Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 18.Surat Al-Kahf (The Cave) – سورة الكهف

Surat Al-Kahf (The Cave) – سورة الكهف

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

18:1

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ عَلَىٰ عَبْدِهِ الْكِتَابَ وَلَمْ يَجْعَل لَّهُ عِوَجًا ۜ

Pronunciation

Alhamdu lillahi allatheeanzala AAala AAabdihi alkitaba walam yajAAal lahuAAiwaja

Translation

[All] praise is [due] to Allah , who has sent down upon His Servant the Book and has not made therein any deviance.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Praise — which is the attribution [to a person] of that which is beautiful — is established [as something that], belongs to God [alone], exalted be He. Now, is the intention here to point this out for the purpose of believing in it, or to praise [God] thereby, or both? All are possibilities, the most profitable of which is [to understand] the third [as being the intention behind this statement]; Who has revealed to His servant, Muhammad (s), the Book, the Qur’ān, and has not allowed for it, that is, [He has not allowed that there be] in it, any crookedness, [any] variance or contradiction (the [last] sentence [wa-lam yaj‘al lahu ‘iwajan] is a circumstantial qualifier referring to al-kitāb, ‘the Book’);

18:2

قَيِّمًا لِّيُنذِرَ بَأْسًا شَدِيدًا مِّن لَّدُنْهُ وَيُبَشِّرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ أَجْرًا حَسَنًا

Pronunciation

Qayyiman liyunthira ba/san shadeedanmin ladunhu wayubashshira almu/mineena allatheenayaAAmaloona assalihati anna lahum ajran hasana

Translation

[He has made it] straight, to warn of severe punishment from Him and to give good tidings to the believers who do righteous deeds that they will have a good reward

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

[a Book] upright, (qayyiman is a second circumstantial qualifier for [added] emphasis) to warn of, to make, by this Book, the disbelievers fear, severe chastisement from Him, from God, and to bring to the believers who perform righteous deeds the good tidings that theirs will be a fair reward,

18:3

مَّاكِثِينَ فِيهِ أَبَدًا

Pronunciation

Makitheena feehi abada

Translation

In which they will remain forever

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

wherein they will abide forever, and this [reward] is Paradise;

18:4

وَيُنذِرَ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ وَلَدًا

Pronunciation

Wayunthira allatheena qalooittakhatha Allahu walada

Translation

And to warn those who say, ” Allah has taken a son.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and to warn those, from among the disbelievers, who say, ‘God has taken a son’.

18:5

مَّا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ وَلَا لِآبَائِهِمْ ۚ كَبُرَتْ كَلِمَةً تَخْرُجُ مِنْ أَفْوَاهِهِمْ ۚ إِن يَقُولُونَ إِلَّا كَذِبًا

Pronunciation

Ma lahum bihi min AAilmin walali-aba-ihim kaburat kalimatan takhruju min afwahihimin yaqooloona illa kathiba

Translation

They have no knowledge of it, nor had their fathers. Grave is the word that comes out of their mouths; they speak not except a lie.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They do not have, in this, in this saying, any knowledge, nor did their fathers, before them, who [also] used to say this. Dreadful, grave, is the word that comes out of their mouths (kalimatan, ‘word’, is for specification and it explains the unidentified [feminine] person [of the verb, kaburat, ‘dreadful’]; and that which is the object of censure has been omitted, and that is their above-mentioned saying [that God has taken a son]). They speak nothing, thereby, but, an utterance of, lies.

18:6

فَلَعَلَّكَ بَاخِعٌ نَّفْسَكَ عَلَىٰ آثَارِهِمْ إِن لَّمْ يُؤْمِنُوا بِهَٰذَا الْحَدِيثِ أَسَفًا

Pronunciation

FalaAAallaka bakhiAAun nafsaka AAalaatharihim in lam yu/minoo bihatha alhadeethiasafa

Translation

Then perhaps you would kill yourself through grief over them, [O Muhammad], if they do not believe in this message, [and] out of sorrow.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Yet it may be that you will consume, destroy, yourself in their wake — following [your being with] them, that is, after they have left you — if they should not believe in this discourse, [in this] Qur’ān, out of grief, out of rage and anguish on your part, because of your eagerness that they believe (asafan, ‘out of grief’, is in the accusative because it functions as an object denoting reason).

18:7

إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا مَا عَلَى الْأَرْضِ زِينَةً لَّهَا لِنَبْلُوَهُمْ أَيُّهُمْ أَحْسَنُ عَمَلًا

Pronunciation

Inna jaAAalna ma AAalaal-ardi zeenatan laha linabluwahum ayyuhum ahsanuAAamala

Translation

Indeed, We have made that which is on the earth adornment for it that We may test them [as to] which of them is best in deed.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Truly We have made all that is on the earth, in the way of animals, plants, trees, rivers and so on, as an adornment for it, that We may try them, that We may test mankind observing thereby, which of them is best in conduct, therein, that is, [to see which of them] is the most abstemious of it.

18:8

وَإِنَّا لَجَاعِلُونَ مَا عَلَيْهَا صَعِيدًا جُرُزًا

Pronunciation

Wa-inna lajaAAiloona maAAalayha saAAeedan juruza

Translation

And indeed, We will make that which is upon it [into] a barren ground.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And indeed We shall turn all that is therein into barren shreds, that produce no plants.

18:9

أَمْ حَسِبْتَ أَنَّ أَصْحَابَ الْكَهْفِ وَالرَّقِيمِ كَانُوا مِنْ آيَاتِنَا عَجَبًا

Pronunciation

Am hasibta anna as-habaalkahfi warraqeemi kanoo min ayatinaAAajaba

Translation

Or have you thought that the companions of the cave and the inscription were, among Our signs, a wonder?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Or did you think, did you suppose, that the Companions of the Cave, the cavern in the mountain, and the Inscription, the tablet wherein their names and lineages had been inscribed — the Prophet (s) had been asked about their tale — were, with regard to their tale, a [unique] marvel from among, the entirety [of], Our signs? (‘ajaban, ‘a marvel’ is the predicate of [the defective verb] kāna [sc. kānū], the preceding [min āyātinā, ‘from among Our signs’] being a circumstantial qualifier). In other words, [did you suppose] that they were a marvel exclusively from among all [Our] other signs, or that they were the most marvellous among them? Not so.

18:10

إِذْ أَوَى الْفِتْيَةُ إِلَى الْكَهْفِ فَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا آتِنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ رَحْمَةً وَهَيِّئْ لَنَا مِنْ أَمْرِنَا رَشَدًا

Pronunciation

Ith awa alfityatu ilaalkahfi faqaloo rabbana atina minladunka rahmatan wahayyi/ lana min amrinarashada

Translation

[Mention] when the youths retreated to the cave and said, “Our Lord, grant us from Yourself mercy and prepare for us from our affair right guidance.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Mention, when the youths took refuge in the Cave (fitya, ‘youths’, is the plural of fatā, and denotes a mature young man) fearing for their faith from their disbelieving people, they said, ‘Our Lord! Give us mercy from Yourself and remedy for us our affair through rectitude’, [through Your] guidance.

18:11

فَضَرَبْنَا عَلَىٰ آذَانِهِمْ فِي الْكَهْفِ سِنِينَ عَدَدًا

Pronunciation

Fadarabna AAala athanihimfee alkahfi sineena AAadada

Translation

So We cast [a cover of sleep] over their ears within the cave for a number of years.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So We smote their ears, that is, We made them sleep, in the Cave for several years, for a [fixed] number of years.

18:12

ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَاهُمْ لِنَعْلَمَ أَيُّ الْحِزْبَيْنِ أَحْصَىٰ لِمَا لَبِثُوا أَمَدًا

Pronunciation

Thumma baAAathnahum linaAAlama ayyualhizbayni ahsa lima labithoo amada

Translation

Then We awakened them that We might show which of the two factions was most precise in calculating what [extent] they had remained in time.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then We aroused them, We awakened them, that We might know, a knowledge of direct vision, which of the two parties, the two groups in disagreement over the length of their stay [in the cave], was better in calculating (ahsā is [of the pattern] of af‘al, meaning ‘more precise’]) what they had tarried (li-mā labithū is semantically connected to the following) in [terms of the] length of time (amadan, [in the accusative] denotes purpose).

18:13

نَّحْنُ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ نَبَأَهُم بِالْحَقِّ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ فِتْيَةٌ آمَنُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ وَزِدْنَاهُمْ هُدًى

Pronunciation

Nahnu naqussu AAalaykanabaahum bilhaqqi innahum fityatun amanoobirabbihim wazidnahum huda

Translation

It is We who relate to you, [O Muhammad], their story in truth. Indeed, they were youths who believed in their Lord, and We increased them in guidance.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

We relate, recite, to you their story with truth, that is, truthfully. They were indeed youths who believed in their Lord, and We increased them in guidance.

18:14

وَرَبَطْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ إِذْ قَامُوا فَقَالُوا رَبُّنَا رَبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَن نَّدْعُوَ مِن دُونِهِ إِلَٰهًا ۖ لَّقَدْ قُلْنَا إِذًا شَطَطًا

Pronunciation

Warabatna AAalaquloobihim ith qamoo faqaloo rabbunarabbu assamawati wal-ardilan nadAAuwa min doonihi ilahan laqad qulna ithanshatata

Translation

And We made firm their hearts when they stood up and said, “Our Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth. Never will we invoke besides Him any deity. We would have certainly spoken, then, an excessive transgression.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We strengthened their hearts, to [enable them to] speak the truth, when they stood up, before their king, who had commanded them to prostrate to idols, and said, ‘Our Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth. We will not call on any god besides Him, that is, other than Him, for then we shall certainly have uttered an outrage, in other words, [we shall have spoken] a statement that contains shatat, meaning one of extreme disbelief, were we, hypothetically, to call on any god other than God.

18:15

هَٰؤُلَاءِ قَوْمُنَا اتَّخَذُوا مِن دُونِهِ آلِهَةً ۖ لَّوْلَا يَأْتُونَ عَلَيْهِم بِسُلْطَانٍ بَيِّنٍ ۖ فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنِ افْتَرَىٰ عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا

Pronunciation

Haola-i qawmuna ittakhathoomin doonihi alihatan lawla ya/toona AAalayhim bisultaninbayyinin faman athlamu mimmani iftara AAalaAllahi kathiba

Translation

These, our people, have taken besides Him deities. Why do they not bring for [worship of] them a clear authority? And who is more unjust than one who invents about Allah a lie?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

These (hā’ūlā’ is the subject [of the sentence]) our people (qawmunā is an explicative supplement [to the subject]) have taken gods besides Him. Why [if what they claim is true] do they not bring some clear warrant, some manifest argument, regarding them? regarding worship of these [idols]. And who does greater wrong — in other words, no one does greater wrong — than he who invents a lie against God?, by ascribing partners to Him, exalted be He. Some among the youths said to the others:

18:16

وَإِذِ اعْتَزَلْتُمُوهُمْ وَمَا يَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ فَأْوُوا إِلَى الْكَهْفِ يَنشُرْ لَكُمْ رَبُّكُم مِّن رَّحْمَتِهِ وَيُهَيِّئْ لَكُم مِّنْ أَمْرِكُم مِّرْفَقًا

Pronunciation

Wa-ithi iAAtazaltumoohum wamayaAAbudoona illa Allaha fa/woo ila alkahfiyanshur lakum rabbukum min rahmatihi wayuhayyi/ lakum minamrikum mirfaqa

Translation

[The youths said to one another], “And when you have withdrawn from them and that which they worship other than Allah , retreat to the cave. Your Lord will spread out for you of His mercy and will prepare for you from your affair facility.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when you withdraw from them and from that which they worship except God, then take refuge in the Cave. Your Lord will reveal for you something of His mercy and prepare for you in your affair some comfort’ (read mirfaqan or marfiqan), that is to say, something for you to find comfort in, in the way of lunch or supper.

