Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 19.Surat Maryam (Mary) – سورة مريم

Surat Maryam (Mary) – سورة مريم

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

19:1

كهيعص

Pronunciation

Kaf-ha-ya-AAayn-sad

Translation

Kaf, Ha, Ya, ‘Ayn, Sad.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Kāf hā yā ‘ayn sād: God knows best what He means by these [letters].

19:2

ذِكْرُ رَحْمَتِ رَبِّكَ عَبْدَهُ زَكَرِيَّا

Pronunciation

Thikru rahmati rabbika AAabdahuzakariyya

Translation

[This is] a mention of the mercy of your Lord to His servant Zechariah

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

This is, a mention of your Lord’s mercy to His servant (‘abdahu, a direct object of rahma, ‘mercy’) Zachariah (an explication of it [the direct object]),

19:3

إِذْ نَادَىٰ رَبَّهُ نِدَاءً خَفِيًّا

Pronunciation

Ith nada rabbahu nidaankhafiyya

Translation

When he called to his Lord a private supplication.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

when (idh is semantically connected to rahma, ‘mercy’) he called out to his Lord a call, entailing a supplication, in secret, in the middle of the night, because this [time of the night] invites a faster response [to one’s supplication].

19:4

قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي وَهَنَ الْعَظْمُ مِنِّي وَاشْتَعَلَ الرَّأْسُ شَيْبًا وَلَمْ أَكُن بِدُعَائِكَ رَبِّ شَقِيًّا

Pronunciation

Qala rabbi innee wahana alAAathmuminnee washtaAAala arra/su shayban walam akunbiduAAa-ika rabbi shaqiyya

Translation

He said, “My Lord, indeed my bones have weakened, and my head has filled with white, and never have I been in my supplication to You, my Lord, unhappy.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘My Lord, truly the bones, all [the bones], within me have become feeble, weak, and my head is alight with grey hair (shayban, a specification derived from the subject of the verb in other words, hoariness has spread throughout his hairs just as a spark of fire spreads through firewood) and I wish to supplicate to you, and I have never been in my supplications to You, my Lord, unsuccessful, that is, [I have never been] disappointed, in the past, so do not disappoint me in what follows.

19:5

وَإِنِّي خِفْتُ الْمَوَالِيَ مِن وَرَائِي وَكَانَتِ امْرَأَتِي عَاقِرًا فَهَبْ لِي مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wa-innee khiftu almawaliya min wara-eewakanati imraatee AAaqiran fahab lee min ladunkawaliyya

Translation

And indeed, I fear the successors after me, and my wife has been barren, so give me from Yourself an heir

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And truly I fear my kinsfolk, namely, those who will succeed me [as closest after me] in kinship, such as [my] paternal cousins, after me, that is, after my death, [I fear] for the religion, lest they forsake it, as You have witnessed in the case of the Children of Israel, in the way that they changed [their] religion, and my wife is barren, she does not conceive. So grant me from Yourself a successor, a son,

19:6

يَرِثُنِي وَيَرِثُ مِنْ آلِ يَعْقُوبَ ۖ وَاجْعَلْهُ رَبِّ رَضِيًّا

Pronunciation

Yarithunee wayarithu min ali yaAAqoobawajAAalhu rabbi radiyya

Translation

Who will inherit me and inherit from the family of Jacob. And make him, my Lord, pleasing [to You].”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

who may inherit from me (read yarithnī in apocopated form as a response to the imperative statement [fa-hab lī, ‘grant me’], or read yarithunī as an adjectival qualification of waliyyan, ‘a successor’) and inherit (also read in both ways [mentioned]), from the House of Jacob, my forefather, [inherit] knowledge and prophethood, and make him, my Lord, acceptable’, that is, pleasing to you.

19:7

يَا زَكَرِيَّا إِنَّا نُبَشِّرُكَ بِغُلَامٍ اسْمُهُ يَحْيَىٰ لَمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُ مِن قَبْلُ سَمِيًّا

Pronunciation

Ya zakariyya innanubashshiruka bighulamin ismuhu yahya lamnajAAal lahu min qablu samiyya

Translation

[He was told], “O Zechariah, indeed We give you good tidings of a boy whose name will be John. We have not assigned to any before [this] name.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God, exalted be He, in responding to his request for a son that will be the incarnation of His mercy, says: ‘O Zachariah! Indeed We give you good tidings of a boy, who will inherit in the way that you have requested — whose name is John. Never before have We made anyone his namesake’, that is, [never has there been] anyone with the name ‘John’.

19:8

قَالَ رَبِّ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لِي غُلَامٌ وَكَانَتِ امْرَأَتِي عَاقِرًا وَقَدْ بَلَغْتُ مِنَ الْكِبَرِ عِتِيًّا

Pronunciation

Qala rabbi anna yakoonu leeghulamun wakanati imraatee AAaqiran waqadbalaghtu mina alkibari AAitiyya

Translation

He said, “My Lord, how will I have a boy when my wife has been barren and I have reached extreme old age?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘My Lord, how shall I have a son when my wife is barren and I have reached infirm old age?’ (‘itiyyan, [derives] from [the verb] ‘atā, ‘it became withered’) in other words, [he had reached] extreme old age, 120 years; and his wife had reached the age of 98 (‘atiya in terms of its root derives from ‘utuwwun, but the tā’ is vowelled as -ti-, to soften it, the first wāw [vowel] is changed into a yā’ to be in harmony with the –ti- vowelling, while the second [wāw letter] is changed into a yā’ so that the [previous] yā’ can be assimilated with it).

19:9

قَالَ كَذَٰلِكَ قَالَ رَبُّكَ هُوَ عَلَيَّ هَيِّنٌ وَقَدْ خَلَقْتُكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَلَمْ تَكُ شَيْئًا

Pronunciation

Qala kathalika qalarabbuka huwa AAalayya hayyinun waqad khalaqtuka min qablu walamtaku shay-a

Translation

[An angel] said, “Thus [it will be]; your Lord says, ‘It is easy for Me, for I created you before, while you were nothing.’ “

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘It, the matter [in question], of creating a boy from both of you, shall be so! Your Lord says, “It is easy for Me, namely, to restore your sexual potency and tear open your wife’s womb [in preparation] for conception, for I certainly created you before when you were nothing”’, [you were nothing] before your created form became manifest. As God wished to manifest this great power, He inspired him [the form of] the question, in order for him to receive the response that will indicate it [this power]. And when his soul yearned for the prompt arrival of that whereof he had been given good tidings:

19:10

قَالَ رَبِّ اجْعَل لِّي آيَةً ۚ قَالَ آيَتُكَ أَلَّا تُكَلِّمَ النَّاسَ ثَلَاثَ لَيَالٍ سَوِيًّا

Pronunciation

Qala rabbi ijAAal lee ayatan qalaayatuka alla tukallima annasa thalathalayalin sawiyya

Translation

[Zechariah] said, “My Lord, make for me a sign.” He said, “Your sign is that you will not speak to the people for three nights, [being] sound.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Lord, appoint for me some sign’, namely, some indication of my wife’s becoming pregnant. Said He, ‘Your sign, for this, is that you shall not speak to people, that is, that you [should] refrain from speaking to them, but not [from speaking] the remembrance of God, exalted be He, for three nights, that is, together with the days thereof, as [stated] in [sūrat] Āl ‘Imrān, ‘for three days’ [Q. 3:41], while [you are] in sound health’ (sawiyyan, a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of the verb tukallima, ‘you shall [not] speak’) in other words, despite there being no defect [in you].

19:11

فَخَرَجَ عَلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ مِنَ الْمِحْرَابِ فَأَوْحَىٰ إِلَيْهِمْ أَن سَبِّحُوا بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيًّا

Pronunciation

Fakharaja AAala qawmihi mina almihrabifaawha ilayhim an sabbihoo bukratan waAAashiyya

Translation

So he came out to his people from the prayer chamber and signaled to them to exalt [ Allah ] in the morning and afternoon.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So he emerged before his people from the sanctuary, that is, from the temple — they had been waiting for him to open it in order to perform [their] prayers therein after his command, as was the custom — and signalled, indicated, to them, ‘Make glorifications, perform prayers, at morning and evening’, at the beginning of the day and [at] its end, as per usual. He then realised, upon his being prevented from speaking to them, that she was pregnant with John.

