أُوتِيَ قَارُونُ إِنَّهُ لَذُو حَظٍّ عَظِيمٍ

Pronunciation

Fakharaja AAala qawmihi fee zeenatihiqala allatheena yureedoona alhayata addunyaya layta lana mithla ma ootiya qaroonuinnahu lathoo haththin AAatheem

Translation

So he came out before his people in his adornment. Those who desired the worldly life said, “Oh, would that we had like what was given to Qarun. Indeed, he is one of great fortune.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So he, Korah, emerged before his people in his finery, with his large retinue [all of them] in procession dressed in gold and silk garments and mounted on adorned horses and mules. Those who desired the life of this world said, ‘O (yā is for drawing attention) would that we had the like of what Korah has been given, this world. Truly he enjoys great fortune’, abundant [fortune] in it.

28:80

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ وَيْلَكُمْ ثَوَابُ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنْ آمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا وَلَا يُلَقَّاهَا إِلَّا الصَّابِرُونَ

Pronunciation

Waqala allatheena ootooalAAilma waylakum thawabu Allahi khayrun liman amanawaAAamila salihan wala yulaqqahailla assabiroon

Translation

But those who had been given knowledge said, “Woe to you! The reward of Allah is better for he who believes and does righteousness. And none are granted it except the patient.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But those to whom knowledge had been given, [knowledge] of what God had promised in the Hereafter, said, to them: ‘Woe to you! (waylakum, is an expression of reprimand) God’s reward, of Paradise in the Hereafter, is better for him who believes and acts righteously, than what Korah has been given in this world; and none will obtain it, namely, the Paradise that is given as a reward, except those who are steadfast’, in [their adherence to] obedience and [refrain] from disobedience.

28:81

فَخَسَفْنَا بِهِ وَبِدَارِهِ الْأَرْضَ فَمَا كَانَ لَهُ مِن فِئَةٍ يَنصُرُونَهُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُنتَصِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Fakhasafna bihi wabidarihial-arda fama kana lahu min fi-atin yansuroonahumin dooni Allahi wama kana mina almuntasireen

Translation

And We caused the earth to swallow him and his home. And there was for him no company to aid him other than Allah , nor was he of those who [could] defend themselves.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So We caused the earth to swallow him, Korah, and his dwelling, and he had no host to help him besides God, that is, other than Him, to protect him from destruction, nor was he of those who can rescue themselves, from it.

28:82

وَأَصْبَحَ الَّذِينَ تَمَنَّوْا مَكَانَهُ بِالْأَمْسِ يَقُولُونَ وَيْكَأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ وَيَقْدِرُ ۖ لَوْلَا أَن مَّنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْنَا لَخَسَفَ بِنَا ۖ وَيْكَأَنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الْكَافِرُونَ

Pronunciation

Waasbaha allatheenatamannaw makanahu bil-amsi yaqooloona waykaannaAllaha yabsutu arrizqa liman yashaomin AAibadihi wayaqdiru lawla an manna AllahuAAalayna lakhasafa bina waykaannahu la yuflihualkafiroon

Translation

And those who had wished for his position the previous day began to say, “Oh, how Allah extends provision to whom He wills of His servants and restricts it! If not that Allah had conferred favor on us, He would have caused it to swallow us. Oh, how the disbelievers do not succeed!”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those who had longed to be in his place the day before, that is, only recently, were saying, ‘Alas! God expands provision for whomever He will of His servants and straitens [it], He restricts it for whomever He will (way-ka’anna: way is a noun of action, with the sense of ‘How astonished I am’, while the kāf functions as a [causative] lām, ‘because’). Had God not been gracious to us, He would have made us to be swallowed too’ (read active la-khasafa, or passive la-khusifa). Lo! indeed those who are ungrateful, for God’s grace, such as Korah, never prosper.

28:83

تِلْكَ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ نَجْعَلُهَا لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُرِيدُونَ عُلُوًّا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فَسَادًا ۚ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

Pronunciation

Tilka addaru al-akhiratunajAAaluha lillatheena la yureedoonaAAuluwwan fee al-ardi wala fasadan walAAaqibatulilmuttaqeen

Translation

That home of the Hereafter We assign to those who do not desire exaltedness upon the earth or corruption. And the [best] outcome is for the righteous.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

That is the Abode of the Hereafter, namely, Paradise, which We shall grant to those who do not desire to be haughty in the earth, through insolence, nor [to cause] corruption, by committing acts of disobedience. And the, praiseworthy, sequel will be for those who fear, God’s punishment, by performing deeds of obedience.