18:17

وَتَرَى الشَّمْسَ إِذَا طَلَعَت تَّزَاوَرُ عَن كَهْفِهِمْ ذَاتَ الْيَمِينِ وَإِذَا غَرَبَت تَّقْرِضُهُمْ ذَاتَ الشِّمَالِ وَهُمْ فِي فَجْوَةٍ مِّنْهُ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ ۗ مَن يَهْدِ اللَّهُ فَهُوَ الْمُهْتَدِ ۖ وَمَن يُضْلِلْ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ وَلِيًّا مُّرْشِدًا

Pronunciation

Watara ashshamsa itha talaAAattazawaru AAan kahfihim thata alyameeni wa-ithagharabat taqriduhum thata ashshimaliwahum fee fajwatin minhu thalika min ayatiAllahi man yahdi Allahu fahuwa almuhtadi waman yudlilfalan tajida lahu waliyyan murshida

Translation

And [had you been present], you would see the sun when it rose, inclining away from their cave on the right, and when it set, passing away from them on the left, while they were [laying] within an open space thereof. That was from the signs of Allah . He whom Allah guides is the [rightly] guided, but he whom He leaves astray – never will you find for him a protecting guide.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And you might have seen the sun, when it rose, inclining (read tazzāwaru or tazāwaru) away from their Cave towards the right, side of it, and, when it set, go past them on the left, avoid them and pass over them, so that it does not fall on them at all, while they were in a cavern therein, in an ample space inside the Cave where the coolness and the gentle breeze of the winds reached them. That, which is mentioned, was [one] of God’s signs, [one of] the proofs of His power. Whomever God guides, he indeed is rightly guided, and whomever He leads astray, you will not find for him a guiding friend.

18:18

وَتَحْسَبُهُمْ أَيْقَاظًا وَهُمْ رُقُودٌ ۚ وَنُقَلِّبُهُمْ ذَاتَ الْيَمِينِ وَذَاتَ الشِّمَالِ ۖ وَكَلْبُهُم بَاسِطٌ ذِرَاعَيْهِ بِالْوَصِيدِ ۚ لَوِ اطَّلَعْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ لَوَلَّيْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِرَارًا وَلَمُلِئْتَ مِنْهُمْ رُعْبًا

Pronunciation

Watahsabuhum ayqathanwahum ruqoodun wanuqallibuhum thata alyameeni wathataashshimali wakalbuhum basitun thiraAAayhibilwaseedi lawi ittalaAAta AAalayhimlawallayta minhum firaran walamuli/ta minhum ruAAba

Translation

And you would think them awake, while they were asleep. And We turned them to the right and to the left, while their dog stretched his forelegs at the entrance. If you had looked at them, you would have turned from them in flight and been filled by them with terror.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And you would have supposed them — had you seen them — awake, that is, conscious, because their eyes were open (ayqāz, ‘awake’, is the plural of yaqiz), though they were asleep (ruqūd is the plural of rāqid). And We caused them to turn over to the right and to the left, lest the earth consume their flesh, and their dog [lay] stretching its forelegs, his paws, on the threshold, at the opening of the cave: whenever they turned over it would turn over just like them, both during sleep and consciousness. If you had observed them you would have turned away from them in flight and you would have been filled (read la-mulli’ta or la-muli’ta) with awe because of them (read ru‘ban or ru‘uban, ‘awe’): [it was] through this awe that God protected them from anyone entering upon them.

18:19

وَكَذَٰلِكَ بَعَثْنَاهُمْ لِيَتَسَاءَلُوا بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ قَالَ قَائِلٌ مِّنْهُمْ كَمْ لَبِثْتُمْ ۖ قَالُوا لَبِثْنَا يَوْمًا أَوْ بَعْضَ يَوْمٍ ۚ قَالُوا رَبُّكُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا لَبِثْتُمْ فَابْعَثُوا أَحَدَكُم بِوَرِقِكُمْ هَٰذِهِ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ فَلْيَنظُرْ أَيُّهَا أَزْكَىٰ طَعَامًا فَلْيَأْتِكُم بِرِزْقٍ مِّنْهُ وَلْيَتَلَطَّفْ وَلَا يُشْعِرَنَّ بِكُمْ أَحَدًا

Pronunciation

Wakathalika baAAathnahumliyatasaaloo baynahum qala qa-ilun minhumkam labithtum qaloo labithna yawman aw baAAdayawmin qaloo rabbukum aAAlamu bima labithtum fabAAathooahadakum biwariqikum hathihi ila almadeenatifalyanthur ayyuha azka taAAamanfalya/tikum birizqin minhu walyatalattaf walayushAAiranna bikum ahada

Translation

And similarly, We awakened them that they might question one another. Said a speaker from among them, “How long have you remained [here]?” They said, “We have remained a day or part of a day.” They said, “Your Lord is most knowing of how long you remained. So send one of you with this silver coin of yours to the city and let him look to which is the best of food and bring you provision from it and let him be cautious. And let no one be aware of you.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And so, just as We did with them that which We have mentioned, it was that We aroused them, We awakened them, that they might question one another, concerning their state and the length of their stay [in the cave]. One of them said, ‘How long have you tarried?’ They said, ‘We have tarried a day, or part of a day’: [he said this] because they had entered the cave at sunrise and were awakened at sunset, and so they thought that it was [the time of] sunset on the day of their entry. Then, they said, unsure about this [fact], ‘Your Lord knows best how long you have tarried. Now send one of you with this silver coin of yours (read bi-warqikum or bi-wariqikum) to the city — which is said to be the one now called Tarsus (Tarasūs) — and let him see which is the purest food, that is, which of the foods of the city is the purest, and [let him] bring you a supply thereof. Let him be careful and not make anyone aware of you.

18:20

إِنَّهُمْ إِن يَظْهَرُوا عَلَيْكُمْ يَرْجُمُوكُمْ أَوْ يُعِيدُوكُمْ فِي مِلَّتِهِمْ وَلَن تُفْلِحُوا إِذًا أَبَدًا

Pronunciation

Innahum in yathharoo AAalaykumyarjumookum aw yuAAeedookum fee millatihim walan tuflihooithan abada

Translation

Indeed, if they come to know of you, they will stone you or return you to their religion. And never would you succeed, then – ever.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

For indeed if they should come to know of you, they will [either] stone you, kill you by stoning, or make you return to their creed, and then, if you do return to their creed, you will never prosper’.

18:21

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَعْثَرْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ لِيَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَأَنَّ السَّاعَةَ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهَا إِذْ يَتَنَازَعُونَ بَيْنَهُمْ أَمْرَهُمْ ۖ فَقَالُوا ابْنُوا عَلَيْهِم بُنْيَانًا ۖ رَّبُّهُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِهِمْ ۚ قَالَ الَّذِينَ غَلَبُوا عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِمْ لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ عَلَيْهِم مَّسْجِدًا

Pronunciation

Wakathalika aAAtharnaAAalayhim liyaAAlamoo anna waAAda Allahi haqqunwaanna asaAAata la rayba feeha ithyatanazaAAoona baynahum amrahum faqaloo ibnooAAalayhim bunyanan rabbuhum aAAlamu bihim qala allatheenaghalaboo AAala amrihim lanattakhithanna AAalayhimmasjida

Translation

And similarly, We caused them to be found that they [who found them] would know that the promise of Allah is truth and that of the Hour there is no doubt. [That was] when they disputed among themselves about their affair and [then] said, “Construct over them a structure. Their Lord is most knowing about them.” Said those who prevailed in the matter, “We will surely take [for ourselves] over them a masjid.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And so, just as We aroused them, it was that We disclosed them, [to] their people and the believers, that they, that is, their people, might know that God’s promise, of resurrection, is true: by virtue of the fact that One Who has the power to make them sleep for [such] a long period of time, or sustain them in that state without nourishment, also has the power to resurrect the dead; and that, as for the Hour, there is no doubt, no uncertainty, concerning it. Behold (idh adverbially qualifies a‘tharnā, ‘We disclosed’) they were disputing, that is, the believers and the disbelievers, among themselves their affair, the affair of the youths, with regard to building something around them [as a monument]; so they, the disbelievers, said, ‘Build over them, that is, around them, a building, to cover them up; their Lord knows them best.’ Those who prevailed regarding their affair, the affair of the youths, namely, the believers, ‘We will verily set up over them, around them, a place of worship’, for prayers to be performed therein. And this indeed took place at the entrance of the cave.

18:22

سَيَقُولُونَ ثَلَاثَةٌ رَّابِعُهُمْ كَلْبُهُمْ وَيَقُولُونَ خَمْسَةٌ سَادِسُهُمْ كَلْبُهُمْ رَجْمًا بِالْغَيْبِ ۖ وَيَقُولُونَ سَبْعَةٌ وَثَامِنُهُمْ كَلْبُهُمْ ۚ قُل رَّبِّي أَعْلَمُ بِعِدَّتِهِم مَّا يَعْلَمُهُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ ۗ فَلَا تُمَارِ فِيهِمْ إِلَّا مِرَاءً ظَاهِرًا وَلَا تَسْتَفْتِ فِيهِم مِّنْهُمْ أَحَدًا

Pronunciation

Sayaqooloona thalathatun rabiAAuhumkalbuhum wayaqooloona khamsatun sadisuhum kalbuhum rajmanbilghaybi wayaqooloona sabAAatun wathaminuhumkalbuhum qul rabbee aAAlamu biAAiddatihim ma yaAAlamuhumilla qaleelun fala tumari feehim illamiraan thahiran wala tastaftifeehim minhum ahada

Translation

They will say there were three, the fourth of them being their dog; and they will say there were five, the sixth of them being their dog – guessing at the unseen; and they will say there were seven, and the eighth of them was their dog. Say, [O Muhammad], “My Lord is most knowing of their number. None knows them except a few. So do not argue about them except with an obvious argument and do not inquire about them among [the speculators] from anyone.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They will say, that is, [some of] those disputing the number of the youths [of the cave] at the time of the Prophet (s), in other words, some of these will say that they [the youths] were: ‘Three; their dog the fourth of them’; and they, some [others] among them, will say, ‘Five; their dog the sixth of them’ — both of these sayings were those of the Christians of Najrān — guessing at random, in other words, out of supposition, not having been present with them [at the time], and this [statement ‘guessing at random’] refers back to both sayings, and is in the accusative because it is an object denoting reason, in other words, [they said this] for the reason that they were [merely] supposing it. And they, that is, the believers, will say, ‘Seven; and their dog the eighth of them’ (the sentence is [part of] the subject clause, the predicate of which is the adjectival qualification of sab‘a, ‘seven’ [namely, thāminuhum, ‘the eighth of them’] with the additional wāw [wa-thāminuhum], which is said to be for emphasis, or an indication that the adjective is [semantically] attached to that which it is qualifying). The qualification of the first two sayings as being ‘random’, but not the third, is proof that [the latter] is the satisfactory and correct [number]. Say: ‘My Lord knows best their number, and none knows them except a few’: Ibn ‘Abbās said, ‘I am [one] of these “few” [described]’, and he mentioned that they were seven. So do not contend concerning them except with an outward manner [of contention], [except] with that which has been revealed to you, and do not question concerning them, do not ask for opinions [from], any of them, [from] the People of the Scripture, the Jews. The people of Mecca asked him [the Prophet] about the story of the People of the Cave, and so he said to them, ‘I will tell you about it tomorrow’, but without adding [the words], ‘If God wills’ (inshā’a’ Llāhu) and so the following was revealed:

18:23

وَلَا تَقُولَنَّ لِشَيْءٍ إِنِّي فَاعِلٌ ذَٰلِكَ غَدًا

Pronunciation

Wala taqoolanna lishay-in innee faAAilunthalika ghada

Translation

And never say of anything, “Indeed, I will do that tomorrow,”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And never say regarding something, that is, for the purpose of [doing] something, ‘I will indeed do that tomorrow’, in other words, [I will do something] at some future [point] in time,

18:24

إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَاذْكُر رَّبَّكَ إِذَا نَسِيتَ وَقُلْ عَسَىٰ أَن يَهْدِيَنِ رَبِّي لِأَقْرَبَ مِنْ هَٰذَا رَشَدًا

Pronunciation

Illa an yashaa Allahuwathkur rabbaka itha naseeta waqul AAasaan yahdiyani rabbee li-aqraba min hatha rashada

Translation

Except [when adding], “If Allah wills.” And remember your Lord when you forget [it] and say, “Perhaps my Lord will guide me to what is nearer than this to right conduct.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

without [adding], ‘If God will’, in other words, unless [firmly] adhering to the will of God, exalted be He, by saying, ‘If God will’ (inshā’a’Llāh). And remember your Lord, that is, [remember] His will, making [things] conditional on it, if you forget, to make [things] conditional on it: mentioning it after forgetting [it] is the equal [in validity] to mentioning it at the time of the statement — as al-Hasan [al-Basrī] and others have said — as long as the person is still in the [same] place [in which he made the statement]. And say, ‘May be my Lord will guide me to [something] closer [in time] than this, [closer] than the story of the People of the Cave, as an indication of [the truth of] my prophethood, by way of guidance, and God indeed did so.

18:25

وَلَبِثُوا فِي كَهْفِهِمْ ثَلَاثَ مِائَةٍ سِنِينَ وَازْدَادُوا تِسْعًا

Pronunciation

Walabithoo fee kahfihim thalathami-atin sineena wazdadoo tisAAa

Translation

And they remained in their cave for three hundred years and exceeded by nine.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they tarried in the Cave three hundred (read [with tanwīn] thalāthami’atin) years (sinīn is an explicative supplement to thalāthami’atin, ‘three hundred’): these three hundred years in the case of the People of the Cave were solar years; but for [the number of] lunar ones, the Arabs add nine years thereto, and this is mentioned in His saying: and add nine, that is, nine years; in other words three hundred solar years, while three hundred and nine lunar ones.

18:26

قُلِ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا لَبِثُوا ۖ لَهُ غَيْبُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ أَبْصِرْ بِهِ وَأَسْمِعْ ۚ مَا لَهُم مِّن دُونِهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا يُشْرِكُ فِي حُكْمِهِ أَحَدًا

Pronunciation

Quli Allahu aAAlamu bimalabithoo lahu ghaybu assamawati wal-ardiabsir bihi waasmiAA ma lahum min doonihi minwaliyyin wala yushriku fee hukmihi ahada

Translation

Say, ” Allah is most knowing of how long they remained. He has [knowledge of] the unseen [aspects] of the heavens and the earth. How Seeing is He and how Hearing! They have not besides Him any protector, and He shares not His legislation with anyone.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say: ‘God is more knowledgeable of how long they tarried, [more knowledgeable] than those contending over this [issue] — and this [fact] has already been mentioned [above, verse 19]. To Him belongs the Unseen of the heavens and the earth, that is, [to Him belongs] the knowledge thereof. How well He sees!, namely, God — this form is for [expressing] amazement [at something]. How well He hears!, likewise [for expressing amazement]. These two [expressions] are being used metaphorically. What is meant is that nothing can escape God’s sight or hearing. They, the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth, have no guardian, someone to assist [them], besides Him, and He makes none to share in His rule’, for He is Independent, without need of a partner.

18:27

وَاتْلُ مَا أُوحِيَ إِلَيْكَ مِن كِتَابِ رَبِّكَ ۖ لَا مُبَدِّلَ لِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَلَن تَجِدَ مِن دُونِهِ مُلْتَحَدًا

Pronunciation

Watlu ma oohiya ilaykamin kitabi rabbika la mubaddila likalimatihiwalan tajida min doonihi multahada

Translation

And recite, [O Muhammad], what has been revealed to you of the Book of your Lord. There is no changer of His words, and never will you find in other than Him a refuge.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And recite that which has been revealed to you of the Book of your Lord. There is none who can change His words. And you will not find, besides Him, any refuge.

18:28

وَاصْبِرْ نَفْسَكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ رَبَّهُم بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ يُرِيدُونَ وَجْهَهُ ۖ وَلَا تَعْدُ عَيْنَاكَ عَنْهُمْ تُرِيدُ زِينَةَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَا تُطِعْ مَنْ أَغْفَلْنَا قَلْبَهُ عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَاتَّبَعَ هَوَاهُ وَكَانَ أَمْرُهُ فُرُطًا

Pronunciation

Wasbir nafsaka maAAa allatheenayadAAoona rabbahum bilghadati walAAashiyyiyureedoona wajhahu wala taAAdu AAaynaka AAanhumtureedu zeenata alhayati addunya walatutiAA man aghfalna qalbahu AAan thikrinawattabaAAa hawahu wakana amruhu furuta

Translation

And keep yourself patient [by being] with those who call upon their Lord in the morning and the evening, seeking His countenance. And let not your eyes pass beyond them, desiring adornments of the worldly life, and do not obey one whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance and who follows his desire and whose affair is ever [in] neglect.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And restrain yourself, detain [yourself], along with those who call upon their Lord at morning and evening, desiring, through their worship, His Countenance, exalted be He, and not any of the transient things of this world — and these are the poor; and do not let your eyes overlook, turn away [from], them — these [the eyes] are being used to refer to the person [addressed] — desiring the glitter of the life of this world. And do not obey him whose heart We have made oblivious to Our remembrance, that is, [to] the Qur’ān — this was ‘Uyayna b. Hisn and his companions — and who follows his own whim, by attributing partners [to God], and whose conduct is [mere] prodigality, excess.

18:29

وَقُلِ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ ۖ فَمَن شَاءَ فَلْيُؤْمِن وَمَن شَاءَ فَلْيَكْفُرْ ۚ إِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ نَارًا أَحَاطَ بِهِمْ سُرَادِقُهَا ۚ وَإِن يَسْتَغِيثُوا يُغَاثُوا بِمَاءٍ كَالْمُهْلِ يَشْوِي الْوُجُوهَ ۚ بِئْسَ الشَّرَابُ وَسَاءَتْ مُرْتَفَقًا

Pronunciation

Waquli alhaqqu min rabbikum faman shaafalyu/min waman shaa falyakfur inna aAAtadnaliththalimeena naran ahatabihim suradiquha wa-in yastagheethoo yughathoobima-in kalmuhli yashwee alwujooha bi/sa ashsharabuwasaat murtafaqa

Translation

And say, “The truth is from your Lord, so whoever wills – let him believe; and whoever wills – let him disbelieve.” Indeed, We have prepared for the wrongdoers a fire whose walls will surround them. And if they call for relief, they will be relieved with water like murky oil, which scalds [their] faces. Wretched is the drink, and evil is the resting place.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And say, to him and to his companions that this Qur’ān is, ‘The truth [that comes] from your Lord; so whoever will, let him believe, and whoever will, let him disbelieve’ — this is [meant as] a threat to them. Indeed We have prepared for the wrongdoers, that is, the disbelievers, a Fire, and they will be surrounded by its pavilion, [by] that which encloses [the Fire itself]. If they cry out for help, they will be succoured with water like molten copper, like thick [burning] oil, which scalds faces, because of [the intensity of] its heat, if it is brought near them. What an evil drink, that is, and how ill, is the Fire [as], a resting-place! (murtafaqan is a specification derived from the agent of the verb, in other words, vile is the person choosing to rest thereon; and this is in contrast to what He will say next about Paradise: How fair a resting-place [below, verse 31]. For, indeed, what resting-place can there be in the Fire?

18:30

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ إِنَّا لَا نُضِيعُ أَجْرَ مَنْ أَحْسَنَ عَمَلًا

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo assalihati inna lanudeeAAu ajra man ahsana AAamala

Translation

Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous deeds – indeed, We will not allow to be lost the reward of any who did well in deeds.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Truly those who believe and perform righteous deeds — indeed We do not leave the reward of those of good deeds to go to waste (this [last] sentence is the predicate of the [previous] inna’lladhīna, ‘truly those who’, and in it an overt identification [of the recipients of the reward] has replaced the [would-be] pronominalisation, in other words, it is ‘their reward’ [which shall not be left to go to waste], and We will reward them with what it [the reward of good-doers] comprises).

18:31

أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتُ عَدْنٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهِمُ الْأَنْهَارُ يُحَلَّوْنَ فِيهَا مِنْ أَسَاوِرَ مِن ذَهَبٍ وَيَلْبَسُونَ ثِيَابًا خُضْرًا مِّن سُندُسٍ وَإِسْتَبْرَقٍ مُّتَّكِئِينَ فِيهَا عَلَى الْأَرَائِكِ ۚ نِعْمَ الثَّوَابُ وَحَسُنَتْ مُرْتَفَقًا

Pronunciation

Ola-ika lahum jannatu AAadnintajree min tahtihimu al-anharu yuhallawnafeeha min asawira min thahabin waylbasoonathiyaban khudran min sundusin wa-istabraqinmuttaki-eena feeha AAala al-ara-iki niAAma aththawabuwahasunat murtafaqa

Translation

Those will have gardens of perpetual residence; beneath them rivers will flow. They will be adorned therein with bracelets of gold and will wear green garments of fine silk and brocade, reclining therein on adorned couches. Excellent is the reward, and good is the resting place.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those, for them there shall be Gardens of Eden, as a [place of] residence, underneath which rivers flow; therein they shall be adorned with bracelets of gold (min asāwir: it is said that min here is either extra or partitive; it [asāwir] is the plural of aswira — similar [in pattern] to ahmira [for himār] — which is the plural of siwār) and they shall wear green garments of fine silk (sundus) and [heavy] silk brocade (istabraq is that [silk] which is coarse: [God says] in the verse of [sūrat] al-Rahmān [Q. 55:54], lined with [heavy] silk brocade); reclining therein on couches (arā’ik is the plural of arīka, which is a bed inside a [curtained] canopy, and is also a tent adorned with garments and curtains for a bride). How excellent a reward, a requital, is Paradise, and how fair a resting-place!

18:32

وَاضْرِبْ لَهُم مَّثَلًا رَّجُلَيْنِ جَعَلْنَا لِأَحَدِهِمَا جَنَّتَيْنِ مِنْ أَعْنَابٍ وَحَفَفْنَاهُمَا بِنَخْلٍ وَجَعَلْنَا بَيْنَهُمَا زَرْعًا

Pronunciation

Wadrib lahum mathalanrajulayni jaAAalna li-ahadihima jannataynimin aAAnabin wahafafnahuma binakhlinwajaAAalna baynahuma zarAAa

Translation

And present to them an example of two men: We granted to one of them two gardens of grapevines, and We bordered them with palm trees and placed between them [fields of] crops.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And strike, coin, for them, for the disbelievers together with the believers, a similitude: two men (rajulayn is a substitute [for mathalan, ‘a similitude’] and constitutes, together with what follows, an explanation of the similitude), to one of whom, the disbeliever, We had assigned two gardens, orchards, of vines, and We had surrounded them with date-palms and had set between them [a field of] crops, from which he acquired [his] food supplies.