19:12

يَا يَحْيَىٰ خُذِ الْكِتَابَ بِقُوَّةٍ ۖ وَآتَيْنَاهُ الْحُكْمَ صَبِيًّا

Pronunciation

Ya yahya khuthialkitaba biquwwatin waataynahu alhukmasabiyya

Translation

[ Allah ] said, “O John, take the Scripture with determination.” And We gave him judgement [while yet] a boy

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And two years after his birth, God, exalted be He, said to him: ‘O John! Hold on to the Scripture, namely, the Torah, firmly’, earnestly. And We gave him judgement, prophethood, while still a child, a three-year old;

19:13

وَحَنَانًا مِّن لَّدُنَّا وَزَكَاةً ۖ وَكَانَ تَقِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wahananan min ladunnawazakatan wakana taqiyya

Translation

And affection from Us and purity, and he was fearing of Allah

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and compassion, a mercy for mankind, from Us, from Our presence, and purity, a charity for them, and he was God-fearing — it is related that he never committed a sin, nor contemplated [committing] one;

19:14

وَبَرًّا بِوَالِدَيْهِ وَلَمْ يَكُن جَبَّارًا عَصِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wabarran biwalidayhi walam yakun jabbaranAAasiyya

Translation

And dutiful to his parents, and he was not a disobedient tyrant.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and dutiful to his parents, that is, virtuous towards them. And he was not arrogant or rebellious, disobedient to his Lord.

19:15

وَسَلَامٌ عَلَيْهِ يَوْمَ وُلِدَ وَيَوْمَ يَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ يُبْعَثُ حَيًّا

Pronunciation

Wasalamun AAalayhi yawma wulidawayawma yamootu wayawma yubAAathu hayya

Translation

And peace be upon him the day he was born and the day he dies and the day he is raised alive.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

‘And peace, from Us, be upon him, the day he was born, and the day he dies, and the day he shall be raised alive!’, that is, [on] those fearful days in which he sees what he will never have seen before — in these he will be given security [from fear].

19:16

وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ مَرْيَمَ إِذِ انتَبَذَتْ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا مَكَانًا شَرْقِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wathkur fee alkitabimaryama ithi intabathat min ahliha makanansharqiyya

Translation

And mention, [O Muhammad], in the Book [the story of] Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place toward the east.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And mention in the Book, [in] the Qur’ān, Mary, that is, [mention] her tale, when she withdrew from her family to an easterly place, that is, [when] she secluded herself in a place on the east side of [her] home.

19:17

فَاتَّخَذَتْ مِن دُونِهِمْ حِجَابًا فَأَرْسَلْنَا إِلَيْهَا رُوحَنَا فَتَمَثَّلَ لَهَا بَشَرًا سَوِيًّا

Pronunciation

Fattakhathat min doonihim hijabanfaarsalna ilayha roohanafatamaththala laha basharan sawiyya

Translation

And she took, in seclusion from them, a screen. Then We sent to her Our Angel, and he represented himself to her as a well-proportioned man.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thus she veiled herself from them, she draped herself in a veil to conceal herself while she washed her hair [from lice], or [washed] her clothes, or cleansed herself from her menses; whereupon We sent to her Our Spirit, Gabriel, and he assumed before her, after she donned her clothes, the likeness of a well-proportioned human, perfect in physical form.

19:18

قَالَتْ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِالرَّحْمَٰنِ مِنكَ إِن كُنتَ تَقِيًّا

Pronunciation

Qalat innee aAAoothu birrahmaniminka in kunta taqiyya

Translation

She said, “Indeed, I seek refuge in the Most Merciful from you, [so leave me], if you should be fearing of Allah .”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

She said, ‘Lo! I seek refuge in the Compassionate One from you! If you fear God’, and leave me alone on account of my invocation of refuge in God.

19:19

قَالَ إِنَّمَا أَنَا رَسُولُ رَبِّكِ لِأَهَبَ لَكِ غُلَامًا زَكِيًّا

Pronunciation

Qala innama ana rasoolurabbiki li-ahaba laki ghulaman zakiyya

Translation

He said, “I am only the messenger of your Lord to give you [news of] a pure boy.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘I am only a messenger of your Lord, that I may give you a boy [who shall be] pure’, in [his] prophethood.

19:20

قَالَتْ أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لِي غُلَامٌ وَلَمْ يَمْسَسْنِي بَشَرٌ وَلَمْ أَكُ بَغِيًّا

Pronunciation

Qalat anna yakoonu lee ghulamunwalam yamsasnee basharun walam aku baghiyya

Translation

She said, “How can I have a boy while no man has touched me and I have not been unchaste?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

She said, ‘How shall I have a boy when no human being has [ever] touched me, by way of conjugality, neither have I been unchaste?’, [neither have I been] a fornicator.

19:21

قَالَ كَذَٰلِكِ قَالَ رَبُّكِ هُوَ عَلَيَّ هَيِّنٌ ۖ وَلِنَجْعَلَهُ آيَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَرَحْمَةً مِّنَّا ۚ وَكَانَ أَمْرًا مَّقْضِيًّا

Pronunciation

Qala kathaliki qalarabbuki huwa AAalayya hayyinun walinajAAalahu ayatan linnasiwarahmatan minna wakana amran maqdiyya

Translation

He said, “Thus [it will be]; your Lord says, ‘It is easy for Me, and We will make him a sign to the people and a mercy from Us. And it is a matter [already] decreed.’ “

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘It, the matter in question, of creating a boy from you without a father, shall be so! Your Lord has said: “It is easy for Me, in other words, by Gabriel’s breathing into you, by My command, so that you become pregnant with him — since what has been mentioned is meant as a reason, the following [statement] is added as a supplement thereto: and so that We may make him a sign for mankind, of Our power, and a mercy from Us, to whoever believes in him. And it, the creation of him, is a thing [already] decreed”’, according to My knowledge. So Gabriel breathed into the opening of her shirt, whereupon she sensed the formed foetus in her womb.

19:22

فَحَمَلَتْهُ فَانتَبَذَتْ بِهِ مَكَانًا قَصِيًّا

Pronunciation

Fahamalat-hu fantabathatbihi makanan qasiyya

Translation

So she conceived him, and she withdrew with him to a remote place.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thus she conceived him and then withdrew, retreated, with him to a distant place, far from her family.

19:23

فَأَجَاءَهَا الْمَخَاضُ إِلَىٰ جِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ قَالَتْ يَا لَيْتَنِي مِتُّ قَبْلَ هَٰذَا وَكُنتُ نَسْيًا مَّنسِيًّا

Pronunciation

Faajaaha almakhadu ilajithAAi annakhlati qalat ya laytaneemittu qabla hatha wakuntu nasyan mansiyya

Translation

And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm tree. She said, “Oh, I wish I had died before this and was in oblivion, forgotten.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And the birth pangs, the pains of childbirth, brought her to the trunk of the palm-tree, that she may support herself against it, and then she gave birth: the conception, formation [of the foetus] and delivery [all] took place within one hour. She said, ‘O (yā is [used] to call attention [to something]) would that I had died before this, affair, and become a forgotten thing, beyond recall!’, a thing abandoned which no one knows or mentions.

19:24

فَنَادَاهَا مِن تَحْتِهَا أَلَّا تَحْزَنِي قَدْ جَعَلَ رَبُّكِ تَحْتَكِ سَرِيًّا

Pronunciation

Fanadaha min tahtihaalla tahzanee qad jaAAala rabbuki tahtakisariyya

Translation

But he called her from below her, “Do not grieve; your Lord has provided beneath you a stream.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then he called her from below her, namely, Gabriel — for he was lower than her, ‘Do not grieve. Your Lord has made below you a rivulet, a river of water, which had dried up.

19:25

وَهُزِّي إِلَيْكِ بِجِذْعِ النَّخْلَةِ تُسَاقِطْ عَلَيْكِ رُطَبًا جَنِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wahuzzee ilayki bijithAAi annakhlatitusaqit AAalayki rutaban janiyya

Translation

And shake toward you the trunk of the palm tree; it will drop upon you ripe, fresh dates.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And shake the trunk of the palm-tree towards you, [a palm-tree] which had withered (the bi- [in bi-jidh‘i’l-nakhlati, ‘the trunk of the palm-tree] is extra) — there will drop (tusāqit, originally this is tatasāqat, but the second tā’ is changed into a sīn and is assimilated with the [second] sīn; a variant reading omits it [the second tā’] altogether) on you dates (rutaban, a specification) fresh and ripe (janiyyan, an adjectival qualification of it [of rutaban, ‘dates’]).