28:84

مَن جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ خَيْرٌ مِّنْهَا ۖ وَمَن جَاءَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ فَلَا يُجْزَى الَّذِينَ عَمِلُوا السَّيِّئَاتِ إِلَّا مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

Pronunciation

Man jaa bilhasanatifalahu khayrun minha waman jaa bissayyi-atifala yujza allatheena AAamiloo assayyi-atiilla ma kanoo yaAAmaloon

Translation

Whoever comes [on the Day of Judgement] with a good deed will have better than it; and whoever comes with an evil deed – then those who did evil deeds will not be recompensed except [as much as] what they used to do.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Whoever brings a good deed shall have better than it, as a reward, because of it, and this will be the like of it tenfold; while whoever brings an evil deed, those who commit evil deeds shall only be requited, the requital, for what they used to do, in other words, [only] the like of it.

28:85

إِنَّ الَّذِي فَرَضَ عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لَرَادُّكَ إِلَىٰ مَعَادٍ ۚ قُل رَّبِّي أَعْلَمُ مَن جَاءَ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَمَنْ هُوَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

Pronunciation

Inna allathee farada AAalaykaalqur-ana laradduka ila maAAadin qulrabbee aAAlamu man jaa bilhuda waman huwafee dalalin mubeen

Translation

Indeed, [O Muhammad], He who imposed upon you the Qur’an will take you back to a place of return. Say, “My Lord is most knowing of who brings guidance and who is in clear error.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed He Who has prescribed for you the Qur’ān, [He Who] has revealed it, will surely restore you to a place of return, to Mecca — he had yearned for it. Say: ‘My Lord knows best him who brings guidance and him who is in manifest error’ — this was revealed in order to refute what the Meccan disbelievers had said to him: ‘Indeed, you are error’. In other words [God is saying that] he [the Prophet] is the one who has brought guidance, while they are the ones in error.

28:86

وَمَا كُنتَ تَرْجُو أَن يُلْقَىٰ إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابُ إِلَّا رَحْمَةً مِّن رَّبِّكَ ۖ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ ظَهِيرًا لِّلْكَافِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Wama kunta tarjoo an yulqailayka alkitabu illa rahmatan min rabbikafala takoonanna thaheeran lilkafireen

Translation

And you were not expecting that the Book would be conveyed to you, but [it is] a mercy from your Lord. So do not be an assistant to the disbelievers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And you never expected that the Scripture, the Qur’ān, would be conferred on you; but it was, conferred on you, as a mercy from your Lord. So never be a supporter of the disbelievers, in that religion of theirs to which they summon you.

28:87

وَلَا يَصُدُّنَّكَ عَنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ بَعْدَ إِذْ أُنزِلَتْ إِلَيْكَ ۖ وَادْعُ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ ۖ وَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Pronunciation

Wala yasuddunnaka AAan ayatiAllahi baAAda ith onzilat ilayka wadAAu ilarabbika wala takoonanna mina almushrikeen

Translation

And never let them avert you from the verses of Allah after they have been revealed to you. And invite [people] to your Lord. And never be of those who associate others with Allah.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And never let them bar you (yasuddunnaka is actually yasuddūnannaka, but the nūn of the indicative [ending] has been omitted because of the apocopating particle [lā], as has the wāw of the [third person plural] subject of the verb because of its coming together with an unvocalised nūn) from God’s signs after they have been revealed to you, in other words, do not consult with them in such [matters], and summon, people, to your Lord, by affirming His Oneness and worshipping Him, and never be of the idolaters, by supporting them (lā takūnanna: the apocopating particle does not affect the [ending of the] verb here because of its invariability).

28:88

وَلَا تَدْعُ مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلَٰهًا آخَرَ ۘ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ هَالِكٌ إِلَّا وَجْهَهُ ۚ لَهُ الْحُكْمُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

Pronunciation

Wala tadAAu maAAa Allahi ilahanakhara la ilaha illa huwa kullushay-in halikun illa wajhahu lahu alhukmuwa-ilayhi turjaAAoon

Translation

And do not invoke with Allah another deity. There is no deity except Him. Everything will be destroyed except His Face. His is the judgement, and to Him you will be returned.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And do not call on, [do not] worship, another god with God; there is no god except Him. Everything will perish except His Countenance, except Him. His is the judgement, the effective decree, and to Him you will be brought back, by being raised from the grave.

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