18:33

كِلْتَا الْجَنَّتَيْنِ آتَتْ أُكُلَهَا وَلَمْ تَظْلِم مِّنْهُ شَيْئًا ۚ وَفَجَّرْنَا خِلَالَهُمَا نَهَرًا

Pronunciation

Kilta aljannatayni atat okulahawalam tathlim minhu shay-an wafajjarna khilalahumanahara

Translation

Each of the two gardens produced its fruit and did not fall short thereof in anything. And We caused to gush forth within them a river.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Each of the two gardens (kiltā, ‘each [of the two]’ is a singular [noun] that indicates a dual [number]; and [the entire clause] is the subject) yielded (ātat is the predicate thereof) its produce, its fruit, without stinting, diminishing, anything thereof. And We caused a stream to gush forth therein, to run through them.

18:34

وَكَانَ لَهُ ثَمَرٌ فَقَالَ لِصَاحِبِهِ وَهُوَ يُحَاوِرُهُ أَنَا أَكْثَرُ مِنكَ مَالًا وَأَعَزُّ نَفَرًا

Pronunciation

Wakana lahu thamarun faqala lisahibihiwahuwa yuhawiruhu ana aktharu minka malanwaaAAazzu nafara

Translation

And he had fruit, so he said to his companion while he was conversing with him, “I am greater than you in wealth and mightier in [numbers of] men.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And he had, together with his two gardens, fruit (read thamar, thumur, or thumr, [all of which constitute] the plural of thamra, [sing.] ‘a fruit’, similar [in pattern] to shajara [pl.] shajar, khashaba [pl.] khushb, or badana [pl.] budn) and he said to his companion, the believer, as he conversed with him, boasting before him: ‘I have more wealth than you and am stronger in respect of men’, in respect of clansmen.

18:35

وَدَخَلَ جَنَّتَهُ وَهُوَ ظَالِمٌ لِّنَفْسِهِ قَالَ مَا أَظُنُّ أَن تَبِيدَ هَٰذِهِ أَبَدًا

Pronunciation

Wadakhala jannatahu wahuwa thalimunlinafsihi qala ma athunnu an tabeedahathihi abada

Translation

And he entered his garden while he was unjust to himself. He said, “I do not think that this will perish – ever.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And he entered his garden, [taking] with him his companion, accompanying him all around it, showing him its fruits — God does not say [here] his ‘two gardens’, because what is meant is the beautiful [part of the] garden (rawda); or because [to mention just] one suffices — having wronged himself, through [his] disbelief. He said, ‘I do not think that [all] this will ever perish, become non-existent.

18:36

وَمَا أَظُنُّ السَّاعَةَ قَائِمَةً وَلَئِن رُّدِدتُّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّي لَأَجِدَنَّ خَيْرًا مِّنْهَا مُنقَلَبًا

Pronunciation

Wama athunnu assaAAataqa-imatan wala-in rudidtu ila rabbee laajidannakhayran minha munqalaba

Translation

And I do not think the Hour will occur. And even if I should be brought back to my Lord, I will surely find better than this as a return.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Moreover, I do not think that the Hour will ever come; and [even] if I am indeed returned to my Lord, in the Hereafter, according to your claim, I shall surely find better than this as a resort’, as a [place of] return.

18:37

قَالَ لَهُ صَاحِبُهُ وَهُوَ يُحَاوِرُهُ أَكَفَرْتَ بِالَّذِي خَلَقَكَ مِن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ سَوَّاكَ رَجُلًا

Pronunciation

Qala lahu sahibuhu wahuwa yuhawiruhuakafarta billathee khalaqaka min turabinthumma min nutfatin thumma sawwaka rajula

Translation

His companion said to him while he was conversing with him, “Have you disbelieved in He who created you from dust and then from a sperm-drop and then proportioned you [as] a man?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

His companion said to him, as he conversed with him, responding to him: ‘Do you disbelieve in Him Who created you of dust — as Adam was created of it — then of a drop of fluid, [of] semen, then fashioned you, made you upright and gave you the form of, a man?

18:38

لَّٰكِنَّا هُوَ اللَّهُ رَبِّي وَلَا أُشْرِكُ بِرَبِّي أَحَدًا

Pronunciation

Lakinna huwa Allahu rabbee walaoshriku birabbee ahada

Translation

But as for me, He is Allah , my Lord, and I do not associate with my Lord anyone.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But lo (lākinnā is actually [made up of] lākin anā, ‘but I … ’, where the hamza vowel has [either] been transferred onto the nūn [of lākin], or omitted [altogether] with the nūn assimilated with the like of it) He [is] (huwa, this is the pronoun of the [subject] matter [to be stated] and is clarified by the sentence that follows it: the meaning [in other words] is ‘[But, it is that] I say that [He is]’) God, my Lord, and I do not ascribe any partner to my Lord.

18:39

وَلَوْلَا إِذْ دَخَلْتَ جَنَّتَكَ قُلْتَ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ ۚ إِن تَرَنِ أَنَا أَقَلَّ مِنكَ مَالًا وَوَلَدًا

Pronunciation

Walawla ith dakhalta jannatakaqulta ma shaa Allahu la quwwata illabillahi in tarani ana aqalla minka malanwawalada

Translation

And why did you, when you entered your garden, not say, ‘What Allah willed [has occurred]; there is no power except in Allah ‘? Although you see me less than you in wealth and children,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if only when you entered your garden, you had said, upon admiring it, ‘This is “What God has willed. There is no power except in God”. In a hadīth [it is stated that]: ‘Whoever is given something good in the way of family or wealth and upon receiving it says, “What God wills [comes to pass]; there is no power except in God” (mā shā’a’Llāh lā quwwata illā bi’Llāh), he will never experience any ill therefrom’. If you see me (anā is a pronoun separating two direct objects) as less than you in wealth and children,

18:40

فَعَسَىٰ رَبِّي أَن يُؤْتِيَنِ خَيْرًا مِّن جَنَّتِكَ وَيُرْسِلَ عَلَيْهَا حُسْبَانًا مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ فَتُصْبِحَ صَعِيدًا زَلَقًا

Pronunciation

FaAAasa rabbee an yu/tiyani khayranmin jannatika wayursila AAalayha husbananmina assama-i fatusbiha saAAeedanzalaqa

Translation

It may be that my Lord will give me [something] better than your garden and will send upon it a calamity from the sky, and it will become a smooth, dusty ground,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

maybe my Lord will give me [something] better than your garden (this is the response to the conditional clause [beginning with lawlā, ‘and if only’]) and unleash upon it bolts (husbān is the plural of husbāna), that is to say, thunderbolts, from the heaven so that it becomes a bare plain, a [piece of] smooth ground upon which no foot can stand firm;

18:41

أَوْ يُصْبِحَ مَاؤُهَا غَوْرًا فَلَن تَسْتَطِيعَ لَهُ طَلَبًا

Pronunciation

Aw yusbiha maohaghawran falan tastateeAAa lahu talaba

Translation

Or its water will become sunken [into the earth], so you would never be able to seek it.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

or [maybe] its water will sink [deep] down (ghawran functions in meaning like ghā’iran, and it constitutes a supplement to yursila, ‘He [will] unleash’, but not [a supplement] to tusbiha, ‘it becomes’, because the sinking of water [deep into the earth] does not [necessarily] result from thunderbolts) so that you have no means of acquiring it’, no possible way of reaching it.

18:42

وَأُحِيطَ بِثَمَرِهِ فَأَصْبَحَ يُقَلِّبُ كَفَّيْهِ عَلَىٰ مَا أَنفَقَ فِيهَا وَهِيَ خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَىٰ عُرُوشِهَا وَيَقُولُ يَا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُشْرِكْ بِرَبِّي أَحَدًا

Pronunciation

Waoheeta bithamarihi faasbahayuqallibu kaffayhi AAala ma anfaqa feehawahiya khawiyatun AAala AAurooshihawayaqoolu ya laytanee lam oshrik birabbee ahada

Translation

And his fruits were encompassed [by ruin], so he began to turn his hands about [in dismay] over what he had spent on it, while it had collapsed upon its trellises, and said, “Oh, I wish I had not associated with my Lord anyone.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And his fruit was beset, through the curbing measures mentioned above, [it was beset] together with his garden by destruction and were thus ruined, and so he began to wring his hands, out of regret and anguish, because of what he had spent on it, on the cultivation of his garden, as it lay fallen, [having] collapsed, on its trellises, those supporting the vines, so that [first] these collapsed and then the vine-grapes collapsed [after them], saying, ‘O (yā is for exclamation) I wish I had not ascribed any partner to my Lord!’

18:43

وَلَمْ تَكُن لَّهُ فِئَةٌ يَنصُرُونَهُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَمَا كَانَ مُنتَصِرًا

Pronunciation

Walam takun lahu fi-atun yansuroonahumin dooni Allahi wama kana muntasira

Translation

And there was for him no company to aid him other than Allah , nor could he defend himself.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But there was no (read takun or yakun) party, [no] persons, to help him, besides God, at the moment of its destruction, nor could he help himself, at the moment of its destruction, [all by] himself.

18:44

هُنَالِكَ الْوَلَايَةُ لِلَّهِ الْحَقِّ ۚ هُوَ خَيْرٌ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ عُقْبًا

Pronunciation

Hunalika alwalayatu lillahialhaqqi huwa khayrun thawaban wakhayrun AAuqba

Translation

There the authority is [completely] for Allah , the Truth. He is best in reward and best in outcome.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

There, that is, [on] the Day of Resurrection, [all] protection (walāya; if read wilāya, then [it means] ‘sovereignty’) belongs to God, the True (if read as al-haqqu then it is as an adjective qualifying walāya [or wilāya], or [if] read as al-haqqi, then it is an attribute of [God’s] Majesty). He is better at rewarding, than the rewarding of any [person] other than Him, if such [a person] were [in a position to] reward; and best in consequence (read ‘uquban or ‘uqban), [He is best] in terms of the consequence for believers (both [thawāban, ‘rewarding’, and ‘uqban, ‘consequence’] are in the accusative for [the purpose of] specification).

18:45

وَاضْرِبْ لَهُم مَّثَلَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا كَمَاءٍ أَنزَلْنَاهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فَاخْتَلَطَ بِهِ نَبَاتُ الْأَرْضِ فَأَصْبَحَ هَشِيمًا تَذْرُوهُ الرِّيَاحُ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُّقْتَدِرًا

Pronunciation

Wadrib lahum mathala alhayatiaddunya kama-in anzalnahu mina assama-ifakhtalata bihi nabatu al-ardi faasbahahasheeman tathroohu arriyahu wakanaAllahu AAala kulli shay-in muqtadira

Translation

And present to them the example of the life of this world, [its being] like rain which We send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it and [then] it becomes dry remnants, scattered by the winds. And Allah is ever, over all things, Perfect in Ability.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And strike, draw, for them, your people, the similitude of the life of this world (mathala’l-hayāti’l-dunyā constitutes the first direct object) as water (ka-mā’in, the second direct object) which We send down out from the heaven, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it, [the vegetation] multiplies by the sending down of the water; or it is that the water mixes with the vegetation such that it is nourished and flourishes; and it then becomes, the vegetation becomes, chaff, dried up, its [various] parts [broken up] in fragments, scattered, strewn and dispersed, by the winds, which then blow it away. The import is: [the life of] this world is likened to flourishing vegetation which then becomes dry, is broken up and scattered by the winds (a variant reading [for riyāh, ‘winds’] has rīh). And God is Omnipotent, Powerful, over all things.