19:26

فَكُلِي وَاشْرَبِي وَقَرِّي عَيْنًا ۖ فَإِمَّا تَرَيِنَّ مِنَ الْبَشَرِ أَحَدًا فَقُولِي إِنِّي نَذَرْتُ لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ صَوْمًا فَلَنْ أُكَلِّمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنسِيًّا

Pronunciation

Fakulee washrabee waqarree AAaynanfa-imma tarayinna mina albashari ahadan faqooleeinnee nathartu lirrahmani sawmanfalan okallima alyawma insiyya

Translation

So eat and drink and be contented. And if you see from among humanity anyone, say, ‘Indeed, I have vowed to the Most Merciful abstention, so I will not speak today to [any] man.’ “

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So eat, of the dates, and drink, from the rivulet, and [let] your eye be comforted, by the child (‘aynan, ‘[your] eye’, a specification derived from the subject of the verb, in other words [what is meant is] li-taqarra ‘aynuki bihi, ‘that your eye may be comforted by him’) that is, let it [your eye] be at peace and not covet any other than him; and if (immā: the nūn of the conditional particle in is here assimilated with the extra mā) you [happen to] see (tarayinna: the third consonantal root [the yā’] and the second [the hamza] have been omitted, with the [fatha] vowel therein transferred to the [first consonant] the letter rā’, and a kasra vowel applied to the yā’ of the [feminine] person, because of two unvowelled consonants coming together) any human being, and should he ask you about your child, then say, “I have vowed to the Compassionate One a fast, that is to say, an abstention from speaking of his affair and from [speaking to] any other humans — which is indicated by [the following statement]), so I will not speak to any human today”’, that is, after [saying] this.

19:27

فَأَتَتْ بِهِ قَوْمَهَا تَحْمِلُهُ ۖ قَالُوا يَا مَرْيَمُ لَقَدْ جِئْتِ شَيْئًا فَرِيًّا

Pronunciation

Faatat bihi qawmaha tahmiluhuqaloo ya maryamu laqad ji/ti shay-an fariyya

Translation

Then she brought him to her people, carrying him. They said, “O Mary, you have certainly done a thing unprecedented.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then, carrying him, she brought him to her folk (tahmiluhu, ‘carrying him’, a circumstantial qualifier), and they saw him, and they said, ‘O Mary, truly you have done a curious thing!, an astounding [thing], for you have begotten a son without [his having] a father.

19:28

يَا أُخْتَ هَارُونَ مَا كَانَ أَبُوكِ امْرَأَ سَوْءٍ وَمَا كَانَتْ أُمُّكِ بَغِيًّا

Pronunciation

Ya okhta haroona ma kanaabooki imraa saw-in wama kanat ommuki baghiyya

Translation

O sister of Aaron, your father was not a man of evil, nor was your mother unchaste.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O sister of Aaron — he was a righteous man, in other words [what is meant is], O you who are like him in [terms of] chastity — your father was not a wicked man, that is, a fornicator, nor was your mother unchaste’, that is, a fornicatress: so how is it that you have this child?

19:29

فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ ۖ قَالُوا كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَن كَانَ فِي الْمَهْدِ صَبِيًّا

Pronunciation

Faasharat ilayhi qaloo kayfanukallimu man kana fee almahdi sabiyya

Translation

So she pointed to him. They said, “How can we speak to one who is in the cradle a child?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thereat she pointed, them, to him, intimating [to them that they], ‘talk to him’. They said, ‘How can we talk to one who is, who happens to be, in the cradle, [still] a little child?’

19:30

قَالَ إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا

Pronunciation

Qala innee AAabdu Allahi ataniyaalkitaba wajaAAalanee nabiyya

Translation

[Jesus] said, “Indeed, I am the servant of Allah. He has given me the Scripture and made me a prophet.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Lo! I am God’s servant. He has given me the Scripture, namely, the Gospel, and made me a prophet.

19:31

وَجَعَلَنِي مُبَارَكًا أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُ وَأَوْصَانِي بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيًّا

Pronunciation

WajaAAalanee mubarakan aynamakuntu waawsanee bissalati wazzakatima dumtu hayya

Translation

And He has made me blessed wherever I am and has enjoined upon me prayer and zakah as long as I remain alive

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And He has made me blessed wherever I may be, that is, [He has made me] of great benefit to mankind — [this is] a foretelling of what had been preordained for him — and He has enjoined upon me prayer and alms-giving, He has commanded me to [do] both of these, as long as I remain alive;

19:32

وَبَرًّا بِوَالِدَتِي وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْنِي جَبَّارًا شَقِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wabarran biwalidatee walam yajAAalneejabbaran shaqiyya

Translation

And [made me] dutiful to my mother, and He has not made me a wretched tyrant.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and [He has made me] dutiful towards my mother (barran, in the accusative because of the implicit [verb] ja‘alanī, ‘He has made me’). And He has not made me arrogant, haughty, wretched, disobedient to his Lord.

19:33

وَالسَّلَامُ عَلَيَّ يَوْمَ وُلِدتُّ وَيَوْمَ أَمُوتُ وَيَوْمَ أُبْعَثُ حَيًّا

Pronunciation

Wassalamu AAalayya yawmawulidtu wayawma amootu wayawma obAAathu hayya

Translation

And peace is on me the day I was born and the day I will die and the day I am raised alive.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And peace, from God, be upon me the day I was born, and the day I die, and the day I shall be raised alive!’ — the same is being said about him as [was said above] regarding the lord John. God, exalted be He, says:

19:34

ذَٰلِكَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ ۚ قَوْلَ الْحَقِّ الَّذِي فِيهِ يَمْتَرُونَ

Pronunciation

Thalika AAeesa ibnu maryamaqawla alhaqqi allathee feehi yamtaroon

Translation

That is Jesus, the son of Mary – the word of truth about which they are in dispute.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

That is Jesus, son of Mary, a statement of truth (read qawlu’l-haqqi, as the predicate of an implied subject, in other words, ‘the statement of the son of Mary [is a statement of truth]’; or read qawla’l-haqqi, because of [it being the object of] an implied [verb] qultu, ‘I say’, meaning, ‘[I say] a statement of truth’) concerning which they are in doubt (yamtarūna, derives from [the infinitive] al-mirya) — they are the Christians, who say, ‘Indeed Jesus is the son of God’; [but] they lie.

19:35

مَا كَانَ لِلَّهِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ مِن وَلَدٍ ۖ سُبْحَانَهُ ۚ إِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

Pronunciation

Ma kana lillahi anyattakhitha min waladin subhanahu itha qadaamran fa-innama yaqoolu lahu kun fayakoon

Translation

It is not [befitting] for Allah to take a son; exalted is He! When He decrees an affair, He only says to it, “Be,” and it is.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

It is not [befitting] for God to take to Himself a son. Glory be to Him — in affirmation of His being transcendent above [doing] such a thing. When He decrees a thing, that is, [when] He will for it to happen, He only says to it, ‘Be!’, and it is (read fa-yakūnu because of an implied [pronoun] huwa [sc. fa-huwa yakūnu]; or read fa-yakūna because of an implied an [sc. an yakūna]). An example of this is His creating Jesus without [his having had] a father.

19:36

وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ رَبِّي وَرَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ ۚ هَٰذَا صِرَاطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Wa-inna Allaha rabbee warabbukum faAAbudoohuhatha siratun mustaqeem

Translation

[Jesus said], “And indeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. That is a straight path.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And indeed God is my Lord and your Lord. So worship Him (read [the introductory particle] as anna, with an implicit [preceding] udhkur, ‘mention’; or read [it] as inna, with an implicit [preceding] qul, ‘say’, [a reading] indicated by [the fact that God says elsewhere] ‘I only said to them that which You commanded me: “Worship God, my Lord and your Lord” ’ [Q. 5:117]). This, that has been mentioned, is a straight path, a route leading to Paradise.

