Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 20.Surat Ţāhā (Ta-Ha) – سورة طه

Surat Ţāhā (Ta-Ha) - سورة طه

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

20:1

طه

Pronunciation

Ta-ha

Translation

Ta, Ha.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Tā hā: God knows best what He means by these [letters].

20:2

مَا أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ لِتَشْقَىٰ

Pronunciation

Ma anzalna AAalayka alqur-analitashqa

Translation

We have not sent down to you the Qur’an that you be distressed

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

We have not revealed the Qur’ān to you, O Muhammad (s), that you should be miserable, that you should toil because of what you used to do after it was revealed [to you], in the way of long vigils performing night prayers; in other words, so unburden your soul;

20:3

إِلَّا تَذْكِرَةً لِّمَن يَخْشَىٰ

Pronunciation

Illa tathkiratan liman yakhsha

Translation

But only as a reminder for those who fear [Allah]-

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

but, We have revealed it, only to remind, therewith, him who fears, God;

20:4

تَنزِيلًا مِّمَّنْ خَلَقَ الْأَرْضَ وَالسَّمَاوَاتِ الْعُلَى

Pronunciation

Tanzeelan mimman khalaqa al-arda wassamawatialAAula

Translation

A revelation from He who created the earth and highest heavens,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

a revelation (tanzīlan, a substitution, standing in place of the [conjugated] verb [derived] therefrom which renders it [tanzīlan] accusative) from Him Who created the earth and the high heavens (‘ulā, the plural of ‘ulyā, similar [in pattern] to kubrā, kubar, ‘large’);

20:5

الرَّحْمَٰنُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَىٰ

Pronunciation

Arrahmanu AAalaalAAarshi istawa

Translation

The Most Merciful [who is] above the Throne established.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He is, the Compassionate One presided upon the Throne (al-‘arsh, in the [classical Arabic] language denotes a king’s seat) a presiding befitting of Him;

20:6

لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا وَمَا تَحْتَ الثَّرَىٰ

Pronunciation

Lahu ma fee assamawatiwama fee al-ardi wama baynahuma wamatahta aththara

Translation

To Him belongs what is in the heavens and what is on the earth and what is between them and what is under the soil.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

to Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth and whatever is between them, of creatures, and whatever is beneath the soil (al-tharā, is moist earth) meaning [whatever is beneath] the seven earths, since these lie beneath it.

20:7

وَإِن تَجْهَرْ بِالْقَوْلِ فَإِنَّهُ يَعْلَمُ السِّرَّ وَأَخْفَى

Pronunciation

Wa-in tajhar bilqawli fa-innahuyaAAlamu assirra waakhfa

Translation

And if you speak aloud – then indeed, He knows the secret and what is [even] more hidden.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And should you be loud in your speech, in remembrance [of God] or supplication, then God has no need for this to be [spoken] loud, then indeed He knows the secret and [that which is] yet more hidden, than that [secret], namely, that which the soul whispers [to itself] and that which occurs to the mind but which you do not speak of [to anyone], so do not strain yourself to be loud [in your speech].

20:8

اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ

Pronunciation

Allahu la ilaha illahuwa lahu al-asmao alhusna

Translation

Allah – there is no deity except Him. To Him belong the best names.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God — there is no god save Him. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names, the ninety nine [Names], cited in the hadīth (al-husnā is the feminine form of al-ahsan, ‘the best’).

20:9

وَهَلْ أَتَاكَ حَدِيثُ مُوسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Wahal ataka hadeethu moosa

Translation

And has the story of Moses reached you? -

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Has the story of Moses — indeed, it has — come to you?

20:10

إِذْ رَأَىٰ نَارًا فَقَالَ لِأَهْلِهِ امْكُثُوا إِنِّي آنَسْتُ نَارًا لَّعَلِّي آتِيكُم مِّنْهَا بِقَبَسٍ أَوْ أَجِدُ عَلَى النَّارِ هُدًى

Pronunciation

Ith raa naran faqalali-ahlihi omkuthoo innee anastu naran laAAallee ateekumminha biqabasin aw ajidu AAala annarihuda

Translation

When he saw a fire and said to his family, “Stay here; indeed, I have perceived a fire; perhaps I can bring you a torch or find at the fire some guidance.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When he caught sight of a fire and said to his family, namely, to his wife, ‘Wait, here! — this was when he was leaving Midian, heading for Egypt — Indeed I see a fire [in the distance]. Perhaps I [can] bring you a brand from it, [bring you] a burning wick or a torch, or find at the fire some guidance’, that is, someone to guide me by showing me the [proper] route — for he had lost it in the darkness of the night. He [Moses] said, ‘perhaps’ (la‘alla) because he could not be certain of fulfilling his promise.

20:11

فَلَمَّا أَتَاهَا نُودِيَ يَا مُوسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Falamma ataha noodiya yamoosa

Translation

And when he came to it, he was called, “O Moses,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when he reached it — it was a boxthorn — he was called [by name], ‘O Moses!

20:12

إِنِّي أَنَا رَبُّكَ فَاخْلَعْ نَعْلَيْكَ ۖ إِنَّكَ بِالْوَادِ الْمُقَدَّسِ طُوًى

Pronunciation

Innee ana rabbuka fakhlaAAnaAAlayka innaka bilwadi almuqaddasi tuwa

Translation

Indeed, I am your Lord, so remove your sandals. Indeed, you are in the sacred valley of Tuwa.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed (read as innī, if one understands nūdiya, ‘he was called’, as meaning qīla, ‘it was said’; or read it as annī, because of an implied [prefixed] bā’) I am (anā, reiterates the [first person indicator] yā’ [of innī] used by the [direct] speaker) your Lord. So take off your sandals, for lo! you are in the holy, [meaning] either the pure, or the blessed, valley of Tuwā ([this is] either a substitution, or an explicative supplement; read [Tuwan] with nunation or [Tuwā] without: it is [considered] declinable on account of it being a location; but [alternatively considered] indeclinable, if taken as considered a feminine proper noun denoting a place name).

20:13

وَأَنَا اخْتَرْتُكَ فَاسْتَمِعْ لِمَا يُوحَىٰ

Pronunciation

Waana ikhtartuka fastamiAAlima yooha

Translation

And I have chosen you, so listen to what is revealed [to you].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And I [Myself] have chosen you, from among [all of] your people, so listen to what is being revealed, to you from Me.

20:14

إِنَّنِي أَنَا اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدْنِي وَأَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ لِذِكْرِي

Pronunciation

Innanee ana Allahu lailaha illa ana faAAbudnee waaqimi assalatalithikree

Translation

Indeed, I am Allah . There is no deity except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Verily I am God — there is no god except Me. So worship Me and establish prayer for to make remembrance of Me, in it.

20:15

إِنَّ السَّاعَةَ آتِيَةٌ أَكَادُ أُخْفِيهَا لِتُجْزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا تَسْعَىٰ

Pronunciation

Inna assaAAata atiyatunakadu okhfeeha litujza kullu nafsin bimatasAAa

Translation

Indeed, the Hour is coming – I almost conceal it – so that every soul may be recompensed according to that for which it strives.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The Hour is assuredly coming. [But] I will to keep it hidden, from mankind — and its nearness [in time] will manifest itself to them through its signs — so that every soul may be requited, thereupon, for what it strives for, of good or evil.

20:16

فَلَا يَصُدَّنَّكَ عَنْهَا مَن لَّا يُؤْمِنُ بِهَا وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ فَتَرْدَىٰ

Pronunciation

Fala yasuddannaka AAanhaman la yu/minu biha wattabaAAa hawahufatarda

Translation

So do not let one avert you from it who does not believe in it and follows his desire, for you [then] would perish.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So do not let him bar you, distract you, from it, that is, from believing in it, who believes not in it but follows his own whim, in denying [the truth of] it, lest you perish, that is, lest you be ruined if you are barred from [remembering] it.

20:17

وَمَا تِلْكَ بِيَمِينِكَ يَا مُوسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Wama tilka biyameenika ya moosa

Translation

And what is that in your right hand, O Moses?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And what is that, that happens to be, in your right hand, O Moses?’ (the interrogative is meant as an affirmative, [but it is expressed as an interrogative] in order that the miracle [to be manifested] in it be [shown as] consequent upon it).

20:18

قَالَ هِيَ عَصَايَ أَتَوَكَّأُ عَلَيْهَا وَأَهُشُّ بِهَا عَلَىٰ غَنَمِي وَلِيَ فِيهَا مَآرِبُ أُخْرَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala hiya AAasaya atawakkaoAAalayha waahushshu biha AAala ghanameewaliya feeha maaribu okhra

Translation

He said, “It is my staff; I lean upon it, and I bring down leaves for my sheep and I have therein other uses.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘It is my staff. I lean, I support myself, upon it, when I leap [across something] or walk, and I beat down [leaves], I strike the leaves on trees, with it, so that they fall, for my sheep, which then consume them; and I have uses for it (ma’ārib, ‘uses’, is the plural of ma’ruba, with the rā’ taking any [one] of the three vowels [sc. ma’ruba, ma’raba or ma’riba] meaning ‘needs’) in other ways, such as [using it] to carry food supplies and waterskins, as well as to drive away [undesirable] animals. He [Moses] gives an extensive response to indicate his [many] needs for it.

20:19

قَالَ أَلْقِهَا يَا مُوسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala alqiha ya moosa

Translation

[Allah] said, “Throw it down, O Moses.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Cast it down, O Moses!’

20:20

فَأَلْقَاهَا فَإِذَا هِيَ حَيَّةٌ تَسْعَىٰ

Pronunciation

Faalqaha fa-itha hiya hayyatuntasAAa

Translation

So he threw it down, and thereupon it was a snake, moving swiftly.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And he cast it down, and lo! it was a serpent, a giant snake, moving swiftly, moving about on its belly swiftly with the speed of a small snake — which is called al-jānn and which is [also] used to refer to this [serpent] in another verse [Q. 27:10; Q. 28:31].

20:21

قَالَ خُذْهَا وَلَا تَخَفْ ۖ سَنُعِيدُهَا سِيرَتَهَا الْأُولَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala khuthha walatakhaf sanuAAeeduha seerataha al-oola

Translation

[Allah] said, “Seize it and fear not; We will return it to its former condition.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Take [hold of] it and do not fear, it. We will restore it to its former state (sīratahā, in the accusative because the genitive-operating preposition has been removed). And so he placed his hand in its mouth and it became a staff once again; and it became clear that the place into which he put his hand was the place where it [the staff] is held, between its two prongs. Moses was shown this [miracle] lest he be terrified when it turns into a snake in the presence of Pharaoh.

20:22

وَاضْمُمْ يَدَكَ إِلَىٰ جَنَاحِكَ تَخْرُجْ بَيْضَاءَ مِنْ غَيْرِ سُوءٍ آيَةً أُخْرَىٰ

Pronunciation

Wadmum yadaka ila janahikatakhruj baydaa min ghayri soo-in ayatan okhra

Translation

And draw in your hand to your side; it will come out white without disease – another sign,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And thrust your hand, the right one, meaning, the palm, into your flank — that is, your left side, below the arm into the armpit, and [then] take it out — it will emerge white, in contrast to the skin-colour that it was, without any fault, that is, [without any sign of] leprosy, radiating like the rays of the sun, blinding to the eyes [of onlookers]. [That is] yet another sign (āyatan ukhrā: this together with baydā’a, ‘white’, constitute two circumstantial qualifiers referring to the subject of [the verb] takhruj, ‘it will emerge’).