18:46

الْمَالُ وَالْبَنُونَ زِينَةُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَالْبَاقِيَاتُ الصَّالِحَاتُ خَيْرٌ عِندَ رَبِّكَ ثَوَابًا وَخَيْرٌ أَمَلًا

Pronunciation

Almalu walbanoona zeenatu alhayatiaddunya walbaqiyatu assalihatukhayrun AAinda rabbika thawaban wakhayrun amala

Translation

Wealth and children are [but] adornment of the worldly life. But the enduring good deeds are better to your Lord for reward and better for [one’s] hope.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Wealth and children are an adornment of the life of this world, [adornment] with which one arrays oneself therein. But the enduring things, the righteous deeds — and these are: ‘Glory be to God’ (subhāna’Llāh), ‘Praise be to God’ (al-hāmdu li’Llāh), ‘There is no god but God (lā ilāha illā’Llāh), ‘God is Great’ (Allāhu akbar); some add [the following] ‘There is no power or strength except in God’ (lā hawla wa-lā quwwata illā bi’Llāh) — [these] are better with your Lord for reward and better in [respect of] hope, in other words, [they are better] in terms of what a person hopes for and desires from God, exalted be He.

18:47

وَيَوْمَ نُسَيِّرُ الْجِبَالَ وَتَرَى الْأَرْضَ بَارِزَةً وَحَشَرْنَاهُمْ فَلَمْ نُغَادِرْ مِنْهُمْ أَحَدًا

Pronunciation

Wayawma nusayyiru aljibala wataraal-arda barizatan wahasharnahum falamnughadir minhum ahada

Translation

And [warn of] the Day when We will remove the mountains and you will see the earth prominent, and We will gather them and not leave behind from them anyone.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, the day when the mountains shall be set in motion — they shall be removed from the face of the earth and become ‘[as] scattered dust’ [Q. 56:6] (a variant reading [for tusayyaru’l-jibālu] has nusayyiru’l-jibāla, ‘We shall set the mountains in motion’) and you will see the earth exposed, manifest [in full view], with no mountain or anything else on top of it. And We shall gather them, believers and disbelievers, such that We will not leave out anyone of them.

18:48

وَعُرِضُوا عَلَىٰ رَبِّكَ صَفًّا لَّقَدْ جِئْتُمُونَا كَمَا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ ۚ بَلْ زَعَمْتُمْ أَلَّن نَّجْعَلَ لَكُم مَّوْعِدًا

Pronunciation

WaAAuridoo AAala rabbika saffanlaqad ji/tumoona kama khalaqnakum awwalamarratin bal zaAAamtum allan najAAala lakum mawAAida

Translation

And they will be presented before your Lord in rows, [and He will say], “You have certainly come to Us just as We created you the first time. But you claimed that We would never make for you an appointment.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they shall be presented before your Lord in ranks (saffan is a circumstantial qualifier) in other words, ranged so that every community is in a row [on its own], and it shall be said to them: ‘Verily you have come to Us just as We created you the first time, that is to say, individually, barefoot, naked and uncircumcised; and it shall be said to the deniers of the Resurrection: rather you claimed that (a [of allan] is an, softened in place of the hardened one, in other words [it is to be understood as] annahu) We would not appoint for you a tryst’, for resurrection.

18:49

وَوُضِعَ الْكِتَابُ فَتَرَى الْمُجْرِمِينَ مُشْفِقِينَ مِمَّا فِيهِ وَيَقُولُونَ يَا وَيْلَتَنَا مَالِ هَٰذَا الْكِتَابِ لَا يُغَادِرُ صَغِيرَةً وَلَا كَبِيرَةً إِلَّا أَحْصَاهَا ۚ وَوَجَدُوا مَا عَمِلُوا حَاضِرًا ۗ وَلَا يَظْلِمُ رَبُّكَ أَحَدًا

Pronunciation

WawudiAAa alkitabu fataraalmujrimeena mushfiqeena mimma feehi wayaqooloona yawaylatana ma lihatha alkitabi layughadiru sagheeratan wala kabeeratan illaahsaha wawajadoo ma AAamiloo hadiranwala yathlimu rabbuka ahada

Translation

And the record [of deeds] will be placed [open], and you will see the criminals fearful of that within it, and they will say, “Oh, woe to us! What is this book that leaves nothing small or great except that it has enumerated it?” And they will find what they did present [before them]. And your Lord does injustice to no one.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And the Book shall be set in place, the Book of every man — in his right hand, if [he is from] among the believers, and in his left hand, if [he is from] among the disbelievers. And you will see the guilty, the disbelievers, apprehensive, fearful, of what is in it, and they will say, when they observe the evil deeds [recorded] in it: ‘O (yā is for exclamation) woe to us!, [O this is] our destruction! (this [form waylatanā] is a verbal noun, but in this form it cannot be [conjugated as] a verb) What is it with this Book that it leaves out neither small nor great, from among our sins, but [instead it] has counted it?’, enumerated it and fixed it [in the record] — they are stupefied by it in this respect. And they shall find all that they did present, fixed [in writing] in their [individual] Book. And your Lord does not wrong anyone, He does not punish him [if he is] without guilt, nor does He diminish [anything of] the reward of a believer.

18:50

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ فَفَسَقَ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِ ۗ أَفَتَتَّخِذُونَهُ وَذُرِّيَّتَهُ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِي وَهُمْ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ ۚ بِئْسَ لِلظَّالِمِينَ بَدَلًا

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qulna lilmala-ikatiosjudoo li-adama fasajadoo illa ibleesa kanamina aljinni fafasaqa AAan amri rabbihi afatattakhithoonahuwathurriyyatahu awliyaa min doonee wahum lakumAAaduwwun bi/sa liththalimeena badala

Translation

And [mention] when We said to the angels, “Prostrate to Adam,” and they prostrated, except for Iblees. He was of the jinn and departed from the command of his Lord. Then will you take him and his descendants as allies other than Me while they are enemies to you? Wretched it is for the wrongdoers as an exchange.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when (idh is dependent because it is governed by [an implicit] udhkur, ‘mention [when]’) We said to the angels, ‘Prostrate before Adam’, a prostration involving a bow, not placing one’s forehead down [to the ground], as a greeting to him; and so they prostrated, [all] except Iblīs. He was [one] of the jinn — some say that these [creatures] are a species of angels, in which case the exceptive clause [illā Iblīs, ‘except Iblīs’] is a continuous one; but it is also said to be discontinuous, since Iblīs is [considered] the progenitor of [all] the jinn, having offspring who are mentioned alongside him further below; angels, on the other hand, do not have offspring; and he transgressed against his Lord’s command, that is to say, he rebelled against obedience to Him by refraining from [performing] the prostration. Will you then take him and his offspring — this address is to Adam and his progeny (the [final pronominal suffix] hā’ in both words refers to Iblīs) for your patrons instead of Me, obeying them, when they are an enemy to you?, in other words, [when they are your] enemies (wa-hum lakum ‘aduwwun is a circumstantial qualifier). How evil for the evildoers is that substitute!, of Iblīs and his offspring, in obeying them instead of obeying God.

18:51

مَّا أَشْهَدتُّهُمْ خَلْقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَلَا خَلْقَ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَمَا كُنتُ مُتَّخِذَ الْمُضِلِّينَ عَضُدًا

Pronunciation

Ma ashhadtuhum khalqa assamawatiwal-ardi wala khalqa anfusihim wamakuntu muttakhitha almudilleena AAaduda

Translation

I did not make them witness to the creation of the heavens and the earth or to the creation of themselves, and I would not have taken the misguiders as assistants.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

I did not make them a witness, that is, Iblīs and his offspring, to the creation of the heavens and the earth, nor to their own creation, that is to say, I did not make any of them present at the [moment of the] creation of the other. Nor do I take misleaders, devils, as [My] support, as assistants in [the process of] creation, so why do you obey them?

18:52

وَيَوْمَ يَقُولُ نَادُوا شُرَكَائِيَ الَّذِينَ زَعَمْتُمْ فَدَعَوْهُمْ فَلَمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَهُمْ وَجَعَلْنَا بَيْنَهُم مَّوْبِقًا

Pronunciation

Wayawma yaqoolu nadoo shuraka-iyaallatheena zaAAamtum fadaAAawhum falam yastajeeboo lahumwajaAAalna baynahum mawbiqa

Translation

And [warn of] the Day when He will say, “Call ‘My partners’ whom you claimed,” and they will invoke them, but they will not respond to them. And We will put between them [a valley of] destruction.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And the day (yawma is in the accusative because it is governed by [the implicit] udhkur, ‘mention’) when He will say (yaqūl, or [it may be] read as naqūl, ‘We will say’), ‘Call those partners of Mine, [those] graven images, as you used to claim’, let them intercede for you in the way you used to claim; and then they will call them, but they will not respond to their call, they will not answer them, and We shall set between them, between the graven images and those who worship them, a gulf of doom — a valley from among the valleys of Hell, in which they shall all be destroyed (the term [mawbiq] derives from [the verb] wabaqa meaning halaka, ‘he was destroyed’).

18:53

وَرَأَى الْمُجْرِمُونَ النَّارَ فَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُم مُّوَاقِعُوهَا وَلَمْ يَجِدُوا عَنْهَا مَصْرِفًا

Pronunciation

Waraa almujrimoona annarafathannoo annahum muwaqiAAooha walamyajidoo AAanha masrifa

Translation

And the criminals will see the Fire and will be certain that they are to fall therein. And they will not find from it a way elsewhere.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And the criminals will behold the Fire and realise that, are certain that, they are about to fall into it. And they will find no means of avoiding it, of circumventing [it].

18:54

وَلَقَدْ صَرَّفْنَا فِي هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنِ لِلنَّاسِ مِن كُلِّ مَثَلٍ ۚ وَكَانَ الْإِنسَانُ أَكْثَرَ شَيْءٍ جَدَلًا

Pronunciation

Walaqad sarrafna fee hathaalqur-ani linnasi min kulli mathalin wakanaal-insanu akthara shay-in jadala

Translation

And We have certainly diversified in this Qur’an for the people from every [kind of] example; but man has ever been, most of anything, [prone to] dispute.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily We have dispensed, We have explained, for mankind in this Qur’ān [an example] of every kind of similitude (min kulli mathalin is an adjective qualifying an omitted clause, in other words, ‘[We have dispensed therein] a similitude from every kind of similitude), that they may be admonished. But man is most disputatious, [he is] most contentious in matters of falsehood (jadalan is a specification derived from [al-insān, ‘man’] the subject of kāna) in other words, the meaning is that the disputatiousness of man is what can be found in him most.