19:37

فَاخْتَلَفَ الْأَحْزَابُ مِن بَيْنِهِمْ ۖ فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِن مَّشْهَدِ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ

Pronunciation

Fakhtalafa al-ahzabumin baynihim fawaylun lillatheena kafaroo min mashhadiyawmin AAatheem

Translation

Then the factions differed [concerning Jesus] from among them, so woe to those who disbelieved – from the scene of a tremendous Day.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But the factions differed among themselves, that is to say, the Christians, [they differed] regarding Jesus: was he the son of God? A god alongside Him? Or [was he] the third of three [gods]? So woe — [meaning] severe punishment [will be meted out] — to those who disbelieve, [those who disbelieve] in the way mentioned and in other ways, at the scene of an awful Day, that is to say, [woe to them] when they are present at the Day of Resurrection and [witnessing] its terrors.

19:38

أَسْمِعْ بِهِمْ وَأَبْصِرْ يَوْمَ يَأْتُونَنَا ۖ لَٰكِنِ الظَّالِمُونَ الْيَوْمَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

Pronunciation

AsmiAA bihim waabsir yawma ya/toonanalakini aththalimoona alyawmafee dalalin mubeen

Translation

How [clearly] they will hear and see the Day they come to Us, but the wrongdoers today are in clear error.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

How hearing they are and seeing, they are (these two constructions [are used to] express ‘amazement’, meaning, ‘how well they [will] hear and how well they [will] see’) on the Day when they come to Us, in the Hereafter. Yet the evildoers (an example of a proper noun [‘evildoers’] replacing a third person pronominalisation) today, that is, in this world, are in manifest error, that is, [error] that is evident therein, having been deaf [unable] to listen to the truth and blind [unable] to see it. In other words, [the meaning is]: O you, the one being addressed, marvel at how [well] they will [be able to] hear and see in the Hereafter after they had been deaf and blind in this world.

19:39

وَأَنذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْحَسْرَةِ إِذْ قُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ وَهُمْ فِي غَفْلَةٍ وَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Waanthirhum yawma alhasrati ithqudiya al-amru wahum fee ghaflatin wahum layu/minoon

Translation

And warn them, [O Muhammad], of the Day of Regret, when the matter will be concluded; and [yet], they are in [a state of] heedlessness, and they do not believe.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And warn them, threaten, O Muhammad (s), the disbelievers of Mecca, of the Day of Regret, namely, the Day of Resurrection, on which the sinner will regret not having been virtuous in [the life of] this world, when the matter will be decided, for them thereupon, that they be chastised, while they, in this world, are [yet] heedless, of it, and do not believe, in it [the Day of Resurrection].

19:40

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَرِثُ الْأَرْضَ وَمَنْ عَلَيْهَا وَإِلَيْنَا يُرْجَعُونَ

Pronunciation

Inna nahnu narithu al-ardawaman AAalayha wa-ilayna yurjaAAoon

Translation

Indeed, it is We who will inherit the earth and whoever is on it, and to Us they will be returned.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed We (innā nahnu, [a repetition of the first person] for emphasis), shall inherit the earth and all who are on it, of rational beings and others, by destroying them, and to Us they shall be returned, thereon [on the Day of Resurrection] for requital.

19:41

وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقًا نَّبِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wathkur fee alkitabiibraheema innahu kana siddeeqan nabiyya

Translation

And mention in the Book [the story of] Abraham. Indeed, he was a man of truth and a prophet.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And mention, to them, in the Book Abraham, that is, [mention] his tale. Indeed he was a truthful one ([the intensive form siddīq] means ‘extremely truthful’), a prophet (the following [statement] substitutes for the [preceding] predicate).

19:42

إِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ يَا أَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لَا يَسْمَعُ وَلَا يُبْصِرُ وَلَا يُغْنِي عَنكَ شَيْئًا

Pronunciation

Ith qala li-abeehi yaabati lima taAAbudu ma la yasmaAAu wala yubsiruwala yughnee AAanka shay-a

Translation

[Mention] when he said to his father, “O my father, why do you worship that which does not hear and does not see and will not benefit you at all?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When he said to his father, Āzar, ‘O my father! (the [final] tā’ here [of abati] has replaced the [possessive] yā’ of [genitive] annexation [sc. of yā abī]; the two, however, are never used together) — he [Abraham’s father] used to worship idols. Why do you worship that which neither hears nor sees, and is of no avail to you, suffices you [not], in any way? whether in [terms of] benefit or harm.

19:43

يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي قَدْ جَاءَنِي مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَمْ يَأْتِكَ فَاتَّبِعْنِي أَهْدِكَ صِرَاطًا سَوِيًّا

Pronunciation

Ya abati innee qad jaanee minaalAAilmi ma lam ya/tika fattabiAAnee ahdika siratansawiyya

Translation

O my father, indeed there has come to me of knowledge that which has not come to you, so follow me; I will guide you to an even path.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O my father! Indeed there has come to me of knowledge that which has not come to you. So follow me that I may guide you to a path, a route, that is right, [that is] straight.

19:44

يَا أَبَتِ لَا تَعْبُدِ الشَّيْطَانَ ۖ إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ عَصِيًّا

Pronunciation

Ya abati la taAAbudi ashshaytanainna ashshaytana kana lirrahmaniAAasiyya

Translation

O my father, do not worship Satan. Indeed Satan has ever been, to the Most Merciful, disobedient.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O my father! Do not worship Satan, by obeying him through [your] worship of idols. Truly Satan is disobedient ([the intensive form‘asiyyan] means ‘one given to disobedience’) to the Compassionate One.

19:45

يَا أَبَتِ إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَن يَمَسَّكَ عَذَابٌ مِّنَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ فَتَكُونَ لِلشَّيْطَانِ وَلِيًّا

Pronunciation

Ya abati innee akhafu anyamassaka AAathabun mina arrahmanifatakoona lishshyatani waliyya

Translation

O my father, indeed I fear that there will touch you a punishment from the Most Merciful so you would be to Satan a companion [in Hellfire].”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O my father! I do fear lest a chastisement from the Compassionate One should befall you, if you do not repent, and then you become an ally of Satan, an assistant and a comrade [of his] in the Fire.

19:46

قَالَ أَرَاغِبٌ أَنتَ عَنْ آلِهَتِي يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ ۖ لَئِن لَّمْ تَنتَهِ لَأَرْجُمَنَّكَ ۖ وَاهْجُرْنِي مَلِيًّا

Pronunciation

Qala araghibun anta AAan alihateeya ibraheemu la-in lam tantahi laarjumannaka wahjurneemaliyya

Translation

[His father] said, “Have you no desire for my gods, O Abraham? If you do not desist, I will surely stone you, so avoid me a prolonged time.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Are you renouncing my gods, O Abraham?, so that you are denouncing them [in this way]? If you do not desist, from criticising them, I shall surely assail you, with stones, or with evil words, so beware of me; and stay away from me for a long time’.

19:47

قَالَ سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكَ ۖ سَأَسْتَغْفِرُ لَكَ رَبِّي ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ بِي حَفِيًّا

Pronunciation

Qala salamun AAalaykasaastaghfiru laka rabbee innahu kana bee hafiyya

Translation

[Abraham] said, “Peace will be upon you. I will ask forgiveness for you of my Lord. Indeed, He is ever gracious to me.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Peace be to you, from me — in other words, I shall not cause you any harm. I shall ask forgiveness of my Lord for you. Truly He is ever gracious to me (hafiyyan, from hafiyyun, meaning bārrun, ‘kind’) answering my prayers. And indeed he [Abraham] fulfilled his above-mentioned promise [as described] in [sūrat] al-Shu‘arā’, And forgive my father [Q. 26:86]; but this was before it became clear to him that he [Abraham’s father] was an enemy of God, as mentioned in [sūrat] Barā’a [Q. 9:114].

19:48

وَأَعْتَزِلُكُمْ وَمَا تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَأَدْعُو رَبِّي عَسَىٰ أَلَّا أَكُونَ بِدُعَاءِ رَبِّي شَقِيًّا

Pronunciation

WaaAAtazilukum wama tadAAoona mindooni Allahi waadAAoo rabbee AAasa allaakoona biduAAa-i rabbee shaqiyya

Translation

And I will leave you and those you invoke other than Allah and will invoke my Lord. I expect that I will not be in invocation to my Lord unhappy.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And I shall shun you and that which you call upon, [that which] you worship, besides God. I will supplicate, I will worship, my Lord — hopefully in calling upon, in worshipping, my Lord I shall not be wretched’, as you have become wretched by your worship of idols.