20:23

لِنُرِيَكَ مِنْ آيَاتِنَا الْكُبْرَى

Pronunciation

Linuriyaka min ayatinaalkubra

Translation

That We may show you [some] of Our greater signs.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

That We may show you, thereby, when you do this [as described above] in order to manifest it, of Our greatest signs, the sign that is the greatest proof of [the truth of] your Mission [from God]: and should he want it to be restored to its former state, he would thrust it into his armpit, as has been mentioned, and [then] bring it out.

20:24

اذْهَبْ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّهُ طَغَىٰ

Pronunciation

Ithhab ila firAAawna innahu tagha

Translation

Go to Pharaoh. Indeed, he has transgressed.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Go, as a messenger [from God], to Pharaoh, and [to] those with him. He has indeed transgressed’, he has exceeded the [usual] limits in his disbelief by claiming to be a god.

20:25

قَالَ رَبِّ اشْرَحْ لِي صَدْرِي

Pronunciation

Qala rabbi ishrah lee sadree

Translation

[Moses] said, “My Lord, expand for me my breast [with assurance]

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘My Lord, expand my breast for me, expand it so that it may accommodate the [weight of the Divine] Message.

20:26

وَيَسِّرْ لِي أَمْرِي

Pronunciation

Wayassir lee amree

Translation

And ease for me my task

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And make easy, facilitate, for me my affair, that I may deliver it.

20:27

وَاحْلُلْ عُقْدَةً مِّن لِّسَانِي

Pronunciation

Wahlul AAuqdatan min lisanee

Translation

And untie the knot from my tongue

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And undo the knot upon my tongue — the result of his having been burnt by a live coal which he had placed [accidentally] in his mouth as a child;

20:28

يَفْقَهُوا قَوْلِي

Pronunciation

Yafqahoo qawlee

Translation

That they may understand my speech.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

so that they may understand what I [shall] say, when I am delivering the Message.

20:29

وَاجْعَل لِّي وَزِيرًا مِّنْ أَهْلِي

Pronunciation

WajAAal lee wazeeran min ahlee

Translation

And appoint for me a minister from my family -

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And appoint for me a minister, an assistant for that [task], from my family,

20:30

هَارُونَ أَخِي

Pronunciation

Haroona akhee

Translation

Aaron, my brother.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Aaron (Hārūna, constitutes the second object), my brother (akhī, an explicative supplement).

20:31

اشْدُدْ بِهِ أَزْرِي

Pronunciation

Oshdud bihi azree

Translation

Increase through him my strength

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Confirm through him my strength, my courage;

20:32

وَأَشْرِكْهُ فِي أَمْرِي

Pronunciation

Waashrik-hu fee amree

Translation

And let him share my task

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and let him share in my affair, namely, in [the delivery of] the Message (both verbs [ushdud, ‘confirm’, and ashrikhu, ‘let him share’] are in the imperative and in the apocopated imperfect tense, constituting the response to the request [of Moses]).

20:33

كَيْ نُسَبِّحَكَ كَثِيرًا

Pronunciation

Kay nusabbihaka katheera

Translation

That we may exalt You much

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So that we may glorify You, [by making] glorifications, over and over again,

20:34

وَنَذْكُرَكَ كَثِيرًا

Pronunciation

Wanathkuraka katheera

Translation

And remember You much.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and remember You, [by making] remembrance, over and over again.

20:35

إِنَّكَ كُنتَ بِنَا بَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Innaka kunta bina baseera

Translation

Indeed, You are of us ever Seeing.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed You are ever Seeing of us’, ever Knowing, having been gracious [to us] by way of [appointing us to deliver] the Message.

20:36

قَالَ قَدْ أُوتِيتَ سُؤْلَكَ يَا مُوسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala qad ooteeta su/laka yamoosa

Translation

[Allah] said, “You have been granted your request, O Moses.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘You have been granted your request, O Moses!, as a favour [from Us] to you.

20:37

وَلَقَدْ مَنَنَّا عَلَيْكَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَىٰ

Pronunciation

Walaqad mananna AAalayka marratanokhra

Translation

And We had already conferred favor upon you another time,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And certainly, We have done you a favour [already] another time,

20:38

إِذْ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمِّكَ مَا يُوحَىٰ

Pronunciation

Ith awhayna ilaommika ma yooha

Translation

When We inspired to your mother what We inspired,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

when (idh, for explanation [of that favour]) We revealed to your mother, either in [her] sleep or by way of inspiration — when she gave birth to you and feared that Pharaoh would have you slain for being one of the newborn [of the Children of Israel] — that which was revealed, regarding your affair (this [mā yūhā, ‘that which was revealed’] is substituted by [what follows, an iqdhifīhi …]),

20:39

أَنِ اقْذِفِيهِ فِي التَّابُوتِ فَاقْذِفِيهِ فِي الْيَمِّ فَلْيُلْقِهِ الْيَمُّ بِالسَّاحِلِ يَأْخُذْهُ عَدُوٌّ لِّي وَعَدُوٌّ لَّهُ ۚ وَأَلْقَيْتُ عَلَيْكَ مَحَبَّةً مِّنِّي وَلِتُصْنَعَ عَلَىٰ عَيْنِي

Pronunciation

Ani iqthifeehi fee attabootifaqthifeehi fee alyammi falyulqihi alyammu bissahiliya/khuthhu AAaduwwun lee waAAaduwwun lahu waalqaytuAAalayka mahabbatan minnee walitusnaAAa AAalaAAaynee

Translation

[Saying], ‘Cast him into the chest and cast it into the river, and the river will throw it onto the bank; there will take him an enemy to Me and an enemy to him.’ And I bestowed upon you love from Me that you would be brought up under My eye.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

“Cast him, place him, in the ark, then cast him, [while] in the ark, into the river, [into] the flow of the Nile, and then the river shall throw him up onto the shore, that is, its bank (the imperative here [fa’l-yulqihi, ‘let it throw him’] functions as a predicate); [there] an enemy of Mine and an enemy of his, namely, Pharaoh, shall take him”. And, after he took you, I cast upon you love from Me, that you may be loved by people; and indeed Pharaoh, and all who saw you, loved you; and that you might be reared under My eyes, be nurtured under My guardianship and My protection of you.

20:40

إِذْ تَمْشِي أُخْتُكَ فَتَقُولُ هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَىٰ مَن يَكْفُلُهُ ۖ فَرَجَعْنَاكَ إِلَىٰ أُمِّكَ كَيْ تَقَرَّ عَيْنُهَا وَلَا تَحْزَنَ ۚ وَقَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا فَنَجَّيْنَاكَ مِنَ الْغَمِّ وَفَتَنَّاكَ فُتُونًا ۚ فَلَبِثْتَ سِنِينَ فِي أَهْلِ مَدْيَنَ ثُمَّ جِئْتَ عَلَىٰ قَدَرٍ يَا مُوسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Ith tamshee okhtuka fataqoolu haladullukum AAala man yakfuluhu farajaAAnaka ilaommika kay taqarra AAaynuha wala tahzanawaqatalta nafsan fanajjaynaka mina alghammi wafatannakafutoonan falabithta sineena fee ahli madyana thumma ji/ta AAalaqadarin ya moosa

Translation

[And We favored you] when your sister went and said, ‘Shall I direct you to someone who will be responsible for him?’ So We restored you to your mother that she might be content and not grieve. And you killed someone, but We saved you from retaliation and tried you with a [severe] trial. And you remained [some] years among the people of Madyan. Then you came [here] at the decreed time, O Moses.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When (idh, for explanation) your sister, Maryam, walked up, to obtain news of you, for they had brought wet nurses [for you] but you would not take to the breast of any of them, and she then said, “Shall I show you someone who will take care of him?”. Her offer was accepted and so she brought [them] his mother and he took to her breasts. Thus We restored you to your mother that her eyes might rejoice, in seeing you again, and not grieve, at that point [anymore]. Then you slew a soul, namely, the Copt in Egypt — and you became distressed for having slain him because of [how] Pharaoh [would react]; whereupon We delivered you from [great] distress, and We tried you with various ordeals, We tested you by landing you in some other [ordeal] and [again] delivered you from it. Then you stayed for several years, ten [years], among the people of Midian, after you had reached it having left Egypt, [staying] with the prophet Shu‘ayb and marrying his daughter. Then you came [hither] as ordained, in My knowledge, with the Message [that you will deliver] — and this was when you were forty years old, O Moses!

20:41

وَاصْطَنَعْتُكَ لِنَفْسِي

Pronunciation

WastanaAAtuka linafsee

Translation

And I produced you for Myself.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And I chose you for Myself, to deliver the Message.

20:42

اذْهَبْ أَنتَ وَأَخُوكَ بِآيَاتِي وَلَا تَنِيَا فِي ذِكْرِي

Pronunciation

Ithhab anta waakhooka bi-ayateewala taniya fee thikree

Translation

Go, you and your brother, with My signs and do not slacken in My remembrance.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Go, you and your brother, to the people, with My, nine, signs, and do not flag, be remiss, in remembrance of Me, by uttering glorifications and otherwise.

20:43

اذْهَبَا إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّهُ طَغَىٰ

Pronunciation

Ithhaba ila firAAawnainnahu tagha

Translation

Go, both of you, to Pharaoh. Indeed, he has transgressed.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Go the two of you to Pharaoh. Truly he has transgressed [the bounds], in claiming to be the Lord.

20:44

فَقُولَا لَهُ قَوْلًا لَّيِّنًا لَّعَلَّهُ يَتَذَكَّرُ أَوْ يَخْشَىٰ

Pronunciation

Faqoola lahu qawlan layyinanlaAAallahu yatathakkaru aw yakhsha

Translation

And speak to him with gentle speech that perhaps he may be reminded or fear [ Allah ].”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And speak to him gentle words, for him to renounce such [claims], that perhaps he may be mindful, be admonished, or fear’, God and so repent — the ‘hope’ [for Pharaoh’s repentance] is [expressed] from their perspective, for God knows that he was not going to repent.

20:45

قَالَا رَبَّنَا إِنَّنَا نَخَافُ أَن يَفْرُطَ عَلَيْنَا أَوْ أَن يَطْغَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala rabbana innananakhafu an yafruta AAalayna aw an yatgha

Translation

They said, “Our Lord, indeed we are afraid that he will hasten [punishment] against us or that he will transgress.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The two [of them] said, ‘Our Lord, We truly fear that he may forestall us, that is, by hastening to punish us, or become tyrannical’, against us, that is, be high-handed [with us].