18:55

وَمَا مَنَعَ النَّاسَ أَن يُؤْمِنُوا إِذْ جَاءَهُمُ الْهُدَىٰ وَيَسْتَغْفِرُوا رَبَّهُمْ إِلَّا أَن تَأْتِيَهُمْ سُنَّةُ الْأَوَّلِينَ أَوْ يَأْتِيَهُمُ الْعَذَابُ قُبُلًا

Pronunciation

Wama manaAAa annasa anyu/minoo ith jaahumu alhuda wayastaghfiroorabbahum illa an ta/tiyahum sunnatu al-awwaleena awya/tiyahumu alAAathabu qubula

Translation

And nothing has prevented the people from believing when guidance came to them and from asking forgiveness of their Lord except that there [must] befall them the [accustomed] precedent of the former peoples or that the punishment should come [directly] before them.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And nothing prevented people, that is, the disbelievers of Mecca, from believing (an yu’minū is [after al-nāsa, ‘people’] constitutes the second direct object clause) when the guidance, the Qur’ān, came to them, and from asking forgiveness of their Lord, without that there should come upon them the precedent of the ancients (sunnatu’l-awwalīn constitutes the subject of the verb) that is to say, Our precedent of dealing with them, which is the destruction decreed for them, or that the chastisement should come upon them before their very eyes, in front of them and for them to see — which was their being killed on the day of Badr (a variant reading [for qibalan] has qubulan, which [in the accusative] is the plural of qabīlin, meaning, ‘of various kinds’).

18:56

وَمَا نُرْسِلُ الْمُرْسَلِينَ إِلَّا مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ ۚ وَيُجَادِلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِالْبَاطِلِ لِيُدْحِضُوا بِهِ الْحَقَّ ۖ وَاتَّخَذُوا آيَاتِي وَمَا أُنذِرُوا هُزُوًا

Pronunciation

Wama nursilu almursaleena illamubashshireena wamunthireena wayujadilu allatheenakafaroo bilbatili liyudhidoo bihi alhaqqawattakhathoo ayatee wama onthiroohuzuwa

Translation

And We send not the messengers except as bringers of good tidings and warners. And those who disbelieve dispute by [using] falsehood to [attempt to] invalidate thereby the truth and have taken My verses, and that of which they are warned, in ridicule.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We do not send messengers except as bearers of good tidings, to believers, and as warners, as threateners to disbelievers. But those who disbelieve dispute with falsehood, when they say that, ‘Has God sent a human as a messenger [from Him]?’ [Q. 17:94] and the like of such [statements], that they may refute thereby, that by way of their disputing they may invalidate, the truth, the Qur’ān. And they have taken My signs, namely, the Qur’ān, and that whereof they have been warned, in the way of the Fire, derisively, in mockery.

18:57

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن ذُكِّرَ بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِ فَأَعْرَضَ عَنْهَا وَنَسِيَ مَا قَدَّمَتْ يَدَاهُ ۚ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَا عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ أَكِنَّةً أَن يَفْقَهُوهُ وَفِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرًا ۖ وَإِن تَدْعُهُمْ إِلَى الْهُدَىٰ فَلَن يَهْتَدُوا إِذًا أَبَدًا

Pronunciation

Waman athlamu mimman thukkirabi-ayati rabbihi faaAArada AAanhawanasiya ma qaddamat yadahu inna jaAAalnaAAala quloobihim akinnatan an yafqahoohu wafee athanihimwaqran wa-in tadAAuhum ila alhuda falan yahtadoo ithanabada

Translation

And who is more unjust than one who is reminded of the verses of his Lord but turns away from them and forgets what his hands have put forth? Indeed, We have placed over their hearts coverings, lest they understand it, and in their ears deafness. And if you invite them to guidance – they will never be guided, then – ever.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And who does greater wrong than he who has been reminded of the signs of his Lord, yet turns away from them and forgets what his hands have sent ahead?, what he has committed in the way of disbelief and acts of disobedience. Indeed on their hearts We have cast veils, coverings, lest they should understand it, that is, lest they should comprehend the Qur’ān, in other words, and so [as a result] they do not comprehend it; and in their ears a deafness, a heaviness, and so they do not hear it; and though you call them to guidance, they will not be guided in that case, that is, given the casting [of veils] mentioned, ever.

18:58

وَرَبُّكَ الْغَفُورُ ذُو الرَّحْمَةِ ۖ لَوْ يُؤَاخِذُهُم بِمَا كَسَبُوا لَعَجَّلَ لَهُمُ الْعَذَابَ ۚ بَل لَّهُم مَّوْعِدٌ لَّن يَجِدُوا مِن دُونِهِ مَوْئِلًا

Pronunciation

Warabbuka alghafooru thoo arrahmatilaw yu-akhithuhum bima kasaboo laAAajjalalahumu alAAathaba bal lahum mawAAidun lan yajidoo mindoonihi maw-ila

Translation

And your Lord is the Forgiving, full of mercy. If He were to impose blame upon them for what they earned, He would have hastened for them the punishment. Rather, for them is an appointment from which they will never find an escape.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And your Lord is the Forgiver, Full of Mercy. Were He to take them to task, in this world, for what they have earned, He would have hastened for them the chastisement, therein; but they have a tryst, which is the Day of Resurrection, from which they will not find any escape, any refuge.

18:59

وَتِلْكَ الْقُرَىٰ أَهْلَكْنَاهُمْ لَمَّا ظَلَمُوا وَجَعَلْنَا لِمَهْلِكِهِم مَّوْعِدًا

Pronunciation

Watilka alqura ahlaknahum lammathalamoo wajaAAalna limahlikihim mawAAida

Translation

And those cities – We destroyed them when they wronged, and We made for their destruction an appointed time.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those towns, that is to say, the inhabitants of those [towns], such as ‘Ād and Thamūd, as well as others, We destroyed them when they did evil, [when] they disbelieved, and We appointed for their destruction (a variant reading [for mahlikihim] has muhlakihim) a tryst.

18:60

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِفَتَاهُ لَا أَبْرَحُ حَتَّىٰ أَبْلُغَ مَجْمَعَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ أَوْ أَمْضِيَ حُقُبًا

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qala moosa lifatahula abrahu hatta ablugha majmaAAa albahrayniaw amdiya huquba

Translation

And [mention] when Moses said to his servant, “I will not cease [traveling] until I reach the junction of the two seas or continue for a long period.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, when Moses, son of Amram (‘Imrān), said to his lad, Joshua son of Nun (Yūsha‘ bin Nūn), who used to follow him around, serve him and acquire knowledge from him, ‘I will not give up, I will not stop journeying, until I have reached the juncture of the two seas — the point where the Byzantine sea and the Persian sea meet, beyond the east, — though I march on for ages’, for a very long time before reaching it, if it be far.

18:61

فَلَمَّا بَلَغَا مَجْمَعَ بَيْنِهِمَا نَسِيَا حُوتَهُمَا فَاتَّخَذَ سَبِيلَهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ سَرَبًا

Pronunciation

Falamma balagha majmaAAabaynihima nasiya hootahuma fattakhathasabeelahu fee albahri saraba

Translation

But when they reached the junction between them, they forgot their fish, and it took its course into the sea, slipping away.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So when they reached a juncture between the two, between the two seas, they forgot their fish — Joshua forgot his luggage [leaving it behind] at the moment of departure, and Moses forgot to remind him — and so it, the fish, made its way into the sea, that is, it formed it — through God’s forming it — by burrowing, that is, like [through] a burrow, which is a passage that is long and enclosed; this was [so] because God, exalted be He, held back the flow of the water [preventing it] from [engulfing] the fish and it [the water] withdrew from around it [the fish] and remained thus like a cleft without closing, and what was beneath it [the cleft] stood still.

18:62

فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَا قَالَ لِفَتَاهُ آتِنَا غَدَاءَنَا لَقَدْ لَقِينَا مِن سَفَرِنَا هَٰذَا نَصَبًا

Pronunciation

Falamma jawaza qalalifatahu atina ghadaana laqadlaqeena min safarina hatha nasaba

Translation

So when they had passed beyond it, [Moses] said to his boy, “Bring us our morning meal. We have certainly suffered in this, our journey, [much] fatigue.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when they had made the traverse, of that location, having journeyed until the morning of the following day, he, Moses, said to his lad, ‘Bring us our breakfast, (ghadā’) that [meal] which is consumed at the beginning of the day. We have certainly encountered on this journey of ours much fatigue’, exhaustion, which took its effect [on them] after the traverse.

18:63

قَالَ أَرَأَيْتَ إِذْ أَوَيْنَا إِلَى الصَّخْرَةِ فَإِنِّي نَسِيتُ الْحُوتَ وَمَا أَنسَانِيهُ إِلَّا الشَّيْطَانُ أَنْ أَذْكُرَهُ ۚ وَاتَّخَذَ سَبِيلَهُ فِي الْبَحْرِ عَجَبًا

Pronunciation

Qala araayta ith awaynaila assakhrati fa-innee naseetu alhootawama ansaneehu illa ashshaytanuan athkurahu wattakhatha sabeelahu fee albahriAAajaba

Translation

He said, “Did you see when we retired to the rock? Indeed, I forgot [there] the fish. And none made me forget it except Satan – that I should mention it. And it took its course into the sea amazingly”.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Do you see? — in other words, remember, when we sheltered at the rock, in that location, indeed I forgot the fish — and none but Satan made me forget (al-shaytān, ‘Satan’, substitutes for the [suffixed pronoun] hā’ [of ansānī-hu]) to mention it (an adhkurahu, an inclusive substitution, in other words [it should be understood as] ansānī dhikrahu, ‘he [Satan] made me forget the mentioning of it’) — and it, the fish, made its way into the sea in an amazing manner’ (‘ajaban constitutes the second direct object), that is to say, Moses and his lad were amazed by it, because of what has already been explained concerning it.

18:64

قَالَ ذَٰلِكَ مَا كُنَّا نَبْغِ ۚ فَارْتَدَّا عَلَىٰ آثَارِهِمَا قَصَصًا

Pronunciation

Qala thalika ma kunnanabghi fartadda AAala atharihimaqasasa

Translation

[Moses] said, “That is what we were seeking.” So they returned, following their footprints.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Said he, Moses, ‘That, namely, our losing the fish, is what we have been seeking!’, what we have been after, for it is a sign for us of the presence of the one whom we seek. So they turned back, retracing their footsteps, until they reached the rock.

18:65

فَوَجَدَا عَبْدًا مِّنْ عِبَادِنَا آتَيْنَاهُ رَحْمَةً مِّنْ عِندِنَا وَعَلَّمْنَاهُ مِن لَّدُنَّا عِلْمًا

Pronunciation

Fawajada AAabdan min AAibadinaataynahu rahmatan min AAindinawaAAallamnahu min ladunna AAilma

Translation

And they found a servant from among Our servants to whom we had given mercy from us and had taught him from Us a [certain] knowledge.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So [there] they found one of Our servants, namely, al-Khidr, to whom We had given mercy from Us — according to one opinion this [mercy] was prophethood; according to another it was authority, and this [latter] is the opinion of the majority of scholars — and We had taught him knowledge from Us (‘ilman is the second direct object), in other words, some knowledge of unseen things; al-Bukhārī reports the [following] hadīth: ‘Moses was delivering a sermon among the Children of Israel and was asked, “Who is the most knowledgeable of people?”, to which he [Moses] said, “Myself”. God then reproached him for not having attributed [his] knowledge as [coming] from Him. God then revealed to him the following: “Truly, there is a servant of Mine at the juncture of the two seas; he is more knowledgeable than you”. Moses then asked, “My Lord, how do I reach him?” He [God] said, ‘Take a fish with you and place it in a basket and [the place] where you lose the fish will be [the place] where he is.” He [Moses] took a fish and placed it in a basket and departed together with his lad Joshua son of Nun until they reached the rock. [There] they placed their heads back and fell asleep. The fish began to move about in the basket, until it escaped from it and fell into the sea, and it made its way into the sea in an amazing manner. God then held back the flow of the water [preventing it] from [engulfing] the fish, forming a kind of arch over it. When he awoke, his companion [Joshua] forgot to inform him of [what had happened to] the fish, and so they journeyed on for the remainder of that day and night until on the morning [of the second day] Moses said to his lad, ‘Bring us our breakfast’, to where he says, and it made its way into the sea in an amazing manner’. He [Bukhārī] said, ‘For the fish, it [the way into the sea] was [by] ‘burrowing’ (saraban), and for Moses and his lad it [this way] was ‘amazing’ (‘ajaban) …’ [and so on] to the end [of Bukhārī’s report].