19:49

فَلَمَّا اعْتَزَلَهُمْ وَمَا يَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَهَبْنَا لَهُ إِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ ۖ وَكُلًّا جَعَلْنَا نَبِيًّا

Pronunciation

Falamma iAAtazalahum wamayaAAbudoona min dooni Allahi wahabna lahu ishaqawayaAAqooba wakullan jaAAalna nabiyya

Translation

So when he had left them and those they worshipped other than Allah , We gave him Isaac and Jacob, and each [of them] We made a prophet.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And so after he had shunned them and that which they worshipped besides God, by having set off to the Holy Land, We gave him, two sons for him to find solace in, Isaac and Jacob, and each, of the two, We made a prophet.

19:50

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُم مِّن رَّحْمَتِنَا وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُمْ لِسَانَ صِدْقٍ عَلِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wawahabna lahum min rahmatinawajaAAalna lahum lisana sidqin AAaliyya

Translation

And We gave them of Our mercy, and we made for them a reputation of high honor.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We gave them, all three [of them], out of Our mercy, wealth and offspring, and We assigned for them a worthy repute [one] that is lofty, sublime, namely, [We assigned] fair praise [of them] among all the members of the [Abrahamic] religions.

19:51

وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ مُوسَىٰ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ مُخْلَصًا وَكَانَ رَسُولًا نَّبِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wathkur fee alkitabimoosa innahu kana mukhlasan wakanarasoolan nabiyya

Translation

And mention in the Book, Moses. Indeed, he was chosen, and he was a messenger and a prophet.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And mention in the Book Moses. Indeed he was devoted [to God] (read either as mukhlisan, to mean ‘one sincerely devoted to worship [of God]’; or read mukhlasan, [to mean ‘he was delivered’] as in God had delivered him from defilement) and he was a messenger, a prophet.

19:52

وَنَادَيْنَاهُ مِن جَانِبِ الطُّورِ الْأَيْمَنِ وَقَرَّبْنَاهُ نَجِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wanadaynahu min janibiattoori al-aymani waqarrabnahu najiyya

Translation

And We called him from the side of the mount at [his] right and brought him near, confiding [to him].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We called him — with the words, ‘O Moses! Verily I am God’ [Q. 27:9] — from the right side of the Mount (al-Tūr, is [actually] the name of a mountain) that is, [from the side] to the right of Moses as he was approaching [the Mount] from Midian; and We brought him near in communion, as God, exalted be He, made him hear His speech.

19:53

وَوَهَبْنَا لَهُ مِن رَّحْمَتِنَا أَخَاهُ هَارُونَ نَبِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wawahabna lahu min rahmatinaakhahu haroona nabiyya

Translation

And We gave him out of Our mercy his brother Aaron as a prophet.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We gave him out of Our mercy, Our grace, his brother Aaron (Hārūn, either a substitution [for akhāhu, ‘his brother’], or an explicative supplement [thereof]), [likewise] a prophet (nabiyyan, a circumstantial qualifier, constituting the import of the ‘gift’ [to Moses], which was in response to his [Moses’s] request that He [God] send forth his brother with him; he [Aaron] was older in years than him).

19:54

وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صَادِقَ الْوَعْدِ وَكَانَ رَسُولًا نَّبِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wathkur fee alkitabiismaAAeela innahu kana sadiqa alwaAAdi wakanarasoolan nabiyya

Translation

And mention in the Book, Ishmael. Indeed, he was true to his promise, and he was a messenger and a prophet.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And mention in the Book Ishmael. Indeed he was true to his promise — he never promised anything which he did not fulfil; he [once] waited for three days for someone whom he had promised [to meet]; or [it is said that he waited] an entire year until that person [finally] returned to the place in which he [Ishamel] was [supposed to have met the former]; and he was a messenger, to [the tribe of] Jurhum, a prophet [likewise].

19:55

وَكَانَ يَأْمُرُ أَهْلَهُ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَكَانَ عِندَ رَبِّهِ مَرْضِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wakana ya/muru ahlahu bissalatiwazzakati wakana AAinda rabbihi mardiyya

Translation

And he used to enjoin on his people prayer and zakah and was to his Lord pleasing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He used to enjoin upon his kinsfolk, that is, his people, prayer and the [payment of] alms, and he was pleasing to his Lord (mardiyyan, ‘pleasing’, is actually marduwwun, but both wāw letters have been changed to two yā’ letters, while the kasra vowel [has also been changed to] a damma vowel).

19:56

وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِدْرِيسَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقًا نَّبِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wathkur fee alkitabiidreesa innahu kana siddeeqan nabiyya

Translation

And mention in the Book, Idrees. Indeed, he was a man of truth and a prophet.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And mention in the Book Idrīs, who was Noah’s great-grandfather. Indeed he was a truthful one, a prophet.

19:57

وَرَفَعْنَاهُ مَكَانًا عَلِيًّا

Pronunciation

WarafaAAnahu makanan AAaliyya

Translation

And We raised him to a high station.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We raised him to a high station — he is alive in the fourth, or sixth, or seventh heaven, or [he is] in Paradise into which he was admitted after he was made to experience death and brought back to life, and he has not exited therefrom.

19:58

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِن ذُرِّيَّةِ آدَمَ وَمِمَّنْ حَمَلْنَا مَعَ نُوحٍ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْرَائِيلَ وَمِمَّنْ هَدَيْنَا وَاجْتَبَيْنَا ۚ إِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ خَرُّوا سُجَّدًا وَبُكِيًّا ۩

Pronunciation

Ola-ika allatheena anAAama AllahuAAalayhim mina annabiyyeena min thurriyyati adamawamimman hamalna maAAa noohin wamin thurriyyatiibraheema wa-isra-eela wamimman hadayna wajtabaynaitha tutla AAalayhim ayatu arrahmanikharroo sujjadan wabukiyya

Translation

Those were the ones upon whom Allah bestowed favor from among the prophets of the descendants of Adam and of those We carried [in the ship] with Noah, and of the descendants of Abraham and Israel, and of those whom We guided and chose. When the verses of the Most Merciful were recited to them, they fell in prostration and weeping.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those (ūlā’ika is the subject) to whom God has been gracious (alladhīna an‘ama’Llāhu ‘alayhim is an adjectival qualification of it [of the subject]) from among the prophets (mina’l-nabīyyīna, an explication of it [of the subject] functioning like an adjectival qualification in terms of import. That which follows it [mina’l-nabīyyīna, ‘from among the prophets’] up to [where] the conditional sentence begins, constitutes an adjectival qualification of al-nabīyyīna, ‘the prophets’; and so His saying … ) of the seed of Adam, namely, Idrīs, and of those whom We carried with Noah, in the Ark, namely, Abraham — [who is the] son of his [Noah’s] son Shem (Sām) — and of the seed of Abraham, namely, Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob, and, of the seed of, Israel — who is Jacob — namely, Moses, Aaron, Zachariah, John and Jesus, and from among those whom We guided and chose, that is to say, from among their number (the predicate of ūlā’ika, ‘those’, is [the following, idhā tutlā …]) when the signs of the Compassionate One were recited to them, they would fall down prostrating and weeping (these [sujjadan and bukīyyan] constitute the plural [forms] of sājid, ‘prostrate’, and bākin, ‘weeping’ [respectively]) in other words [what is meant is]: be [you] like them (bukiyyun is originally [formed from] bakūyyin, but the wāw is changed into a yā’ and the damma vowel into a kasra).