20:46

قَالَ لَا تَخَافَا ۖ إِنَّنِي مَعَكُمَا أَسْمَعُ وَأَرَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala la takhafainnanee maAAakuma asmaAAu waara

Translation

[Allah] said, “Fear not. Indeed, I am with you both; I hear and I see.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Do not fear, for I shall be with the two of you, by [providing you with] My assistance, hearing, what he says, and seeing, what he does.

20:47

فَأْتِيَاهُ فَقُولَا إِنَّا رَسُولَا رَبِّكَ فَأَرْسِلْ مَعَنَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وَلَا تُعَذِّبْهُمْ ۖ قَدْ جِئْنَاكَ بِآيَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكَ ۖ وَالسَّلَامُ عَلَىٰ مَنِ اتَّبَعَ الْهُدَىٰ

Pronunciation

Fa/tiyahu faqoola innarasoola rabbika faarsil maAAana banee isra-eelawala tuAAaththibhum qad ji/naka bi-ayatinmin rabbika wassalamu AAala mani ittabaAAaalhuda

Translation

So go to him and say, ‘Indeed, we are messengers of your Lord, so send with us the Children of Israel and do not torment them. We have come to you with a sign from your Lord. And peace will be upon he who follows the guidance.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So go to him and say, “Truly we are two messengers of your Lord, so let the Children of Israel go with us, to Syria, and do not [continue to] chastise them, in other words, release them from your exploitation of them in those oppressive works of yours, such as digging, construction and the lifting of heavy objects. We have verily brought you a sign, a definitive argument, from your Lord, as proof of our truthfulness in [delivering] the Message; and may peace be upon him who follows [right] guidance, that is to say, may he be secure from [God’s] chastisement.

20:48

إِنَّا قَدْ أُوحِيَ إِلَيْنَا أَنَّ الْعَذَابَ عَلَىٰ مَن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّىٰ

Pronunciation

Inna qad oohiya ilaynaanna alAAathaba AAala man kaththaba watawalla

Translation

Indeed, it has been revealed to us that the punishment will be upon whoever denies and turns away.’ “

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed it has been revealed to us that the chastisement shall befall him who denies, [the truth of] what we have brought, and turns away” ’, [and who] rejects it. And so they came to him and said [to him] all of what has been mentioned.

20:49

قَالَ فَمَن رَّبُّكُمَا يَا مُوسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala faman rabbukuma yamoosa

Translation

[Pharaoh] said, “So who is the Lord of you two, O Moses?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘So who is your Lord, O Moses?’ — he [Pharaoh] restricted this [question] to him [Moses], because [between him and Aaron] he is the principal [bearer of God’s Message] and also because of his [Pharaoh’s] having pampered him while he was being reared [as a child].

20:50

قَالَ رَبُّنَا الَّذِي أَعْطَىٰ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلْقَهُ ثُمَّ هَدَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala rabbuna allatheeaAAta kulla shay-in khalqahu thumma hada

Translation

He said, “Our Lord is He who gave each thing its form and then guided [it].”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Our Lord is He Who gave to everything, in creation, its [peculiar] nature, through which it is distinguished from another [thing], and then guided [it]’, the animal among them to its source of food, drink and procreation and in other ways.

20:51

قَالَ فَمَا بَالُ الْقُرُونِ الْأُولَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala fama balualqurooni al-oola

Translation

[Pharaoh] said, “Then what is the case of the former generations?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He, Pharaoh, said, ‘So what of, the status [of], the generations, the communities, of old?’, such as the people of Noah, Hūd, Lot and Sālih, with regard to their having worshipped graven images.

20:52

قَالَ عِلْمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّي فِي كِتَابٍ ۖ لَّا يَضِلُّ رَبِّي وَلَا يَنسَى

Pronunciation

Qala AAilmuha AAinda rabbeefee kitabin la yadillu rabbee walayansa

Translation

[Moses] said, “The knowledge thereof is with my Lord in a record. My Lord neither errs nor forgets.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Said he, Moses, ‘The knowledge thereof, that is, the knowledge of their [otherworldly] status, is, preserved, with my Lord, in a Book, namely, the Preserved Tablet (al-lawh al-mahfūz), and He shall requite them in accordance with it on the Day of Resurrection. My Lord does not err, He is [never] absent from anything, nor does He, my Lord, forget, anything.

20:53

الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ مَهْدًا وَسَلَكَ لَكُمْ فِيهَا سُبُلًا وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِ أَزْوَاجًا مِّن نَّبَاتٍ شَتَّىٰ

Pronunciation

Allathee jaAAala lakumu al-ardamahdan wasalaka lakum feeha subulan waanzala mina assama-imaan faakhrajna bihi azwajan min nabatinshatta

Translation

[It is He] who has made for you the earth as a bed [spread out] and inserted therein for you roadways and sent down from the sky, rain and produced thereby categories of various plants.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He is, the One Who made for you, as well as [for] all creatures, the earth a cradle, a bed, and threaded, facilitated, for you therein ways, roads, and sent down from the heaven water, rain. God, exalted be He, says, as a complement to Moses’s description of Him and as an address to the people of Mecca: and therewith We brought forth various kinds, species, of plants (shattā, ‘various’, adjectivally qualifies azwājan, ‘kinds’), in other words, [plants] of different colours, flavours and [different] in other ways (shattā is the plural of shatīt, similar [in pattern] to marīd, [plural] mardā, as [may be used] in [a phrase like] shatta al-amr, ‘the affair has become divided’).

20:54

كُلُوا وَارْعَوْا أَنْعَامَكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّأُولِي النُّهَىٰ

Pronunciation

Kuloo warAAaw anAAamakum innafee thalika laayatin li-olee annuha

Translation

Eat [therefrom] and pasture your livestock. Indeed, in that are signs for those of intelligence.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Eat, thereof, and pasture your cattle, therein (an‘ām, ‘cattle’, is the plural of na‘am, which are camels, cows and sheep; one says ra‘atu’l-an‘āmu, ‘the cattle grazed’ or ra‘aytuhā, ‘I grazed them’; the imperative here is meant as a permissive and a reminder of [God’s] grace, the sentence being a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of [the verb] akhrajnā, ‘We brought forth’, in other words [what is meant is], ‘[We brought forth the plants] permitting you to eat thereof and to graze [your] cattle [thereon]’). In that, which is mentioned here, there are indeed signs, indeed lessons, for people of sense, possessors of intellect (al-nuhā, the plural of nuhya, similar [in pattern] to ghurfa, [plural] ghuraf. The intellect is called by this [term, nuhya] because it shows a person the sense to refrain from committing vile deeds).

20:55

مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَىٰ

Pronunciation

Minha khalaqnakum wafeehanuAAeedukum waminha nukhrijukum taratan okhra

Translation

From the earth We created you, and into it We will return you, and from it We will extract you another time.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

From it, that is, from the earth, We created you, by creating your father Adam from it, and into it We shall restore you, [when you are] interred after death, and from it We shall bring you forth, at the Resurrection, a second time’, in the same way that We brought you forth [from it] when We initiated your creation.

20:56

وَلَقَدْ أَرَيْنَاهُ آيَاتِنَا كُلَّهَا فَكَذَّبَ وَأَبَىٰ

Pronunciation

Walaqad araynahu ayatinakullaha fakaththaba waaba

Translation

And We certainly showed Pharaoh Our signs – all of them – but he denied and refused.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily We showed him, that is, We made Pharaoh see, all Our signs, [all] nine, but he denied, them, and claimed that they were [the result of] sorcery, and refused, to affirm the Oneness [of God], exalted be He.

20:57

قَالَ أَجِئْتَنَا لِتُخْرِجَنَا مِنْ أَرْضِنَا بِسِحْرِكَ يَا مُوسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala aji/tana litukhrijanamin ardina bisihrika ya moosa

Translation

He said, “Have you come to us to drive us out of our land with your magic, O Moses?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Have you come to us so that you may expel us from our land, Egypt, and so that kingship over it may be yours, by your sorcery, O Moses?

20:58

فَلَنَأْتِيَنَّكَ بِسِحْرٍ مِّثْلِهِ فَاجْعَلْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكَ مَوْعِدًا لَّا نُخْلِفُهُ نَحْنُ وَلَا أَنتَ مَكَانًا سُوًى

Pronunciation

Falana/tiyannaka bisihrin mithlihi fajAAalbaynana wabaynaka mawAAidan la nukhlifuhu nahnuwala anta makanan suwa

Translation

Then we will surely bring you magic like it, so make between us and you an appointment, which we will not fail to keep and neither will you, in a place assigned.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Yet We [too] shall produce for you a sorcery like it, [one] which will counter it. So fix a tryst between us and you, for that [purpose], [a tryst] which neither we nor you shall fail to keep, [at] a place (makānan is in the accusative because the genitive-operator preposition [fī, ‘at’] has been removed) of equal distance (read siwān or suwān), in other words, in the middle, equidistant for a person coming from either side.

20:59

قَالَ مَوْعِدُكُمْ يَوْمُ الزِّينَةِ وَأَن يُحْشَرَ النَّاسُ ضُحًى

Pronunciation

Qala mawAAidukum yawmu azzeenatiwaan yuhshara annasu duha

Translation

[Moses] said, “Your appointment is on the day of the festival when the people assemble at mid-morning.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Said he, Moses, ‘Your tryst shall be the Day of Adornment — a festive day of theirs on which they adorn themselves and [the public] assemble — and let the people assemble, [let] the inhabitants of Egypt gather, at forenoon’, the time for this [tryst], to observe what will transpire.

20:60

فَتَوَلَّىٰ فِرْعَوْنُ فَجَمَعَ كَيْدَهُ ثُمَّ أَتَىٰ

Pronunciation

Fatawalla firAAawnu fajamaAAa kaydahuthumma ata

Translation

So Pharaoh went away, put together his plan, and then came [to Moses].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then Pharaoh withdrew, retreated, and summoned up his guile, that is to say, those [human] elements of his guile from among the sorcerers, and then came, with them to the tryst.

20:61

قَالَ لَهُم مُّوسَىٰ وَيْلَكُمْ لَا تَفْتَرُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا فَيُسْحِتَكُم بِعَذَابٍ ۖ وَقَدْ خَابَ مَنِ افْتَرَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala lahum moosa waylakum lataftaroo AAala Allahi kathiban fayushitakumbiAAathabin waqad khaba mani iftara

Translation

Moses said to the magicians summoned by Pharaoh, “Woe to you! Do not invent a lie against Allah or He will exterminate you with a punishment; and he has failed who invents [such falsehood].”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Moses said to them — and there were 72 of them, each with a rope and a staff in his hand — ‘Woe to you!, meaning, may God make you liable to woe. Do not invent a lie against God, by ascribing partners to Him, lest He annihilate you (read fa-yushitakum or fa-yashatakum) by some chastisement, from Him. For verily he who invents lies, against God, fails’, [he] is the loser.