18:66

قَالَ لَهُ مُوسَىٰ هَلْ أَتَّبِعُكَ عَلَىٰ أَن تُعَلِّمَنِ مِمَّا عُلِّمْتَ رُشْدًا

Pronunciation

Qala lahu moosa halattabiAAuka AAala an tuAAallimani mimma AAullimtarushda

Translation

Moses said to him, “May I follow you on [the condition] that you teach me from what you have been taught of sound judgement?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Moses said to him, ‘May I follow you for the purpose that you teach me of what you have been taught [in the way] of probity?’, namely, [something] of right conduct through which I might be rightly-guided (a variant reading [for rashadan] has rushdan, ‘probity’); he asked him this because to increase [one’s] knowledge is [something which is] always sought.

18:67

قَالَ إِنَّكَ لَن تَسْتَطِيعَ مَعِيَ صَبْرًا

Pronunciation

Qala innaka lan tastateeAAamaAAiya sabra

Translation

He said, “Indeed, with me you will never be able to have patience.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Said he, ‘Truly you will not be able to bear with me.

18:68

وَكَيْفَ تَصْبِرُ عَلَىٰ مَا لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهِ خُبْرًا

Pronunciation

Wakayfa tasbiru AAala malam tuhit bihi khubra

Translation

And how can you have patience for what you do not encompass in knowledge?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And how can you bear with that whereof you have never been informed?’: in the above-mentioned hadīth [of Bukhārī] after this verse [there is the following statement]: ‘O Moses, I possess knowledge which God has taught me and which you do not have, and [equally] you possess knowledge which God has taught you and which I do not have’. (His saying khubran, ‘informed’, is a verbal noun meaning that which you have never encompassed, in other words, the truth of which you have never been informed of.)

18:69

قَالَ سَتَجِدُنِي إِن شَاءَ اللَّهُ صَابِرًا وَلَا أَعْصِي لَكَ أَمْرًا

Pronunciation

Qala satajidunee in shaa Allahusabiran wala aAAsee laka amra

Translation

[Moses] said, “You will find me, if Allah wills, patient, and I will not disobey you in [any] order.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘You will find me, God willing, patient, and I will not disobey, in other words, and [you will also find me] non-disobedient [towards], you in any matter’, with which you charge me. He [Moses] made this [statement] conditional upon the Will [of God] because he was not confident of himself in what he had committed himself to. Indeed, this is the custom of prophets and saints, namely, that they do not put their trust in themselves for a single moment.

18:70

قَالَ فَإِنِ اتَّبَعْتَنِي فَلَا تَسْأَلْنِي عَن شَيْءٍ حَتَّىٰ أُحْدِثَ لَكَ مِنْهُ ذِكْرًا

Pronunciation

Qala fa-ini ittabaAAtanee falatas-alnee AAan shay-in hatta ohditha lakaminhu thikra

Translation

He said, “Then if you follow me, do not ask me about anything until I make to you about it mention.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘If you follow me then do not question me (lā tas’alnī, a variant reading has lā tas’alannī) concerning anything, that you might find objectionable in what I do, according to your [limited] knowledge, and be patient, until I [myself] make mention of it to you’, in other words, [until] I mention it to you with [an explication of] the reason for it. Moses accepted his precondition bearing in mind the respect which a student should exercise in the presence of a teacher.

18:71

فَانطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا رَكِبَا فِي السَّفِينَةِ خَرَقَهَا ۖ قَالَ أَخَرَقْتَهَا لِتُغْرِقَ أَهْلَهَا لَقَدْ جِئْتَ شَيْئًا إِمْرًا

Pronunciation

Fantalaqa hattaitha rakiba fee assafeenati kharaqahaqala akharaqtaha litughriqa ahlaha laqadji/ta shay-an imra

Translation

So they set out, until when they had embarked on the ship, al-Khidh r tore it open. [Moses] said, “Have you torn it open to drown its people? You have certainly done a grave thing.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So they set off, making their way on foot along the coast of the sea, until, when they embarked on the ship, which was carrying them, he, al-Khidr, made a hole in it, by destroying a plank or two on the starboard side with an axe after they had sailed into deep waters. Said he, Moses, to him, ‘Did you make a hole in it to drown its people? (li-tughriqa ahlahā, ‘for you to drown its people’; a variant reading has li-yaghraqa ahluhā, ‘so that its people might drown’). You have certainly done a dreadful thing’, that is, a grave and reprehensible thing — it is reported that the water did not [actually] penetrate it.

18:72

قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُلْ إِنَّكَ لَن تَسْتَطِيعَ مَعِيَ صَبْرًا

Pronunciation

Qala alam aqul innaka lan tastateeAAamaAAiya sabra

Translation

[Al-Khidh r] said, “Did I not say that with me you would never be able to have patience?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Did I not say [that] you would not be able to bear with me?’

18:73

قَالَ لَا تُؤَاخِذْنِي بِمَا نَسِيتُ وَلَا تُرْهِقْنِي مِنْ أَمْرِي عُسْرًا

Pronunciation

Qala la tu-akhithneebima naseetu wala turhiqnee min amree AAusra

Translation

[Moses] said, “Do not blame me for what I forgot and do not cover me in my matter with difficulty.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Do not take me to task on account of that which I forgot, that is, [on account of the fact that] I was not mindful of submitting to you [in the matter] and of refraining from showing disapproval of your actions, and do not exhaust me, [do not] charge me, in this affair of mine with difficulty’, [with] hardship during my companionship of you, in other words, treat me throughout it with forgiveness and indulgence.

18:74

فَانطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا لَقِيَا غُلَامًا فَقَتَلَهُ قَالَ أَقَتَلْتَ نَفْسًا زَكِيَّةً بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ لَّقَدْ جِئْتَ شَيْئًا نُّكْرًا

Pronunciation

Fantalaqa hattaitha laqiya ghulaman faqatalahu qalaaqatalta nafsan zakiyyatan bighayri nafsin laqad ji/ta shay-annukra

Translation

So they set out, until when they met a boy, al-Khidh r killed him. [Moses] said, “Have you killed a pure soul for other than [having killed] a soul? You have certainly done a deplorable thing.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So they set off, after leaving the ship, making their way on foot, until, when they met a boy, who had not yet reached puberty, playing with [other] boys, among whom his face was the fairest — and he, al-Khidr, slew him, by slitting his throat with a knife while he lay down, or by tearing his head off with his hand, or by smashing his head against a wall, all of which are [different] opinions (the coordinating fā’ [of fa-qatalahu, ‘and he slew him’] is used here because [it indicates that] the slaying took place after the encounter; the response to idhā, ‘when’ is [the following statement, qāla …]) — he, Moses, said, to him: ‘Have you slain an innocent soul, that is, a pure one that had not reached the age of [legal] responsibility (a variant reading [for zākiya] has zakiyya), [one slain] not in retaliation for another soul?, in other words, one that has not slain any soul. Verily you have committed an dreadful thing’ (read nukran or nukuran), that is to say, an abomination.

18:75

قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكَ إِنَّكَ لَن تَسْتَطِيعَ مَعِيَ صَبْرًا

Pronunciation

Qala alam aqul laka innaka lan tastateeAAamaAAiya sabra

Translation

[Al-Khidh r] said, “Did I not tell you that with me you would never be able to have patience?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘Did I not say to you that you would never be able to bear with me?’ (laka, ‘to you’, has been added to that [same statement] which was made before because this time there could not be any excuse [for Moses’s impatience].

18:76

قَالَ إِن سَأَلْتُكَ عَن شَيْءٍ بَعْدَهَا فَلَا تُصَاحِبْنِي ۖ قَدْ بَلَغْتَ مِن لَّدُنِّي عُذْرًا

Pronunciation

Qala in saaltuka AAan shay-in baAAdahafala tusahibnee qad balaghta min ladunnee AAuthra

Translation

[Moses] said, “If I should ask you about anything after this, then do not keep me as a companion. You have obtained from me an excuse.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And for this reason, he said, ‘If I ask you about anything after this, after this instance, then do not keep me in your company, do not allow me to follow you, for truly you [will] have found from me (read ladunnī or ladunī), on my part, [sufficient enough] excuse’, for you to part company with me.

18:77

فَانطَلَقَا حَتَّىٰ إِذَا أَتَيَا أَهْلَ قَرْيَةٍ اسْتَطْعَمَا أَهْلَهَا فَأَبَوْا أَن يُضَيِّفُوهُمَا فَوَجَدَا فِيهَا جِدَارًا يُرِيدُ أَن يَنقَضَّ فَأَقَامَهُ ۖ قَالَ لَوْ شِئْتَ لَاتَّخَذْتَ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا

Pronunciation

Fantalaqa hattaitha ataya ahla qaryatin istatAAamaahlaha faabaw an yudayyifoohuma fawajadafeeha jidaran yureedu an yanqadda faaqamahuqala law shi/ta lattakhathta AAalayhi ajra

Translation

So they set out, until when they came to the people of a town, they asked its people for food, but they refused to offer them hospitality. And they found therein a wall about to collapse, so al-Khidh r restored it. [Moses] said, “If you wished, you could have taken for it a payment.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So they set off, until, when they came to the folk of a [certain] town, namely, Antioch (Antākya), they asked its folk for food, they asked them for food by way of hospitality, but they refused to extend them any hospitality. They then found in it a wall, one hundred cubits high, about to collapse, that is, it was close to falling down because of its tilt; so he, al-Khidr, straightened it, with his [own] hands. He, Moses, said, to him, ‘Had you wished, you could have taken (a variant reading [for la-ttakhadhta] has la-takhidhta) a wage for it’, some [sort of] payment, since they did not extend us any hospitality despite our need for food.

18:78

قَالَ هَٰذَا فِرَاقُ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنِكَ ۚ سَأُنَبِّئُكَ بِتَأْوِيلِ مَا لَمْ تَسْتَطِع عَّلَيْهِ صَبْرًا

Pronunciation

Qala hatha firaqubaynee wabaynika saonabbi-oka bita/weeli ma lam tastatiAAAAalayhi sabra

Translation

[Al-Khidh r] said, “This is parting between me and you. I will inform you of the interpretation of that about which you could not have patience.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Said he, al-Khidr, to him, ‘This is the parting, that is, the moment for parting, between me and you (baynī wa-baynika, here [the preposition] bayna has been annexed to a non-multiple [noun], but this is allowed [grammatically] because it is then repeated with [its other noun together with] the coordinating wāw). I will inform you, before I part company with you, the interpretation of that over which you were not able to maintain patience.

18:79

أَمَّا السَّفِينَةُ فَكَانَتْ لِمَسَاكِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ فِي الْبَحْرِ فَأَرَدتُّ أَنْ أَعِيبَهَا وَكَانَ وَرَاءَهُم مَّلِكٌ يَأْخُذُ كُلَّ سَفِينَةٍ غَصْبًا

Pronunciation

Amma assafeenatu fakanatlimasakeena yaAAmaloona fee albahri faaradtu anaAAeebaha wakana waraahum malikun ya/khuthukulla safeenatin ghasba

Translation

As for the ship, it belonged to poor people working at sea. So I intended to cause defect in it as there was after them a king who seized every [good] ship by force.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

As for the ship, it belonged to poor people, ten [in number], who earned a living on the sea, with it, leasing it [to others], as a way of gaining [a living]; and I wanted to make it defective, for behind them, whenever they returned — or [meaning] before them now — was a king, a disbeliever, seizing every ship, that was usable, by force (ghasban, is in the accusative as a verbal noun containing an explanation of the nature of such ‘seizure’).