19:59

فَخَلَفَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ خَلْفٌ أَضَاعُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَاتَّبَعُوا الشَّهَوَاتِ ۖ فَسَوْفَ يَلْقَوْنَ غَيًّا

Pronunciation

Fakhalafa min baAAdihim khalfun adaAAooassalata wattabaAAoo ashshahawatifasawfa yalqawna ghayya

Translation

But there came after them successors who neglected prayer and pursued desires; so they are going to meet evil –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But there succeeded after them a posterity who neglected the prayer, by abandoning [performance of] it, [a posterity] such as the Jews and the Christians, and followed [their] lusts, in the way of acts of disobedience. So they shall [soon] encounter Ghayy — a valley in Hell — that is, they shall fall into it;

19:60

إِلَّا مَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ شَيْئًا

Pronunciation

Illa man taba waamanawaAAamila salihan faola-ika yadkhuloonaaljannata wala yuthlamoona shay-a

Translation

Except those who repent, believe and do righteousness; for those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged at all.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

whereas those who repent and believe and act righteously — such shall enter Paradise and shall not be wronged, they shall [not] be diminished, in any way, in their reward;

19:61

جَنَّاتِ عَدْنٍ الَّتِي وَعَدَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ عِبَادَهُ بِالْغَيْبِ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ وَعْدُهُ مَأْتِيًّا

Pronunciation

Jannati AAadnin allatee waAAada arrahmanuAAibadahu bighaybi innahu kana waAAduhuma/tiyya

Translation

[Therein are] gardens of perpetual residence which the Most Merciful has promised His servants in the unseen. Indeed, His promise has ever been coming.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

[they shall enter] Gardens of Eden, as [a place of] residence (jannāti ‘Adnin, substitutes for al-janna, ‘Paradise’) which the Compassionate One has promised to His servants [a promise] in the Unseen (bi’l-ghaybi, a circumstantial qualifier, in other words [a promise made while] they do not see it). Indeed His promise, that is to say, that which He promises, is ever fulfilled, meaning that it always arrives (the original [form of ma’tiyyan] is ma’tūyun); or [what is meant by] His promise here is Paradise, to which those deserving of it shall arrive.

19:62

لَّا يَسْمَعُونَ فِيهَا لَغْوًا إِلَّا سَلَامًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ رِزْقُهُمْ فِيهَا بُكْرَةً وَعَشِيًّا

Pronunciation

La yasmaAAoona feeha laghwanilla salaman walahum rizquhum feeha bukratanwaAAashiyya

Translation

They will not hear therein any ill speech – only [greetings of] peace – and they will have their provision therein, morning and afternoon.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Therein they shall not hear anything that is trifling, of talk, but, they shall hear, only [a greeting of] ‘Peace!’, from the angels to them, or from some among them to others. And therein they will have their provision morning and evening, in other words, according to the [equivalent] measure of these two in the [life of this] world, since there is no day or night in Paradise, only everlasting light and illumination.

19:63

تِلْكَ الْجَنَّةُ الَّتِي نُورِثُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا مَن كَانَ تَقِيًّا

Pronunciation

Tilka aljannatu allatee noorithu min AAibadinaman kana taqiyya

Translation

That is Paradise, which We give as inheritance to those of Our servants who were fearing of Allah .

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

That is the Paradise which We shall give as inheritance, [which] We shall grant and [in which] We shall lodge, those of Our servants who are God-fearing, through [their] obedience of Him.

19:64

وَمَا نَتَنَزَّلُ إِلَّا بِأَمْرِ رَبِّكَ ۖ لَهُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِينَا وَمَا خَلْفَنَا وَمَا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَمَا كَانَ رَبُّكَ نَسِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wama natanazzalu illa bi-amrirabbika lahu ma bayna aydeena wama khalfanawama bayna thalika wama kana rabbukanasiyya

Translation

[Gabriel said], “And we [angels] descend not except by the order of your Lord. To Him belongs that before us and that behind us and what is in between. And never is your Lord forgetful –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When the Revelation did not come for a number of days, the Prophet (s) said to Gabriel, ‘What prevents you from visiting us more often than you do?’ and so the following was revealed: And We do not descend except by the commandment of your Lord. To Him belongs all that is before us, namely, ahead of us, of the affairs of the Hereafter, and all that is behind us, of the affairs of this world, and all that is between those [two], namely, all that takes place from this [point in] time until the coming of the Hour, in other words, to Him belongs knowledge of all of those things. And your Lord is never forgetful, meaning that He is never neglectful of you [even] when the Revelation is postponed from [being sent to] you.

19:65

رَّبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فَاعْبُدْهُ وَاصْطَبِرْ لِعِبَادَتِهِ ۚ هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهُ سَمِيًّا

Pronunciation

Rabbu assamawati wal-ardiwama baynahuma faAAbudhu wastabirliAAibadatihi hal taAAlamu lahu samiyya

Translation

Lord of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them – so worship Him and have patience for His worship. Do you know of any similarity to Him?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He is, the Lord, the Owner, of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them. So worship Him and be steadfast in His worship, in other words, [continue to] perform it patiently. Do you know [of] anyone who could be His namesake? , [anyone] named with that [same title]? No!

19:66

وَيَقُولُ الْإِنسَانُ أَإِذَا مَا مِتُّ لَسَوْفَ أُخْرَجُ حَيًّا

Pronunciation

Wayaqoolu al-insanu a-itha mamittu lasawfa okhraju hayya

Translation

And the disbeliever says, “When I have died, am I going to be brought forth alive?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And man, the denier of the Resurrection — namely, Ubayy b. Khalaf or al-Walīd b. al-Mughīra, concerning whom the verse was revealed — says, ‘When (read a-idha, either pronouncing the second hamza, or not, but inserting an alif between the two [hamzas] in both [readings]) I am dead, shall I then be brought forth alive?’, from the grave, as Muhammad (s) says? (the interrogative [here] statement is meant as a denial, in other words [he means to say] I shall not be brought forth alive after death; mā [of mā mittu, ‘I am dead’] is extra, for emphasis, likewise [extra is] the lām [of la-sawfa, ‘shall I then’]). He [God] then responds to him with the following saying [of His], exalted be He:

19:67

أَوَلَا يَذْكُرُ الْإِنسَانُ أَنَّا خَلَقْنَاهُ مِن قَبْلُ وَلَمْ يَكُ شَيْئًا

Pronunciation

Awa la yathkuru al-insanuanna khalaqnahu min qablu walam yaku shay-a

Translation

Does man not remember that We created him before, while he was nothing?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Does not man then remember (yadhdhakaru, is actually yatadhakkaru, but the tā’ has been changed to a dhāl and assimilated with the [other] dhāl; a variant reading leaves it as yadhkuru) that We created him before, when he was nothing?, and thus infer from the first act [of creation] the [possibility of] resurrection.

19:68

فَوَرَبِّكَ لَنَحْشُرَنَّهُمْ وَالشَّيَاطِينَ ثُمَّ لَنُحْضِرَنَّهُمْ حَوْلَ جَهَنَّمَ جِثِيًّا

Pronunciation

Fawarabbika lanahshurannahum washshayateenathumma lanuhdirannahum hawla jahannama jithiyya

Translation

So by your Lord, We will surely gather them and the devils; then We will bring them to be present around Hell upon their knees.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

For by your Lord, We will surely gather them, namely, the deniers of the Resurrection, and the devils, that is to say, We shall gather every one of them with his devil [bound together] in a chain; then We shall bring them around Hell, [around] the outside of it, crouching, on their knees ([jithiyyan is] the plural of jāthin, and is originally [formed as] jathawuwwin or jathawiyyun [deriving] from [the verb] jathā, [imperfect tense] yajthu or yajthī, two [variant] forms).

19:69

ثُمَّ لَنَنزِعَنَّ مِن كُلِّ شِيعَةٍ أَيُّهُمْ أَشَدُّ عَلَى الرَّحْمَٰنِ عِتِيًّا

Pronunciation

Thumma lananziAAanna min kulli sheeAAatinayyuhum ashaddu AAala arrahmaniAAitiyya

Translation

Then We will surely extract from every sect those of them who were worst against the Most Merciful in insolence.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then We shall pluck out from every party, every sect, whichever of them was most hardened in disdain, in insolence, of the Compassionate One.

19:70

ثُمَّ لَنَحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِالَّذِينَ هُمْ أَوْلَىٰ بِهَا صِلِيًّا

Pronunciation

Thumma lanahnu aAAlamu billatheenahum awla biha siliyya

Translation

Then, surely it is We who are most knowing of those most worthy of burning therein.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then indeed We shall know best those most deserving of it, most worthy of [being in] Hell, the most hardened of them and others [like them], for the burning, for the admission [into it] and the scorching [therein], and We shall start with them ([siliyyan is] originally [formed as] salawiyyun, from [the verb] saliya or salaya).