20:62

فَتَنَازَعُوا أَمْرَهُم بَيْنَهُمْ وَأَسَرُّوا النَّجْوَىٰ

Pronunciation

FatanazaAAoo amrahum baynahumwaasarroo annajwa

Translation

So they disputed over their affair among themselves and concealed their private conversation.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So they disputed their matter among themselves, regarding Moses and his brother, and kept secret their private counsel, that is, their conversation regarding the two,

20:63

قَالُوا إِنْ هَٰذَانِ لَسَاحِرَانِ يُرِيدَانِ أَن يُخْرِجَاكُم مِّنْ أَرْضِكُم بِسِحْرِهِمَا وَيَذْهَبَا بِطَرِيقَتِكُمُ الْمُثْلَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qaloo in hathani lasahiraniyureedani an yukhrijakum min ardikum bisihrihimawayathhaba bitareeqatikumu almuthla

Translation

They said, “Indeed, these are two magicians who want to drive you out of your land with their magic and do away with your most exemplary way.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They said, to each other, ‘These two men (hādhān, this [form] concords with the forms used by those [grammarians] who use the alif [ending] for all three cases of the dual person; Abū ‘Amr has [the variant reading] hādhayn) are indeed sorcerers who intend to expel you from your land by their sorcery, and do away with your excellent traditions (muthlā, the feminine form of amthal, meaning ‘the noblest’) in other words, [they will do away with the loyalty of] the noblemen among you, because these [latter] will prefer the two of them [Moses and Aaron] on account of their triumph.

20:64

فَأَجْمِعُوا كَيْدَكُمْ ثُمَّ ائْتُوا صَفًّا ۚ وَقَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْيَوْمَ مَنِ اسْتَعْلَىٰ

Pronunciation

FaajmiAAoo kaydakum thumma i/too saffanwaqad aflaha alyawma mani istaAAla

Translation

So resolve upon your plan and then come [forward] in line. And he has succeeded today who overcomes.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So summon up your guile, in the way of sorcery (read fa’jma‘ū, from [the first form] jama‘a, meaning ‘he gathered’, or read fa-ajmi‘ū, from [the fourth form] ajma‘a, meaning ‘he resolved [to do something]’) and come in battle-line (saffan, a circumstantial qualifier, meaning ‘standing in rows’). For truly he who is uppermost, [he who] triumphs, this day shall be the victor!’

20:65

قَالُوا يَا مُوسَىٰ إِمَّا أَن تُلْقِيَ وَإِمَّا أَن نَّكُونَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ أَلْقَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qaloo ya moosa immaan tulqiya wa-imma an nakoona awwala man alqa

Translation

They said, “O Moses, either you throw or we will be the first to throw.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They said, ‘O Moses, you choose: either cast, your staff first, or we shall be the first to cast’, their staff.

20:66

قَالَ بَلْ أَلْقُوا ۖ فَإِذَا حِبَالُهُمْ وَعِصِيُّهُمْ يُخَيَّلُ إِلَيْهِ مِن سِحْرِهِمْ أَنَّهَا تَسْعَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala bal alqoo fa-itha hibaluhumwaAAisiyyuhum yukhayyalu ilayhi min sihrihim annahatasAAa

Translation

He said, “Rather, you throw.” And suddenly their ropes and staffs seemed to him from their magic that they were moving [like snakes].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Nay, you cast!’, and so they cast, and lo! their ropes and their staffs (‘isiyyihim: derives from ‘isūwwun, but the two wāw [letters] have been changed into two yā’ [letters], with the kasra vowelling applied to both the ‘ayn and the sād) appeared to him by [the effect of] their sorcery as though they were, snakes, gliding swiftly, on their bellies.

20:67

فَأَوْجَسَ فِي نَفْسِهِ خِيفَةً مُّوسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Faawjasa fee nafsihi kheefatan moosa

Translation

And he sensed within himself apprehension, did Moses.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And Moses sensed fear within himself, that is to say, he feared that if [the effect of] their sorcery was of the same kind as his miracle, he would become suspect in people’s minds and they would not believe in him.

20:68

قُلْنَا لَا تَخَفْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْأَعْلَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qulna la takhaf innaka antaal-aAAla

Translation

Allah said, “Fear not. Indeed, it is you who are superior.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

We said, to him, ‘Do not be afraid! Indeed you shall have the upper hand, over them by triumphing.

20:69

وَأَلْقِ مَا فِي يَمِينِكَ تَلْقَفْ مَا صَنَعُوا ۖ إِنَّمَا صَنَعُوا كَيْدُ سَاحِرٍ ۖ وَلَا يُفْلِحُ السَّاحِرُ حَيْثُ أَتَىٰ

Pronunciation

Waalqi ma fee yameenika talqaf masanaAAoo innama sanaAAoo kaydu sahirinwala yuflihu assahiru haythuata

Translation

And throw what is in your right hand; it will swallow up what they have crafted. What they have crafted is but the trick of a magician, and the magician will not succeed wherever he is.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And cast that which is in your right hand — and this was his staff. It shall swallow up that which they have produced. For what they have produced is only a sorcerer’s trick, that is to say, a kind thereof, and the sorcerer does not succeed wherever he may go’, in his sorcery. So Moses cast his staff and it swallowed up all of that which they [had] produced.

20:70

فَأُلْقِيَ السَّحَرَةُ سُجَّدًا قَالُوا آمَنَّا بِرَبِّ هَارُونَ وَمُوسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Faolqiya assaharatu sujjadanqaloo amanna birabbi haroona wamoosa

Translation

So the magicians fell down in prostration. They said, “We have believed in the Lord of Aaron and Moses.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thereat the sorcerers cast [their heads] down prostrating, they fell down prostrating to God, exalted be He: They said, ‘We [now] believe in the Lord of Aaron and Moses’.

20:71

قَالَ آمَنتُمْ لَهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ آذَنَ لَكُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَكَبِيرُكُمُ الَّذِي عَلَّمَكُمُ السِّحْرَ ۖ فَلَأُقَطِّعَنَّ أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُم مِّنْ خِلَافٍ وَلَأُصَلِّبَنَّكُمْ فِي جُذُوعِ النَّخْلِ وَلَتَعْلَمُنَّ أَيُّنَا أَشَدُّ عَذَابًا وَأَبْقَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala amantum lahu qabla an athanalakum innahu lakabeerukumu allathee AAallamakumu assihrafalaoqattiAAanna aydiyakum waarjulakum min khilafinwalaosallibannakum fee juthooAAi annakhliwalataAAlamunna ayyuna ashaddu AAathaban waabqa

Translation

[Pharaoh] said, “You believed him before I gave you permission. Indeed, he is your leader who has taught you magic. So I will surely cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, and I will crucify you on the trunks of palm trees, and you will surely know which of us is more severe in [giving] punishment and more enduring.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Said he, Pharaoh, ‘Do you profess belief (read a-āmantum pronouncing both hamzas, or with the second changed to an alif) in him before I, myself, give you permission? He is indeed your chief, your teacher, who taught you sorcery. I shall assuredly cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides (min khilāfin, a circumstantial qualifier meaning ‘alternate [hands and feet]’, in other words, the right hands and the left feet) and I shall assuredly crucify you on the trunks of palm trees. And you shall then know which of us — meaning himself and the Lord of Moses — is harsher in [inflicting] chastisement, and [which of us is] more lasting’, more enduring in [sustaining] opposition to him [Moses].

20:72

قَالُوا لَن نُّؤْثِرَكَ عَلَىٰ مَا جَاءَنَا مِنَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالَّذِي فَطَرَنَا ۖ فَاقْضِ مَا أَنتَ قَاضٍ ۖ إِنَّمَا تَقْضِي هَٰذِهِ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا

Pronunciation

Qaloo lan nu/thiraka AAala majaana mina albayyinati wallatheefatarana faqdi ma anta qadininnama taqdee hathihi alhayataaddunya

Translation

They said, “Never will we prefer you over what has come to us of clear proofs and [over] He who created us. So decree whatever you are to decree. You can only decree for this worldly life.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They said, ‘We will not choose you over what has come to us of clear signs, proving the truthfulness of Moses, and [over] Him Who originated us, created us (wa’lladhī fatarana, either an oath, or a supplement to [the preceding] mā, ‘what’). Decree what you will decree, that is, do what you say. What you decree is only [relevant] in the life of this world (al-hayāta’l-dunyā, is in the accusative because the scope [of his decree] is being indicated, in other words ‘[you can only decree] in it’); yet you will be requited for it in the Hereafter.

20:73

إِنَّا آمَنَّا بِرَبِّنَا لِيَغْفِرَ لَنَا خَطَايَانَا وَمَا أَكْرَهْتَنَا عَلَيْهِ مِنَ السِّحْرِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَىٰ

Pronunciation

Inna amanna birabbinaliyaghfira lana khatayana wamaakrahtana AAalayhi mina assihri wallahukhayrun waabqa

Translation

Indeed, we have believed in our Lord that He may forgive us our sins and what you compelled us [to do] of magic. And Allah is better and more enduring.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed We profess belief in our Lord, that He may forgive us our sins, in the way of ascribing partners [to God] and otherwise, and the sorcery to which you forced us, to learn and to perform in order to oppose Moses. And God is better, than you in rewarding if he is obeyed, and more enduring’, than you in chastisement if he is disobeyed.

20:74

إِنَّهُ مَن يَأْتِ رَبَّهُ مُجْرِمًا فَإِنَّ لَهُ جَهَنَّمَ لَا يَمُوتُ فِيهَا وَلَا يَحْيَىٰ

Pronunciation

Innahu man ya/ti rabbahu mujriman fa-innalahu jahannama la yamootu feeha wala yahya

Translation

Indeed, whoever comes to his Lord as a criminal – indeed, for him is Hell; he will neither die therein nor live.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God, exalted be He, says: Truly whoever comes to his Lord a criminal, a disbeliever, like Pharaoh, for him there shall be Hell wherein he shall neither die, and thus find rest, nor live, a life of any benefit to him.

20:75

وَمَن يَأْتِهِ مُؤْمِنًا قَدْ عَمِلَ الصَّالِحَاتِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمُ الدَّرَجَاتُ الْعُلَىٰ

Pronunciation

Waman ya/tihi mu/minan qad AAamila assalihatifaola-ika lahumu addarajatu alAAula

Translation

But whoever comes to Him as a believer having done righteous deeds – for those will be the highest degrees [in position]:

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And whoever comes to Him a believer, having performed righteous deeds — the obligatory and supererogatory deeds, for such shall be the highest degrees (al-‘ulā, the plural of ‘ulyā, the feminine form of a‘lā) —

20:76

جَنَّاتُ عَدْنٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ مَن تَزَكَّىٰ

Pronunciation

Jannatu AAadnin tajree min tahtihaal-anharu khalideena feeha wathalikajazao man tazakka

Translation

Gardens of perpetual residence beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally. And that is the reward of one who purifies himself.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

the Gardens of Eden, that is to say, as a [place of] residence (this [jannātu ‘Adnin, ‘Gardens of Eden’] is an explication thereof [of al-darajātu’l-‘ulā, ‘the highest degrees’]) underneath which rivers flow, abiding therein, and that is the reward of him who keeps pure, of sins.

20:77

وَلَقَدْ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ مُوسَىٰ أَنْ أَسْرِ بِعِبَادِي فَاضْرِبْ لَهُمْ طَرِيقًا فِي الْبَحْرِ يَبَسًا لَّا تَخَافُ دَرَكًا وَلَا تَخْشَىٰ

Pronunciation

Walaqad awhayna ilamoosa an asri biAAibadee fadriblahum tareeqan fee albahri yabasan la takhafudarakan wala takhsha

Translation

And We had inspired to Moses, “Travel by night with My servants and strike for them a dry path through the sea; you will not fear being overtaken [by Pharaoh] nor be afraid [of drowning].”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily We revealed to Moses, [saying], ‘Lead My servants on a journey by night (read as an asri, ‘that: lead on a journey by night’, from [fourth form] asrā, ‘he travelled by night’; or read as an’isri, from [first form] sarā, ‘he travelled by night’, both being alternative forms), in other words, travel with them by night from the land of Egypt, and strike for them, make for them, by striking your staff, a dry path in the sea. So he fulfilled what he had been commanded, and God made the ground dry so that they were able to pass through it. Do not fear to be overtaken, that is, [fearing] that Pharaoh might catch you, and do not be afraid’, of drowning.

20:78

فَأَتْبَعَهُمْ فِرْعَوْنُ بِجُنُودِهِ فَغَشِيَهُم مِّنَ الْيَمِّ مَا غَشِيَهُمْ

Pronunciation

FaatbaAAahum firAAawnu bijunoodihifaghashiyahum mina alyammi ma ghashiyahum

Translation

So Pharaoh pursued them with his soldiers, and there covered them from the sea that which covered them,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then Pharaoh pursued them with his hosts, with him [Pharaoh] alongside them, and there engulfed them what did engulf them of the sea, and it drowned them.

20:79

وَأَضَلَّ فِرْعَوْنُ قَوْمَهُ وَمَا هَدَىٰ

Pronunciation

Waadalla firAAawnu qawmahu wamahada

Translation

And Pharaoh led his people astray and did not guide [them].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And Pharaoh led his people astray, by calling them to worship him, and he did not guide them, nay he led them to destruction, in contrast to what he said [to them], and I guide you only to the path of rectitude [Q. 40:29].

20:80

يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ قَدْ أَنجَيْنَاكُم مِّنْ عَدُوِّكُمْ وَوَاعَدْنَاكُمْ جَانِبَ الطُّورِ الْأَيْمَنَ وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَىٰ

Pronunciation

Ya banee isra-eela qad anjaynakummin AAaduwwikum wawaAAadnakum janiba attoorial-aymana wanazzalna AAalaykumu almanna wassalwa

Translation

O Children of Israel, We delivered you from your enemy, and We made an appointment with you at the right side of the mount, and We sent down to you manna and quails,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O Children of Israel, truly We delivered you from your enemy, Pharaoh, by drowning him, and We made a tryst with you on the right side of the [Tūr] Mount, in order to give Moses the Torah, that it may be implemented it [by you], and We sent down to you manna and quails, namely, turunjabīn [citrus fruit] and the quail. The ones being addressed in the vocative [by ‘O Children of Israel’] are those Jews living at the time of the Prophet (s), and they are addressed with reference to the graces which God bestowed on their forefathers at the time of the prophet Moses as a preface to what God [now] says to them:

20:81

كُلُوا مِن طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ وَلَا تَطْغَوْا فِيهِ فَيَحِلَّ عَلَيْكُمْ غَضَبِي ۖ وَمَن يَحْلِلْ عَلَيْهِ غَضَبِي فَقَدْ هَوَىٰ

Pronunciation

Kuloo min tayyibati marazaqnakum wala tatghaw feehi fayahillaAAalaykum ghadabee waman yahlil AAalayhi ghadabeefaqad hawa

Translation

[Saying], “Eat from the good things with which We have provided you and do not transgress [or oppress others] therein, lest My anger should descend upon you. And he upon whom My anger descends has certainly fallen.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

‘Eat of the good things We have provided you, that is to say, of that which has been bestowed on you as a grace [from God], but do not transgress regarding it, by being ungrateful for the grace thereof, lest My wrath descend on you ([if read] fa-yahilla, it means ‘[lest] it [My wrath] become incumbent [upon you]’; or [if read] fa-yuhilla, it means ‘[lest] it descend [on you]’). And he on whom My wrath descends (read yahlil, ‘becomes incumbent’, or yahlul, ‘descends’) certainly perishes, falls into the Fire.

20:82

وَإِنِّي لَغَفَّارٌ لِّمَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا ثُمَّ اهْتَدَىٰ

Pronunciation

Wa-innee laghaffarun liman tabawaamana waAAamila salihan thumma ihtada

Translation

But indeed, I am the Perpetual Forgiver of whoever repents and believes and does righteousness and then continues in guidance.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And indeed I am Forgiving toward him who repents, from ascribing partners [to God], and believes, affirms God’s Oneness, and acts righteously, is sincere in [performing] the obligatory and the supererogatory [deeds], and then follows guidance’, by adhering to what has been mentioned up to his death.

20:83

وَمَا أَعْجَلَكَ عَن قَوْمِكَ يَا مُوسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Wama aAAjalaka AAan qawmika yamoosa

Translation

[ Allah ] said, “And what made you hasten from your people, O Moses?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

‘And what has hurried you [to depart] from your people, in order to come to the appointed time to receive the Torah, O Moses?’

20:84

قَالَ هُمْ أُولَاءِ عَلَىٰ أَثَرِي وَعَجِلْتُ إِلَيْكَ رَبِّ لِتَرْضَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala hum ola-i AAalaatharee waAAajiltu ilayka rabbi litarda

Translation

He said, “They are close upon my tracks, and I hastened to You, my Lord, that You be pleased.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘They are close, behind me, coming, upon my track, and I hastened to You, my Lord, that You may be pleased’, with me, in other words, to please you [even] more — before [giving] the response, he gives an excuse, according to what he supposed [was the situation with his people],

20:85

قَالَ فَإِنَّا قَدْ فَتَنَّا قَوْمَكَ مِن بَعْدِكَ وَأَضَلَّهُمُ السَّامِرِيُّ

Pronunciation

Qala fa-inna qad fatannaqawmaka min baAAdika waadallahumu assamiriy

Translation

[ Allah ] said, “But indeed, We have tried your people after you [departed], and the Samiri has led them astray.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But those he supposed [to be following him] had remained behind, for He, exalted be He, said, ‘Indeed We tried your people after you, that is, after your departure from them, and the Samaritan led them astray’, so they took to worshipping the [golden] calf.

20:86

فَرَجَعَ مُوسَىٰ إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ غَضْبَانَ أَسِفًا ۚ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ أَلَمْ يَعِدْكُمْ رَبُّكُمْ وَعْدًا حَسَنًا ۚ أَفَطَالَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْعَهْدُ أَمْ أَرَدتُّمْ أَن يَحِلَّ عَلَيْكُمْ غَضَبٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُم مَّوْعِدِي

Pronunciation

FarajaAAa moosa ila qawmihighadbana asifan qala ya qawmi alamyaAAidkum rabbukum waAAdan hasanan afatalaAAalaykumu alAAahdu am aradtum an yahilla AAalaykum ghadabunmin rabbikum faakhlaftum mawAAidee

Translation

So Moses returned to his people, angry and grieved. He said, “O my people, did your Lord not make you a good promise? Then, was the time [of its fulfillment] too long for you, or did you wish that wrath from your Lord descend upon you, so you broke your promise [of obedience] to me?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thereupon Moses returned to his people, angry, with them, and sad, extremely grieved. He said, ‘O my people, did not your Lord promise you a fair promise?, that is, a true [promise] that He will give you the Torah? Did the period, the length of my absence from you, seem too long for you, or did you desire that wrath should become incumbent against you from your Lord, by your worship of the [golden] calf, and so you broke your tryst with me?’, and failed to follow after me?

20:87

قَالُوا مَا أَخْلَفْنَا مَوْعِدَكَ بِمَلْكِنَا وَلَٰكِنَّا حُمِّلْنَا أَوْزَارًا مِّن زِينَةِ الْقَوْمِ فَقَذَفْنَاهَا فَكَذَٰلِكَ أَلْقَى السَّامِرِيُّ

Pronunciation

Qaloo ma akhlafnamawAAidaka bimalkina walakinna hummilnaawzaran min zeenati alqawmi faqathafnahafakathalika alqa assamiriy

Translation

They said, “We did not break our promise to you by our will, but we were made to carry burdens from the ornaments of the people [of Pharaoh], so we threw them [into the fire], and thus did the Samiri throw.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They said, ‘We did not break our tryst with you of our own accord (read the mīm with any of the three vowellings, meaning ‘by our own power’ or ‘of our own will’), but we were laden with (read hamalnā, ‘we carried’, or hummilnā, ‘we were made to carry’) the burdens, the weight, of the people’s ornaments, of the trinkets of Pharaoh’s folk — which the Children of Israel had borrowed from them on the pretext of [using them for] a wedding, but which had remained with them — and we cast them, we threw them into the fire at the command of the Samaritan, and so, just as We cast, did the Samaritan cast, what he had on him of their trinkets together with the dust that he took from the track left by the hoof of Gabriel’s steed, as follows:

20:88

فَأَخْرَجَ لَهُمْ عِجْلًا جَسَدًا لَّهُ خُوَارٌ فَقَالُوا هَٰذَا إِلَٰهُكُمْ وَإِلَٰهُ مُوسَىٰ فَنَسِيَ

Pronunciation

Faakhraja lahum AAijlan jasadan lahu khuwarunfaqaloo hatha ilahukum wa-ilahu moosafanasiy

Translation

And he extracted for them [the statue of] a calf which had a lowing sound, and they said, “This is your god and the god of Moses, but he forgot.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then he produced for them a calf, which he fashioned from the [melted] trinkets — a [mere] body, of flesh and blood, with a low, in other words, [it made] a sound that was audible; it was transformed into such [a state] because of the dust [from Gabriel’s steed] the effect of which is [to create] life in whatever thing it is placed. After he had fashioned it, he placed it [the dust] in its mouth. And they, namely, the Samaritan and his followers, said, ‘This is your God and the God of Moses: so he, Moses, forgot’, his Lord here and set off in search of him. God, exalted be He, says:

20:89

أَفَلَا يَرَوْنَ أَلَّا يَرْجِعُ إِلَيْهِمْ قَوْلًا وَلَا يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ ضَرًّا وَلَا نَفْعًا

Pronunciation

Afala yarawna alla yarjiAAuilayhim qawlan wala yamliku lahum darran walanafAAa

Translation

Did they not see that it could not return to them any speech and that it did not possess for them any harm or benefit?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Did they not see that ([in allā] an has been softened in place of the hardened form, with its subject omitted, in other words [it should be] annahu) it, the Calf, did not reciprocate their words, that is, that it did not give them any response in return, nor did it have any power over hurt for them, that is, [any power] to prevent it, or any benefit?, that is, [any power] to procure it [for them], in other words, how can such [a thing] be taken as a god?