19:71

وَإِن مِّنكُمْ إِلَّا وَارِدُهَا ۚ كَانَ عَلَىٰ رَبِّكَ حَتْمًا مَّقْضِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wa-in minkum illa wariduhakana AAala rabbika hatman maqdiyya

Translation

And there is none of you except he will come to it. This is upon your Lord an inevitability decreed.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

There is not one of you but shall come to it, that is, [but] shall enter Hell. That is an inevitability [already] decreed by your Lord, [something which] He made inevitable and [which] He decreed; He will not waive it.

19:72

ثُمَّ نُنَجِّي الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا وَّنَذَرُ الظَّالِمِينَ فِيهَا جِثِيًّا

Pronunciation

Thumma nunajjee allatheena ittaqawwanatharu aththalimeena feehajithiyya

Translation

Then We will save those who feared Allah and leave the wrongdoers within it, on their knees.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then We will deliver (read nunajjī or nunjī) those who were wary, of [committing] idolatry or disbelief, [We will deliver them] from it, and leave those who did wrong, by way of idolatry and disbelief, crouching therein, on their knees.

19:73

وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ قَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَيُّ الْفَرِيقَيْنِ خَيْرٌ مَّقَامًا وَأَحْسَنُ نَدِيًّا

Pronunciation

Wa-itha tutla AAalayhim ayatunabayyinatin qala allatheena kafaroo lillatheenaamanoo ayyu alfareeqayni khayrun maqaman waahsanunadiyya

Translation

And when Our verses are recited to them as clear evidences, those who disbelieve say to those who believe, “Which of [our] two parties is best in position and best in association?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when Our manifest, evident (bayyinātin, ‘manifest’, is a circumstantial qualifier) signs, in the Qur’ān, are recited to them, namely, [to] the believers and the disbelievers, those who disbelieve say to those who believe, ‘Which of the two parties — us or you — is better in station, in lodging and abode (read as maqāman, it is [derived] from [the first form] qāma, ‘he stood’; read as muqāman, it is [derived] from the [fourth form] aqāma, ‘he took up residence’) and more excellent in assembly?’ (nadiyyan, meaning the place in which a folk assemble and converse). They [the disbelievers] mean ‘we [are the better of the two parties]’, and so we will fare better than you. God, exalted be He, says:

19:74

وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُم مِّن قَرْنٍ هُمْ أَحْسَنُ أَثَاثًا وَرِئْيًا

Pronunciation

Wakam ahlakna qablahum min qarnin humahsanu athathan wari/ya

Translation

And how many a generation have We destroyed before them who were better in possessions and [outward] appearance?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And how many — in other words, many — a generation, that is, a community from among the communities of the past, have We destroyed before them, who were superior in [their possession of] gear, in wealth and chattel, and in appearance, [superior] as a sight (ri’yan derives from [the infinitive] al-ru’ya). Thus in the same way that We destroyed those [ones] because of their disbelief, We will destroy these [ones also].

19:75

قُلْ مَن كَانَ فِي الضَّلَالَةِ فَلْيَمْدُدْ لَهُ الرَّحْمَٰنُ مَدًّا ۚ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا رَأَوْا مَا يُوعَدُونَ إِمَّا الْعَذَابَ وَإِمَّا السَّاعَةَ فَسَيَعْلَمُونَ مَنْ هُوَ شَرٌّ مَّكَانًا وَأَضْعَفُ جُندًا

Pronunciation

Qul man kana fee addalalatifalyamdud lahu arrahmanu maddan hattaitha raaw ma yooAAadoona imma alAAathabawa-imma assaAAata fasayaAAlamoona man huwasharrun makanan waadAAafu junda

Translation

Say, “Whoever is in error – let the Most Merciful extend for him an extension [in wealth and time] until, when they see that which they were promised – either punishment [in this world] or the Hour [of resurrection] – they will come to know who is worst in position and weaker in soldiers.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say: ‘As for him who is in error (man kāna fī’l-dalālati, a conditional clause, the response to which is [fa’l-yamdud, ‘He shall prolong’ and what follows it]) the Compassionate One shall defer (fa’l-yamdud, functions in the sense of a predicate) him, from chastisement by [granting him] some respite, in this world, drawing him on [to his eventual chastisement] gradually, until, when they catch sight of that which they were promised, whether it be chastisement [in this world], by being killed or taken captive, or the Hour, the Resurrection that comprises Hell, they will enter it. Then they will surely know who is worse in [respect of] position and weaker in [respect of the number of] hosts’, in [respect of the number of] supporters, themselves or the believers? Their hosts will be the devils, while the hosts of the believers against them will be the angels.

19:76

وَيَزِيدُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ اهْتَدَوْا هُدًى ۗ وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِندَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ مَّرَدًّا

Pronunciation

Wayazeedu Allahu allatheenaihtadaw hudan walbaqiyatu assalihatukhayrun AAinda rabbika thawaban wakhayrun maradda

Translation

And Allah increases those who were guided, in guidance, and the enduring good deeds are better to your Lord for reward and better for recourse.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And God increases in guidance those who found [right] guidance, through faith, [increasing them] by way of the signs He reveals to them; and the enduring things, the righteous deeds — namely, obedience [the reward of] which endures for that person — are better in your Lord’s sight in [terms of] reward, and better in [terms of the] return, that is, as something which will be repaid and returned to him [the believer], in contrast to the deeds of the disbelievers. The [use of the qualification] khayr, ‘better’, here is meant to counter [the use of the same in] their statement, ‘Which of the two parties is better in station?’ [above, Q. 19:73].

19:77

أَفَرَأَيْتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ بِآيَاتِنَا وَقَالَ لَأُوتَيَنَّ مَالًا وَوَلَدًا

Pronunciation

Afaraayta allathee kafara bi-ayatinawaqala laootayanna malan wawalada

Translation

Then, have you seen he who disbelieved in Our verses and said, “I will surely be given wealth and children [in the next life]?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Have you seen him who disbelieves in Our signs, namely, al-‘Ās b. Wā’il, and says, to Khabbāb b. al-Aratt — who had said to him, ‘You will be resurrected after death!’, and who had requested from him repayment of money — ‘I shall assuredly be given, on the supposition that there is [such a thing as] resurrection, wealth and children?’, and so I will repay you [then]. God, exalted be He, says:

19:78

أَطَّلَعَ الْغَيْبَ أَمِ اتَّخَذَ عِندَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ عَهْدًا

Pronunciation

AttalaAAa alghayba ami ittakhathaAAinda arrahmani AAahda

Translation

Has he looked into the unseen, or has he taken from the Most Merciful a promise?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Has he come to learn [something] of the Unseen, that is, has he been given [some] knowledge of it and [of the fact] that he will be given what he has mentioned (here the interrogative hamza [of a-ittala‘a, ‘has he come to learn?’] suffices in place of the conjunctive hamza, which has therefore been omitted) or has he made a covenant with the Compassionate One?, to [the effect that he] be given what he claims?

19:79

كَلَّا ۚ سَنَكْتُبُ مَا يَقُولُ وَنَمُدُّ لَهُ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ مَدًّا

Pronunciation

Kalla sanaktubu ma yaqooluwanamuddu lahu mina alAAathabi madda

Translation

No! We will record what he says and extend for him from the punishment extensively.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Nay, he shall not be given [any of] that, but We will assuredly write down, We shall command that it be written down, that which he says and prolong for him the chastisement endlessly, We shall give him because of that [claim] an extra chastisement, in addition to the chastisement for his disbelief;

19:80

وَنَرِثُهُ مَا يَقُولُ وَيَأْتِينَا فَرْدًا

Pronunciation

Wanarithuhu ma yaqoolu waya/teenafarda

Translation

And We will inherit him [in] what he mentions, and he will come to Us alone.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and We shall take over from him that which he talks about, of wealth and children, and he shall come to Us, on the Day of Resurrection, alone, with neither wealth nor children.

19:81

وَاتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ آلِهَةً لِّيَكُونُوا لَهُمْ عِزًّا

Pronunciation

Wattakhathoo min dooni Allahialihatan liyakoonoo lahum AAizza

Translation

And they have taken besides Allah [false] deities that they would be for them [a source of] honor.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they, namely, the disbelievers of Mecca, have taken besides God, graven images [as], [other] gods, for them to worship, that they may be for them a might, [that they may be] intercessors before God, so that they will not be chastised.