20:90

وَلَقَدْ قَالَ لَهُمْ هَارُونُ مِن قَبْلُ يَا قَوْمِ إِنَّمَا فُتِنتُم بِهِ ۖ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ الرَّحْمَٰنُ فَاتَّبِعُونِي وَأَطِيعُوا أَمْرِي

Pronunciation

Walaqad qala lahum haroonu minqablu ya qawmi innama futintum bihi wa-innarabbakumu arrahmanu fattabiAAooneewaateeAAoo amree

Translation

And Aaron had already told them before [the return of Moses], “O my people, you are only being tested by it, and indeed, your Lord is the Most Merciful, so follow me and obey my order.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And Aaron had certainly said to them beforehand, that is, before the return of Moses, ‘O my people, you are only being tested thereby! But truly your Lord is the Compassionate One, so follow me, in worship of Him, and obey my command’, therein.

20:91

قَالُوا لَن نَّبْرَحَ عَلَيْهِ عَاكِفِينَ حَتَّىٰ يَرْجِعَ إِلَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qaloo lan nabraha AAalayhi AAakifeenahatta yarjiAAa ilayna moosa

Translation

They said, “We will never cease being devoted to the calf until Moses returns to us.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They said, ‘We will not cease to cling to it, persisting in worship of it, until Moses returns to us’.

20:92

قَالَ يَا هَارُونُ مَا مَنَعَكَ إِذْ رَأَيْتَهُمْ ضَلُّوا

Pronunciation

Qala ya haroonu mamanaAAaka ith raaytahum dalloo

Translation

[Moses] said, “O Aaron, what prevented you, when you saw them going astray,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He, Moses, said, upon his return, ‘O Aaron, what held you back when you saw them going astray, by worshipping it,

20:93

أَلَّا تَتَّبِعَنِ ۖ أَفَعَصَيْتَ أَمْرِي

Pronunciation

Alla tattabiAAani afaAAasaytaamree

Translation

From following me? Then have you disobeyed my order?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

that ([allā] read an [instead], the lā being extra) you did not follow me? Did you then disobey my command?’, by remaining among those who worship [something] other than God, exalted be He?

20:94

قَالَ يَا ابْنَ أُمَّ لَا تَأْخُذْ بِلِحْيَتِي وَلَا بِرَأْسِي ۖ إِنِّي خَشِيتُ أَن تَقُولَ فَرَّقْتَ بَيْنَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وَلَمْ تَرْقُبْ قَوْلِي

Pronunciation

Qala yabnaomma la ta/khuthbilihyatee wala bira/see innee khasheetu an taqoolafarraqta bayna banee isra-eela walam tarqub qawlee

Translation

[Aaron] said, “O son of my mother, do not seize [me] by my beard or by my head. Indeed, I feared that you would say, ‘You caused division among the Children of Israel, and you did not observe [or await] my word.’ “

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He, Aaron, said, ‘O son of my mother (read ya’bna’ummi or ya’bna’umma, meaning ummī, ‘my mother’) the mention of her is more effective in provoking the affection of his heart — do not clutch my beard, which he had seized with his left hand, or my head!, for he had seized his hair with his right hand in anger. Indeed I feared that, if I followed you, for inevitably a group of those who did not worship the calf would have followed me, you would have said, “You have caused division among the Children of Israel — and have been furious with me — and you did not wait for my word”’, concerning what my opinion would have been in this matter.

20:95

قَالَ فَمَا خَطْبُكَ يَا سَامِرِيُّ

Pronunciation

Qala fama khatbuka yasamiriy

Translation

[Moses] said, “And what is your case, O Samiri?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘And what have you to say, what was the motive for [doing] what you did, O Samaritan?’

20:96

قَالَ بَصُرْتُ بِمَا لَمْ يَبْصُرُوا بِهِ فَقَبَضْتُ قَبْضَةً مِّنْ أَثَرِ الرَّسُولِ فَنَبَذْتُهَا وَكَذَٰلِكَ سَوَّلَتْ لِي نَفْسِي

Pronunciation

Qala basurtu bima lamyabsuroo bihi faqabadtu qabdatan min athariarrasooli fanabathtuha wakathalikasawwalat lee nafsee

Translation

He said, “I saw what they did not see, so I took a handful [of dust] from the track of the messenger and threw it, and thus did my soul entice me.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘I perceived what they did not perceive (read [either as third person plural] yabsurū or [as second person plural] tabsurū ‘[what] you [did not] perceive’), in other words, I realised what they did not realise, so I seized a handful, of dust, from the track of, [from] the hoof of the steed of, the messenger, Gabriel, and threw it [in], I cast it onto the figure of the calf that had been fashioned. Thus my soul prompted, [thus] it adorned for, me’ and it was cast into me [the idea] that I seize a handful of the dust from that mentioned [hoof] and cast it onto what possessed no spirit, so that it might [thus] acquire a spirit. I had seen that your people had asked that you make for them a god, and so my soul suggested to me [the idea] that this calf should be their god.

20:97

قَالَ فَاذْهَبْ فَإِنَّ لَكَ فِي الْحَيَاةِ أَن تَقُولَ لَا مِسَاسَ ۖ وَإِنَّ لَكَ مَوْعِدًا لَّن تُخْلَفَهُ ۖ وَانظُرْ إِلَىٰ إِلَٰهِكَ الَّذِي ظَلْتَ عَلَيْهِ عَاكِفًا ۖ لَّنُحَرِّقَنَّهُ ثُمَّ لَنَنسِفَنَّهُ فِي الْيَمِّ نَسْفًا

Pronunciation

Qala fathhab fa-innalaka fee alhayati an taqoola la misasawa-inna laka mawAAidan lan tukhlafahu wanthurila ilahika allathee thaltaAAalayhi AAakifan lanuharriqannahu thummalanansifannahu fee alyammi nasfa

Translation

[Moses] said, “Then go. And indeed, it is [decreed] for you in [this] life to say, ‘No contact.’ And indeed, you have an appointment [in the Hereafter] you will not fail to keep. And look at your ‘god’ to which you remained devoted. We will surely burn it and blow it into the sea with a blast.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Said he, Moses to him, ‘Begone! It shall be yours [as your lot] throughout life, that is, for the duration of your life, to say, to whomever you may see, “Do not touch [me]!”, that is, do not come near me — he used to wander about [aimlessly] throughout the land, and whenever he touched a person, or a person touched him, both would succumb to a fever. And indeed there will be a tryst for you, for you to be chastised, which you will not fail to keep (read lan tukhlifahu, meaning ‘[a tryst] which you shall not miss’; or lan tukhlafahu, ‘for which you will not be forgotten’, meaning: ‘nay you will be sent forth to [keep] it’). Now look at your god to whom you remained clinging! (zalta is actually zalilta, but the first lām has been omitted in order to soften it), that is to say, [you remained] by his [your god’s] side, worshipping him. We will surely burn it, in fire, and then scatter [the ashes of] it into the waters, we will disperse it into the winds of the sea; and, after having slaughtered it, Moses did [exactly] that which he has mentioned.

20:98

إِنَّمَا إِلَٰهُكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ وَسِعَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا

Pronunciation

Innama ilahukumu Allahuallathee la ilaha illa huwa wasiAAakulla shay-in AAilma

Translation

Your god is only Allah , except for whom there is no deity. He has encompassed all things in knowledge.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed your God is the One God, than whom there is no other god. He embraces all things in [His] knowledge’ (‘ilman, a specification derived from the subject of the verb, in other words, it means ‘His knowledge embraces all things’).

20:99

كَذَٰلِكَ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ مِنْ أَنبَاءِ مَا قَدْ سَبَقَ ۚ وَقَدْ آتَيْنَاكَ مِن لَّدُنَّا ذِكْرًا

Pronunciation

Kathalika naqussu AAalayka minanba-i ma qad sabaqa waqad ataynakamin ladunna thikra

Translation

Thus, [O Muhammad], We relate to you from the news of what has preceded. And We have certainly given you from Us the Qur’an.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thus, just as We have related to you O Muhammad (s) this story, We relate to you some stories, [some] accounts, of what is past, of communities, and We have given you from Ourselves a Reminder, a Qur’ān.

20:100

مَّنْ أَعْرَضَ عَنْهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَحْمِلُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وِزْرًا

Pronunciation

Man aAArada AAanhu fa-innahu yahmiluyawma alqiyamati wizra

Translation

Whoever turns away from it – then indeed, he will bear on the Day of Resurrection a burden,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Whoever turns away from it, and does not believe in it, he shall indeed, on the Day of Resurrection, bear a burden, a heavy load of sin;

20:101

خَالِدِينَ فِيهِ ۖ وَسَاءَ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ حِمْلًا

Pronunciation

Khalideena feehi wasaa lahumyawma alqiyamati himla

Translation

[Abiding] eternally therein, and evil it is for them on the Day of Resurrection as a load -

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

therein, that is, in the chastisement for [such] sin, abiding. And evil for them on the Day of Resurrection is that burden! (himlan, a specification qualifying the person of [the verb] sā’a, ‘evil’; the subject of derision, the implied wizruhum, ‘their sin’, has been omitted; the lām [of lahum] is explicative and substitutes for yawma’l-qiyāma, ‘the Day of Resurrection).

20:102

يَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِي الصُّورِ ۚ وَنَحْشُرُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ يَوْمَئِذٍ زُرْقًا

Pronunciation

Yawma yunfakhu fee assooriwanahshuru almujrimeena yawma-ithin zurqa

Translation

The Day the Horn will be blown. And We will gather the criminals, that Day, blue-eyed.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The day the Trumpet is blown, the Horn, the Second Blast, and We shall assemble the criminals, the disbelievers, on that day bruised, in the eye along with their faces blackened.

20:103

يَتَخَافَتُونَ بَيْنَهُمْ إِن لَّبِثْتُمْ إِلَّا عَشْرًا

Pronunciation

Yatakhafatoona baynahum in labithtumilla AAashra

Translation

They will murmur among themselves, “You remained not but ten [days in the world].”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They will whisper to one another, speaking secretly amongst themselves: ‘You have tarried, in this world, only ten nights’, with the [full ten] days.

20:104

نَّحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ إِذْ يَقُولُ أَمْثَلُهُمْ طَرِيقَةً إِن لَّبِثْتُمْ إِلَّا يَوْمًا

Pronunciation

Nahnu aAAlamu bima yaqooloonaith yaqoolu amthaluhum tareeqatan in labithtum illayawma

Translation

We are most knowing of what they say when the best of them in manner will say, “You remained not but one day.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

We know very well what they will say, regarding this matter — that is, it is not as they say — when the justest, the most upright, of them in the way, in this, will say, ‘You have tarried only a day’: they will deem their stay in this world as having been very brief, on account of the terrors they will witness in the Hereafter.

20:105

وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْجِبَالِ فَقُلْ يَنسِفُهَا رَبِّي نَسْفًا

Pronunciation

Wayas-aloonaka AAani aljibali faqulyansifuha rabbee nasfa

Translation

And they ask you about the mountains, so say, “My Lord will blow them away with a blast.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They will question you concerning the mountains, how will they be on the Day of Resurrection? Say, to them: ‘My Lord will scatter them as ashes, by pulverising them into moving sand and dispersing them with the wind;

20:106

فَيَذَرُهَا قَاعًا صَفْصَفًا

Pronunciation

Fayatharuha qaAAan safsafa

Translation

And He will leave the earth a level plain;

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

then He will leave them a level hollow, a flattened [level] surface,

20:107

لَّا تَرَىٰ فِيهَا عِوَجًا وَلَا أَمْتًا

Pronunciation

La tara feeha AAiwajanwala amta

Translation

You will not see therein a depression or an elevation.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

wherein you will see neither crookedness, [neither] slope, nor any curving’, [nor] any rise.

20:108

يَوْمَئِذٍ يَتَّبِعُونَ الدَّاعِيَ لَا عِوَجَ لَهُ ۖ وَخَشَعَتِ الْأَصْوَاتُ لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ فَلَا تَسْمَعُ إِلَّا هَمْسًا

Pronunciation

Yawma-ithin yattabiAAoona addaAAiyala AAiwaja lahu wakhashaAAati al-aswatu lirrahmanifala tasmaAAu illa hamsa

Translation

That Day, everyone will follow [the call of] the Caller [with] no deviation therefrom, and [all] voices will be stilled before the Most Merciful, so you will not hear except a whisper [of footsteps].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

On that day, that is, on the day the mountains are scattered as ashes, they will follow, that is, mankind [will follow], after rising from their graves, the Summoner, to the Gathering, by [the call of] his voice — this [Summoner] will be [the archangel] Isrāfīl, and he will say: ‘Forward to the parade before God!’ — there will be no deviation therein, that is, in the manner in which they follow [him], in other words, they cannot but follow [him]. Voices will be hushed, will become silent, before the Compassionate One, so that you hear nothing but a faint shuffle, the light tread of feet walking towards the Gathering, similar to the sound of the hoofs of camels as they pass.

20:109

يَوْمَئِذٍ لَّا تَنفَعُ الشَّفَاعَةُ إِلَّا مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وَرَضِيَ لَهُ قَوْلًا

Pronunciation

Yawma-ithin la tanfaAAu ashshafaAAatuilla man athina lahu arrahmanuwaradiya lahu qawla

Translation

That Day, no intercession will benefit except [that of] one to whom the Most Merciful has given permission and has accepted his word.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

On that day intercession will not profit, anyone, except [intercession] from him whom the Compassionate One permits, that he intercede for such [a person], and whose word He approves, that is to say, because such [an intercessor] will say, ‘there is no god but God’ (lā ilāha illā’Llāh).

20:110

يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِ عِلْمًا

Pronunciation

YaAAlamu ma bayna aydeehim wamakhalfahum wala yuheetoona bihi AAilma

Translation

Allah knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, but they do not encompass it in knowledge.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He knows what is before them, of the affairs of the Hereafter, and behind them, of the affairs of this world, and they do not comprehend such [things] in knowledge: they have no knowledge of such [things].

20:111

وَعَنَتِ الْوُجُوهُ لِلْحَيِّ الْقَيُّومِ ۖ وَقَدْ خَابَ مَنْ حَمَلَ ظُلْمًا

Pronunciation

WaAAanati alwujoohu lilhayyialqayyoomi waqad khaba man hamala thulma

Translation

And [all] faces will be humbled before the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of existence. And he will have failed who carries injustice.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And faces shall be humbled, they shall be submissive, before the Living, the Eternal Sustainer, namely, God; and he will certainly have failed, he will have lost, [he] who carries [the burden of] evildoing, that is, [of] idolatry.

20:112

وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحَاتِ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَا يَخَافُ ظُلْمًا وَلَا هَضْمًا

Pronunciation

Waman yaAAmal mina assalihatiwahuwa mu/minun fala yakhafu thulmanwala hadma

Translation

But he who does of righteous deeds while he is a believer – he will neither fear injustice nor deprivation.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But whoever does righteous deeds, acts of obedience, being a believer, shall fear neither wrong, by having his evil deeds increased, nor injustice, by having his good deeds diminished.

20:113

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا وَصَرَّفْنَا فِيهِ مِنَ الْوَعِيدِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ أَوْ يُحْدِثُ لَهُمْ ذِكْرًا

Pronunciation

Wakathalika anzalnahu qur-ananAAarabiyyan wasarrafna feehi mina alwaAAeedilaAAallahum yattaqoona aw yuhdithu lahum thikra

Translation

And thus We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’an and have diversified therein the warnings that perhaps they will avoid [sin] or it would cause them remembrance.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thus (kadhālika, a supplement to [the previous] kadhālika naqussu, ‘thus We relate’ [Q. 20:99]), just as We have revealed what has been mentioned, We have revealed it, that is, the Qur’ān, as an Arabic Qur’ān, and We have distributed, We have repeated, in it [statements] of threats, so that they may fear, associating others with God, or it, the Qur’ān, may arouse in them a remembrance, of the destruction of those communities before, and may thus be admonished.

20:114

فَتَعَالَى اللَّهُ الْمَلِكُ الْحَقُّ ۗ وَلَا تَعْجَلْ بِالْقُرْآنِ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يُقْضَىٰ إِلَيْكَ وَحْيُهُ ۖ وَقُل رَّبِّ زِدْنِي عِلْمًا

Pronunciation

FataAAala Allahualmaliku alhaqqu wala taAAjal bilqur-animin qabli an yuqda ilayka wahyuhu waqul rabbizidnee AAilma

Translation

So high [above all] is Allah , the Sovereign, the Truth. And, [O Muhammad], do not hasten with [recitation of] the Qur’an before its revelation is completed to you, and say, “My Lord, increase me in knowledge.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So exalted be God, the King, the Truth, above what the idolaters say. And do not hasten with the Qur’ān, that is, to recite it, before its revelation is completed for you, [before] Gabriel is through delivering it, and say, ‘My Lord, increase me in knowledge’, that is, [knowledge] of the Qur’ān: thus every time something of it was revealed to him his knowledge increased because of it.

20:115

وَلَقَدْ عَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ آدَمَ مِن قَبْلُ فَنَسِيَ وَلَمْ نَجِدْ لَهُ عَزْمًا

Pronunciation

Walaqad AAahidna ila adamamin qablu fanasiya walam najid lahu AAazma

Translation

And We had already taken a promise from Adam before, but he forgot; and We found not in him determination.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We made a covenant with Adam, We enjoined him not to eat of the tree, before, that is, before he ate of it, but he forgot, he disregarded Our covenant, and We did not find in him any constancy, any resoluteness or patience in [abiding by] what We forbade him from.

20:116

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qulna lilmala-ikatiosjudoo li-adama fasajadoo illa ibleesa aba

Translation

And [mention] when We said to the angels, “Prostrate to Adam,” and they prostrated, except Iblees; he refused.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, when We said to the angels, ‘Prostrate before Adam’; so they prostrated, except Iblīs, who was the father of the jinn — he used to keep company with the angels and worship God alongside them: he refused, to prostrate before Adam, he said: ‘I am better than him’ [Q. 7:12].

20:117

فَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ إِنَّ هَٰذَا عَدُوٌّ لَّكَ وَلِزَوْجِكَ فَلَا يُخْرِجَنَّكُمَا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ فَتَشْقَىٰ

Pronunciation

Faqulna ya adamu innahatha AAaduwwun laka walizawjika falayukhrijannakuma mina aljannati fatashqa

Translation

So We said, “O Adam, indeed this is an enemy to you and to your wife. Then let him not remove you from Paradise so you would suffer.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then We said, ‘Adam, indeed this is an enemy of yours and of your wife, Eve (read Hawwā’). So do not let him cause you both to be expelled from the Garden, so that you then toil, [so that you then] become fatigued by [the toil of] tillage, sowing, harvesting, milling, baking and otherwise — the statement is restricted to [the mention of] his [Adam’s] ‘toil’ because it is the man who has to strive [to provide] for his wife.

20:118

إِنَّ لَكَ أَلَّا تَجُوعَ فِيهَا وَلَا تَعْرَىٰ

Pronunciation

Inna laka alla tajooAAa feehawala taAAra

Translation

Indeed, it is [promised] for you not to be hungry therein or be unclothed.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

It is indeed [assured] for you that you will neither be hungry therein nor go naked,

20:119

وَأَنَّكَ لَا تَظْمَأُ فِيهَا وَلَا تَضْحَىٰ

Pronunciation

Waannaka la tathmaofeeha wala tadha

Translation

And indeed, you will not be thirsty therein or be hot from the sun.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And it is indeed [assured] for you (read wa-annaka or wa-innaka, as a supplement to the subject of inna [sc. laka, that is, ‘you’] and its clause) neither to be thirsty therein, nor to suffer the sun’: you will not be exposed to any heat of a midday sun, for there is no sun in Paradise.

20:120

فَوَسْوَسَ إِلَيْهِ الشَّيْطَانُ قَالَ يَا آدَمُ هَلْ أَدُلُّكَ عَلَىٰ شَجَرَةِ الْخُلْدِ وَمُلْكٍ لَّا يَبْلَىٰ

Pronunciation

Fawaswasa ilayhi ashshaytanuqala ya adamu hal adulluka AAalashajarati alkhuldi wamulkin la yabla

Translation

Then Satan whispered to him; he said, “O Adam, shall I direct you to the tree of eternity and possession that will not deteriorate?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then Satan whispered to him saying, ‘O Adam, shall I guide you to the Tree of Immortality, which gives everlasting life to the one who eats thereof, and a kingdom that does not waste away?’, that does not perish while he remains immortal.

20:121

فَأَكَلَا مِنْهَا فَبَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْآتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ الْجَنَّةِ ۚ وَعَصَىٰ آدَمُ رَبَّهُ فَغَوَىٰ

Pronunciation

Faakala minha fabadat lahumasaw-atuhuma watafiqa yakhsifaniAAalayhima min waraqi aljannati waAAasa adamurabbahu faghawa

Translation

And Adam and his wife ate of it, and their private parts became apparent to them, and they began to fasten over themselves from the leaves of Paradise. And Adam disobeyed his Lord and erred.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So both of them, Adam and Eve, ate of it, and their shameful parts were exposed to them, that is, the front [private part] of each became visible to the other, as well as the other’s behind — both of these [parts] are called saw’a, ‘shame’, because its exposure ‘shames’ (yasū’u) that person); and they began to piece together, they took to sticking, onto themselves leaves of the Garden, to cover themselves up therewith. And Adam disobeyed his Lord and so he erred, by [his] eating from the tree.

20:122

ثُمَّ اجْتَبَاهُ رَبُّهُ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ وَهَدَىٰ

Pronunciation

Thumma ijtabahu rabbuhu fatabaAAalayhi wahada

Translation

Then his Lord chose him and turned to him in forgiveness and guided [him].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thereafter his Lord chose him, He brought him close [to Him], and relented to him, He accepted his repentance, and guided him, that is, He guided him to seek repentance regularly.