19:82

كَلَّا ۚ سَيَكْفُرُونَ بِعِبَادَتِهِمْ وَيَكُونُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ ضِدًّا

Pronunciation

Kalla sayakfuroona biAAibadatihimwayakoonoona AAalayhim didda

Translation

No! Those “gods” will deny their worship of them and will be against them opponents [on the Day of Judgement].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Nay, that is to say, there is none to prevent their being chastised, but they, namely, the [idol] gods, shall reject their worship, that is, they will deny it — as [is stated] in another verse: It was not us that they used to worship [Q. 28:63]) — and they shall be [pitted] against them as opponents, enemies, supporting one another [against them].

19:83

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّا أَرْسَلْنَا الشَّيَاطِينَ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ تَؤُزُّهُمْ أَزًّا

Pronunciation

Alam tara anna arsalna ashshayateenaAAala alkafireena taozzuhum azza

Translation

Do you not see that We have sent the devils upon the disbelievers, inciting them to [evil] with [constant] incitement?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Have you not regarded that We unleash the devils against, We have set them upon, the disbelievers to urge them, to incite them to [commit] acts of disobedience, impetuously?

19:84

فَلَا تَعْجَلْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ إِنَّمَا نَعُدُّ لَهُمْ عَدًّا

Pronunciation

Fala taAAjal AAalayhim innamanaAAuddu lahum AAadda

Translation

So be not impatient over them. We only count out to them a [limited] number.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So do not make haste against them, to demand [that they receive] chastisement. Indeed We are only counting for them, the days and the nights, or [their] every breath, carefully, until the time [arrives] for their chastisement.

19:85

يَوْمَ نَحْشُرُ الْمُتَّقِينَ إِلَى الرَّحْمَٰنِ وَفْدًا

Pronunciation

Yawma nahshuru almuttaqeena ilaarrahmani wafda

Translation

On the Day We will gather the righteous to the Most Merciful as a delegation

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Mention, the day on which We shall gather those who fear God, by their [adherence to] faith, to the Compassionate One, [honoured] on mounts (wafdan, the [accusative] plural of wāfid, meaning ‘mounted’);

19:86

وَنَسُوقُ الْمُجْرِمِينَ إِلَىٰ جَهَنَّمَ وِرْدًا

Pronunciation

Wanasooqu almujrimeena ila jahannamawirda

Translation

And will drive the criminals to Hell in thirst

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and drive the guilty, [guilty] on account of their disbelief, into Hell, a thirsty herd (wirdan, the [accusative] plural of wārid, meaning ‘one who is thirsty and on foot).

19:87

لَّا يَمْلِكُونَ الشَّفَاعَةَ إِلَّا مَنِ اتَّخَذَ عِندَ الرَّحْمَٰنِ عَهْدًا

Pronunciation

La yamlikoona ashshafaAAatailla mani ittakhatha AAinda arrahmaniAAahda

Translation

None will have [power of] intercession except he who had taken from the Most Merciful a covenant.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They, namely, mankind, will not have the power to intercede, save him who has made a covenant with the Compassionate One, [the covenant being] the profession of lā ilāha illā’Llāh wa-lā hawla wa-lā quwwata illā bi’Llāh, ‘there is no god but God, and there is no power or strength except in God’.

19:88

وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وَلَدًا

Pronunciation

Waqaloo ittakhatha arrahmanuwalada

Translation

And they say, “The Most Merciful has taken [for Himself] a son.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they say, that is, the Jews and the Christians and those who claim that the angels are God’s daughters, ‘The Compassionate One has taken a son’. [But] God, exalted be He, says to them:

19:89

لَّقَدْ جِئْتُمْ شَيْئًا إِدًّا

Pronunciation

Laqad ji/tum shay-an idda

Translation

You have done an atrocious thing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Truly you have uttered something hideous, that is, a great abomination.

19:90

تَكَادُ السَّمَاوَاتُ يَتَفَطَّرْنَ مِنْهُ وَتَنشَقُّ الْأَرْضُ وَتَخِرُّ الْجِبَالُ هَدًّا

Pronunciation

Takadu assamawatuyatafattarna minhu watanshaqqu al-ardu watakhirrualjibalu hadda

Translation

The heavens almost rupture therefrom and the earth splits open and the mountains collapse in devastation

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The heavens are almost (read takādu, or yakādu) rent (read takādu tatafattarna), by being torn apart (a variant reading has yanfatirna), because of it and the earth [is almost] split asunder, and the mountains [almost] fall down crashing, collapsing on top of them, because of [the fact]:

19:91

أَن دَعَوْا لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ وَلَدًا

Pronunciation

An daAAaw lirrahmaniwalada

Translation

That they attribute to the Most Merciful a son.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

that they have ascribed a son to the Compassionate One. God, exalted be He, says:

19:92

وَمَا يَنبَغِي لِلرَّحْمَٰنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَدًا

Pronunciation

Wama yanbaghee lirrahmanian yattakhitha walada

Translation

And it is not appropriate for the Most Merciful that He should take a son.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

when it is not meet for [the Majesty of] the Compassionate One to take a son, that is to say, such a thing does not befit Him.

19:93

إِن كُلُّ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِلَّا آتِي الرَّحْمَٰنِ عَبْدًا

Pronunciation

In kullu man fee assamawatiwal-ardi illa atee arrahmaniAAabda

Translation

There is no one in the heavens and earth but that he comes to the Most Merciful as a servant.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

There is none in the heavens and the earth but he comes to the Compassionate One as a servant, servile, submissive, on the Day of Resurrection, including [individuals such as] Ezra and Jesus.

19:94

لَّقَدْ أَحْصَاهُمْ وَعَدَّهُمْ عَدًّا

Pronunciation

Laqad ahsahum waAAaddahum AAadda

Translation

He has enumerated them and counted them a [full] counting.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Verily He knows their number and has counted them precisely, and therefore [the knowledge of] their total number does not elude Him, not even [the knowledge] of one of them.

19:95

وَكُلُّهُمْ آتِيهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فَرْدًا

Pronunciation

Wakulluhum ateehi yawma alqiyamatifarda

Translation

And all of them are coming to Him on the Day of Resurrection alone.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And each one of them will come to Him on the Day of Resurrection, [each one] alone, without wealth or any helper to protect him.

19:96

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَيَجْعَلُ لَهُمُ الرَّحْمَٰنُ وُدًّا

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo assalihati sayajAAalu lahumu arrahmanuwudda

Translation

Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous deeds – the Most Merciful will appoint for them affection.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Truly those who believe and perform righteous deeds — for them the Compassionate One shall appoint love, between them, so that they have mutual love and affection, and God, exalted be He, will love them.

19:97

فَإِنَّمَا يَسَّرْنَاهُ بِلِسَانِكَ لِتُبَشِّرَ بِهِ الْمُتَّقِينَ وَتُنذِرَ بِهِ قَوْمًا لُّدًّا

Pronunciation

Fa-innama yassarnahu bilisanikalitubashshira bihi almuttaqeena watunthira bihi qawmanludda

Translation

So, [O Muhammad], We have only made Qur’an easy in the Arabic language that you may give good tidings thereby to the righteous and warn thereby a hostile people.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed We have made it easy, namely, the Qur’ān, in your tongue, only that you may bear good tidings therewith to the God-fearing, those who will be prosperous because of their faith, and warn, threaten, therewith a folk [who are] contumacious (luddan, the [accusative] plural of aladd), in other words, [extremely] disputatious, [using] false arguments — and they are the disbelievers of Mecca.

19:98

وَكَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُم مِّن قَرْنٍ هَلْ تُحِسُّ مِنْهُم مِّنْ أَحَدٍ أَوْ تَسْمَعُ لَهُمْ رِكْزًا

Pronunciation

Wakam ahlakna qablahum min qarnin haltuhissu minhum min ahadin aw tasmaAAu lahum rikza

Translation

And how many have We destroyed before them of generations? Do you perceive of them anyone or hear from them a sound?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And how many — in other words, many — a generation, namely, [how many] a community from among the communities of the past, We have destroyed before them, for their denial of [Our] messengers. Can you see, [can] you find, [so much as] one of them, or hear from them [so much as] the faintest sound? No, indeed! So, just as We destroyed those [folk], We shall destroy these [Meccans].

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