20:123

قَالَ اهْبِطَا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا ۖ بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۖ فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّي هُدًى فَمَنِ اتَّبَعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا يَضِلُّ وَلَا يَشْقَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala ihbita minhajameeAAan baAAdukum libaAAdin AAaduwwun fa-immaya/tiyannakum minnee hudan famani ittabaAAa hudaya falayadillu wala yashqa

Translation

[ Allah ] said, “Descend from Paradise – all, [your descendants] being enemies to one another. And if there should come to you guidance from Me – then whoever follows My guidance will neither go astray [in the world] nor suffer [in the Hereafter].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Go down both of you, that is, Adam and Eve, including all of your progeny, from it, from the Garden, all together, some of you, some of the progeny, being enemies of others, because of some wronging others. Yet if (the nūn of the conditional particle in has been assimilated with the mā, which is extra) there should come to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, the Qur’ān, shall not go astray, in this world, neither shall he be miserable, in the Hereafter.

20:124

وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكًا وَنَحْشُرُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَعْمَىٰ

Pronunciation

Waman aAArada AAan thikreefa-inna lahu maAAeeshatan danka wanahshuruhuyawma alqiyamati aAAma

Translation

And whoever turns away from My remembrance – indeed, he will have a depressed life, and We will gather him on the Day of Resurrection blind.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But whoever disregards My remembrance, [disregards] the Qur’ān and does not believe in it, his shall be a straitened life (read dankan with nunation, a verbal noun meaning ‘straitened [circumstances]’). This [statement] has been interpreted in one hadīth to mean the punishment of the grave for the disbeliever. And on the Day of Resurrection We shall bring him to the assembly, namely, the one who disregards the Qur’ān, blind’, blind in eyesight.

20:125

قَالَ رَبِّ لِمَ حَشَرْتَنِي أَعْمَىٰ وَقَدْ كُنتُ بَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Qala rabbi lima hashartaneeaAAma waqad kuntu baseera

Translation

He will say, “My Lord, why have you raised me blind while I was [once] seeing?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He shall say, ‘My Lord, why have you brought be to the assembly blind, though I used to see?’, in the world and at the raising from the grave?

20:126

قَالَ كَذَٰلِكَ أَتَتْكَ آيَاتُنَا فَنَسِيتَهَا ۖ وَكَذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمَ تُنسَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qala kathalika atatka ayatunafanaseetaha wakathalika alyawma tunsa

Translation

[Allah] will say, “Thus did Our signs come to you, and you forgot them; and thus will you this Day be forgotten.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He will say, ‘So it, the affair, is. Our signs came to you, but you forgot them, you neglected them and did not believe in them; and so, just as you forgot Our signs, today you will be forgotten’, abandoned in the Fire.

20:127

وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي مَنْ أَسْرَفَ وَلَمْ يُؤْمِن بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِ ۚ وَلَعَذَابُ الْآخِرَةِ أَشَدُّ وَأَبْقَىٰ

Pronunciation

Wakathalika najzee man asrafa walamyu/min bi-ayati rabbihi walaAAathabu al-akhiratiashaddu waabqa

Translation

And thus do We recompense he who transgressed and did not believe in the signs of his Lord. And the punishment of the Hereafter is more severe and more enduring.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And so, just as We requite him who disregards the Qur’ān, We requite him who is prodigal, [him who] associates others with God, and believes not in the signs of his Lord. And the chastisement of the Hereafter is more terrible, than the chastisement of the life of this world and the punishment of the grave, and more enduring, longer lasting.

20:128

أَفَلَمْ يَهْدِ لَهُمْ كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُم مِّنَ الْقُرُونِ يَمْشُونَ فِي مَسَاكِنِهِمْ ۗ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّأُولِي النُّهَىٰ

Pronunciation

Afalam yahdi lahum kam ahlaknaqablahum mina alqurooni yamshoona fee masakinihim inna feethalika laayatin li-olee annuha

Translation

Then, has it not become clear to them how many generations We destroyed before them as they walk among their dwellings? Indeed in that are signs for those of intelligence.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Is it not a guidance, has it not become clear, to them, to the disbelievers of Mecca, how many (kam, is predicative and the object of [the following] ahlaknā) We destroyed, in other words, Our frequent destruction, before them of generations, that is, of past communities, for denying messengers, amid [the ruins of] whose dwelling-places they walk? (yamshūna is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person of the pronoun lahum, ‘to them’) during their journeys to Syria and other places, that they might thus be admonished? (what has been mentioned [by grammarians] regarding the derivation of [the verb] ihlāk to be that verb that does not contain a particle referring to [the object of] the action of the verb, as a way of preserving the [original] sense [of the statement], is acceptable). Surely in that there are signs, lessons, for people of sense, for possessors of intellect.

20:129

وَلَوْلَا كَلِمَةٌ سَبَقَتْ مِن رَّبِّكَ لَكَانَ لِزَامًا وَأَجَلٌ مُّسَمًّى

Pronunciation

Walawla kalimatun sabaqat minrabbika lakana lizaman waajalun musamma

Translation

And if not for a word that preceded from your Lord, punishment would have been an obligation [due immediately], and [if not for] a specified term [decreed].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And but for a decree that had already preceded from your Lord, that their chastisement be deferred to the Hereafter, it, destruction, would have been an inevitability, [their destruction] would have been necessary in this world, and a specified term, fixed for them (ajalun musamman, a supplement to the pronoun concealed in kāna, ‘it would have been’, the separation [of both subjects] by the predicate of both serves as an emphasis).

20:130

فَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ الشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ غُرُوبِهَا ۖ وَمِنْ آنَاءِ اللَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْ وَأَطْرَافَ النَّهَارِ لَعَلَّكَ تَرْضَىٰ

Pronunciation

Fasbir AAala mayaqooloona wasabbih bihamdi rabbika qabla tulooAAiashshamsi waqabla ghuroobiha wamin ana-iallayli fasabbih waatrafa annaharilaAAallaka tarda

Translation

So be patient over what they say and exalt [Allah] with praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting; and during periods of the night [exalt Him] and at the ends of the day, that you may be satisfied.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So be patient with what they say — this is abrogated by the ‘fighting’ verse [cf. Q. 2:190ff] — and make glorifications, pray, by praising your Lord (bi-hamdi rabbika is a circumstantial qualifier, in other words, ‘ensconced in such [praise]’) before the rising of the sun, the morning prayer, and before its setting — the afternoon prayer — and in the watches of the night, [during] the hours thereof, and make glorifications, perform the sunset and the evening prayer, and at either side of the day (wa-atrāfa’l-nahāri, a supplement to the syntactical locus of the accusative clause wa-min ānā’i, ‘and in the watches’), in other words, perform the noon prayer, because the time for it begins at the point where the sun starts to go down, which is the [end] side of the first half [of the day] and the [start] side of the second half [of the day]; that perhaps you may be pleased, with the reward that you will be given.

20:131

وَلَا تَمُدَّنَّ عَيْنَيْكَ إِلَىٰ مَا مَتَّعْنَا بِهِ أَزْوَاجًا مِّنْهُمْ زَهْرَةَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا لِنَفْتِنَهُمْ فِيهِ ۚ وَرِزْقُ رَبِّكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَبْقَىٰ

Pronunciation

Wala tamuddanna AAaynayka ilama mattaAAna bihi azwajan minhum zahrata alhayatiaddunya linaftinahum feehi warizqu rabbika khayrunwaabqa

Translation

And do not extend your eyes toward that by which We have given enjoyment to [some] categories of them, [its being but] the splendor of worldly life by which We test them. And the provision of your Lord is better and more enduring.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And do not extend your glance toward what We have given to some pairs, [certain] categories, among them to enjoy, [as] the flower of the life of this world, its adornment and delight, that We may try them thereby, [to see] if they transgress [the bounds]. And your Lord’s provision, in Paradise, is better, than what they have been given in this world, and more enduring, longer lasting.

20:132

وَأْمُرْ أَهْلَكَ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَاصْطَبِرْ عَلَيْهَا ۖ لَا نَسْأَلُكَ رِزْقًا ۖ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكَ ۗ وَالْعَاقِبَةُ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ

Pronunciation

Wa/mur ahlaka bissalatiwastabir AAalayha la nas-alukarizqan nahnu narzuquka walAAaqibatu littaqwa

Translation

And enjoin prayer upon your family [and people] and be steadfast therein. We ask you not for provision; We provide for you, and the [best] outcome is for [those of] righteousness.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And bid your family to prayer, and be steadfast in [the maintenance of] it. We do not ask of you, We [do not] charge you with [the procurement of], any provision, [either] for yourself or for anyone else. We [it is Who] provide you, and the [best] sequel, Paradise, will be in favour of God-fearing, for such people.

20:133

وَقَالُوا لَوْلَا يَأْتِينَا بِآيَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّهِ ۚ أَوَلَمْ تَأْتِهِم بَيِّنَةُ مَا فِي الصُّحُفِ الْأُولَىٰ

Pronunciation

Waqaloo lawla ya/teenabi-ayatin min rabbihi awa lam ta/tihim bayyinatu mafee assuhufi al-oola

Translation

And they say, “Why does he not bring us a sign from his Lord?” Has there not come to them evidence of what was in the former scriptures?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they, the idolaters, say, ‘Why does he, Muhammad (s), not bring us a sign from his Lord?’, of the sort which they request. Has there not come to them (read ta’tihim or ya’tihim) the clear proof, the statements, of what is in the former scriptures?, the tales contained in the Qur’ān relating to past communities and [the details of] their destruction for denying the messengers?

20:134

وَلَوْ أَنَّا أَهْلَكْنَاهُم بِعَذَابٍ مِّن قَبْلِهِ لَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا لَوْلَا أَرْسَلْتَ إِلَيْنَا رَسُولًا فَنَتَّبِعَ آيَاتِكَ مِن قَبْلِ أَن نَّذِلَّ وَنَخْزَىٰ

Pronunciation

Walaw anna ahlaknahum biAAathabinmin qablihi laqaloo rabbana lawla arsaltailayna rasoolan fanattabiAAa ayatika minqabli an nathilla wanakhza

Translation

And if We had destroyed them with a punishment before him, they would have said, “Our Lord, why did You not send to us a messenger so we could have followed Your verses before we were humiliated and disgraced?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Had We destroyed them with a chastisement before him, before [the coming of] Muhammad (s) the Messenger, they would have said, on the Day of Resurrection: ‘Our Lord, if only You had sent us a messenger, so that we might have followed those signs of Yours, given to the messengers [to convey], before we were [thus] abased, at the Resurrection, and disgraced?’, in Hell.

20:135

قُلْ كُلٌّ مُّتَرَبِّصٌ فَتَرَبَّصُوا ۖ فَسَتَعْلَمُونَ مَنْ أَصْحَابُ الصِّرَاطِ السَّوِيِّ وَمَنِ اهْتَدَىٰ

Pronunciation

Qul kullun mutarabbisun fatarabbasoofasataAAlamoona man as-habu assiratiassawiyyi wamani ihtada

Translation

Say, “Each [of us] is waiting; so wait. For you will know who are the companions of the sound path and who is guided.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say, to them: ‘Each, [one] of us and you, is waiting, to [see] what this affair will lead to. So wait! For you shall indeed know, at the Resurrection, who are the followers of the even path, the straight way, and who is [rightly] guided’, away from error, us or you.

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