18:80

وَأَمَّا الْغُلَامُ فَكَانَ أَبَوَاهُ مُؤْمِنَيْنِ فَخَشِينَا أَن يُرْهِقَهُمَا طُغْيَانًا وَكُفْرًا

Pronunciation

Waamma alghulamu fakanaabawahu mu/minayni fakhasheena an yurhiqahumatughyanan wakufra

Translation

And as for the boy, his parents were believers, and we feared that he would overburden them by transgression and disbelief.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And as for the boy, his parents were believers and We feared lest he should overwhelm them with insolence and disbelief — for he is as [described] by the hadīth of Muslim, ‘He was [incorrigibly] disposed to disbelief, and had he lived [longer] this [disposition of his] would have oppressed them, because of their love for him, they would have followed him in such [a path of disbelief]’.

18:81

فَأَرَدْنَا أَن يُبْدِلَهُمَا رَبُّهُمَا خَيْرًا مِّنْهُ زَكَاةً وَأَقْرَبَ رُحْمًا

Pronunciation

Faaradna an yubdilahumarabbuhuma khayran minhu zakatan waaqraba ruhma

Translation

So we intended that their Lord should substitute for them one better than him in purity and nearer to mercy.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So We desired that their Lord should give them in exchange (read yubaddilahumā or yubdilahumā) one better than him in purity, that is, in righteousness and God-fearing, and closer, than him, to mercy (read ruhman or ruhuman, in other words [it is to be understood as] rahmatan, ‘by way of mercy’) namely, [closer to] dutifulness towards his parents. Thus God, exalted be He, gave them in exchange a girl, who [afterwards] married a prophet and gave birth to a prophet through whom God guided an entire community.

18:82

وَأَمَّا الْجِدَارُ فَكَانَ لِغُلَامَيْنِ يَتِيمَيْنِ فِي الْمَدِينَةِ وَكَانَ تَحْتَهُ كَنزٌ لَّهُمَا وَكَانَ أَبُوهُمَا صَالِحًا فَأَرَادَ رَبُّكَ أَن يَبْلُغَا أَشُدَّهُمَا وَيَسْتَخْرِجَا كَنزَهُمَا رَحْمَةً مِّن رَّبِّكَ ۚ وَمَا فَعَلْتُهُ عَنْ أَمْرِي ۚ ذَٰلِكَ تَأْوِيلُ مَا لَمْ تَسْطِع عَّلَيْهِ صَبْرًا

Pronunciation

Waamma aljidaru fakanalighulamayni yateemayni fee almadeenati wakana tahtahukanzun lahuma wakana aboohuma salihanfaarada rabbuka an yablugha ashuddahumawayastakhrija kanzahuma rahmatan min rabbikawama faAAaltuhu AAan amree thalika ta/weelu malam tastiAA AAalayhi sabra

Translation

And as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys in the city, and there was beneath it a treasure for them, and their father had been righteous. So your Lord intended that they reach maturity and extract their treasure, as a mercy from your Lord. And I did it not of my own accord. That is the interpretation of that about which you could not have patience.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And as for the wall, it belonged to two orphan boys [who lived] in the city, and beneath it there was a treasure, a buried trove of gold and silver, belonging to them. Their father had been a righteous man, and so because of his righteousness they were protected both in [terms of] their souls and their possessions, and your Lord desired that they should come of age, that is, [He desired for them] the attainment of maturity, and extract their treasure as a mercy from your Lord (rahmatan min rabbik is a direct object denoting reason, operated by [the verb] arāda, ‘He desired’). And I did not do it, namely, what has been mentioned of [his] making a hole in the ship, the slaying of the boy and the repair of the wall, of my own accord, that is, [out of] my own choosing; nay, it was because of a command in the form of an inspiration from God. This is the interpretation of that over which you could not maintain patience’ (one may say istā‘a or istatā‘a to mean ‘he had the capacity for [something]’; in this instance and the previous one both forms [of the verb] have been used. Moreover, there is a variety of expression in the use of fa-aradtu, ‘I desired’, fa-aradnā, ‘We desired’, and fa-arāda rabbuk, ‘Your Lord desired’).

18:83

وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَن ذِي الْقَرْنَيْنِ ۖ قُلْ سَأَتْلُو عَلَيْكُم مِّنْهُ ذِكْرًا

Pronunciation

Wayas-aloonaka AAan thee alqarnayniqul saatloo AAalaykum minhu thikra

Translation

And they ask you, [O Muhammad], about Dhul-Qarnayn. Say, “I will recite to you about him a report.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they, the Jews, question you concerning Dhū’l-Qarnayn, whose name was Alexander; he was not a prophet. Say: ‘I shall recite, relate, to you a mention, an account, of him’, of his affair.

18:84

إِنَّا مَكَّنَّا لَهُ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَآتَيْنَاهُ مِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ سَبَبًا

Pronunciation

Inna makkanna lahu fee al-ardiwaataynahu min kulli shay-in sababa

Translation

Indeed We established him upon the earth, and We gave him to everything a way.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Indeed We empowered him throughout the land, by facilitating [for him] the journeying therein, and We gave him to everything, of which one might have need, a way, a route to lead him to that which he sought.

18:85

فَأَتْبَعَ سَبَبًا

Pronunciation

FaatbaAAa sababa

Translation

So he followed a way

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And he followed a way, he took a route towards the west,

18:86

حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغَ مَغْرِبَ الشَّمْسِ وَجَدَهَا تَغْرُبُ فِي عَيْنٍ حَمِئَةٍ وَوَجَدَ عِندَهَا قَوْمًا ۗ قُلْنَا يَا ذَا الْقَرْنَيْنِ إِمَّا أَن تُعَذِّبَ وَإِمَّا أَن تَتَّخِذَ فِيهِمْ حُسْنًا

Pronunciation

Hatta itha balaghamaghriba ashshamsi wajadaha taghrubu fee AAaynin hami-atinwawajada AAindaha qawman qulna ya thaalqarnayni imma an tuAAaththiba wa-imma antattakhitha feehim husna

Translation

Until, when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it [as if] setting in a spring of dark mud, and he found near it a people. Allah said, “O Dhul-Qarnayn, either you punish [them] or else adopt among them [a way of] goodness.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

until, when he reached the setting of the sun, the place where it sets, he found it setting in a muddy spring (‘ayn hami’a: [a spring] containing ham’a, which is black clay): its setting in a spring is [described as seen] from the perspective of the eye, for otherwise it is far larger [in size] than this world; and he found by it, that is, [by] the spring, a folk, of disbelievers. We said, ‘O Dhū’l-Qarnayn — by [means of] inspiration — either chastise, the folk, by slaying [them], or treat them kindly’, by [merely] taking them captive.

18:87

قَالَ أَمَّا مَن ظَلَمَ فَسَوْفَ نُعَذِّبُهُ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِ فَيُعَذِّبُهُ عَذَابًا نُّكْرًا

Pronunciation

Qala amma man thalamafasawfa nuAAaththibuhu thumma yuraddu ila rabbihifayuAAaththibuhu AAathaban nukra

Translation

He said, “As for one who wrongs, we will punish him. Then he will be returned to his Lord, and He will punish him with a terrible punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘As for him who does wrong, by way of [practising] idolatry, we shall chastise him, We shall slay him. Then he shall be returned to his Lord and He shall chastise him with an awful chastisement (read nukran or nukuran), that is, a severe [one], in the Fire.

18:88

وَأَمَّا مَنْ آمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُ جَزَاءً الْحُسْنَىٰ ۖ وَسَنَقُولُ لَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِنَا يُسْرًا

Pronunciation

Waamma man amana waAAamila salihanfalahu jazaan alhusna wasanaqoolu lahu minamrina yusra

Translation

But as for one who believes and does righteousness, he will have a reward of Paradise, and we will speak to him from our command with ease.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But as for him who believes and acts righteously, he shall have the fairest reward, namely, Paradise (the annexation construction [jazā’u l-husnā, ‘the fairest reward’] is explicative; a variant reading has jazā’an al-husnā, ‘[he shall have] as a requital that which is fairest’; al-Farrā’ said that this accusative [reading of jazā’an] is [intended] as an explanation [of the nature of the requital] by way of attribution [to ‘that which is fairest’]; and we shall speak to him mildly in our command’, that is to say, we shall command him with what he will find easy [to bear].

18:89

ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَ سَبَبًا

Pronunciation

Thumma atbaAAa sababa

Translation

Then he followed a way

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then he followed a way, towards the east,

18:90

حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغَ مَطْلِعَ الشَّمْسِ وَجَدَهَا تَطْلُعُ عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ لَّمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُم مِّن دُونِهَا سِتْرًا

Pronunciation

Hatta itha balagha matliAAaashshamsi wajadaha tatluAAu AAalaqawmin lam najAAal lahum min dooniha sitra

Translation

Until, when he came to the rising of the sun, he found it rising on a people for whom We had not made against it any shield.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

until, when he reached the rising of the sun, the place where it rises, he found it rising on a folk, namely, Negroes (zanj), for whom We had not provided against it, that is, [against] the sun, any [form of] cover, in the way of clothing or roofing, as their land could not support any structures; they had underground tunnels into which they would disappear at the rising of the sun and out of which they would emerge when it was at its highest point [in the sky].

18:91

كَذَٰلِكَ وَقَدْ أَحَطْنَا بِمَا لَدَيْهِ خُبْرًا

Pronunciation

Kathalika waqad ahatnabima ladayhi khubra

Translation

Thus. And We had encompassed [all] that he had in knowledge.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So [it was], in other words, the situation was as We have stated; and We encompassed whatever pertained to him, that is, what Dhū’l-Qarnayn possessed in the way of machinery, men and otherwise, in knowledge.

18:92

ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَ سَبَبًا

Pronunciation

Thumma atbaAAa sababa

Translation

Then he followed a way

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then he followed a way,

18:93

حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغَ بَيْنَ السَّدَّيْنِ وَجَدَ مِن دُونِهِمَا قَوْمًا لَّا يَكَادُونَ يَفْقَهُونَ قَوْلًا

Pronunciation

Hatta itha balaghabayna assaddayni wajada min doonihima qawman layakadoona yafqahoona qawla

Translation

Until, when he reached [a pass] between two mountains, he found beside them a people who could hardly understand [his] speech.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

until, when he reached between the two barriers (read al-saddayn or al-suddayn here and [likewise] further below [at verse 94, saddan or suddan]) — [these were] two mountains [lying] in the remote regions beyond the land of the Turks; Alexander sealed the breach between the two, as will be described [below] — he found on this side of them, that is, in front of them, a folk that could scarcely comprehend speech, in other words, they could only understand it after much agonising (a variant reading [for yafqahūna, ‘comprehend’] has yufqihūna, ‘be understood’).

18:94

قَالُوا يَا ذَا الْقَرْنَيْنِ إِنَّ يَأْجُوجَ وَمَأْجُوجَ مُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَهَلْ نَجْعَلُ لَكَ خَرْجًا عَلَىٰ أَن تَجْعَلَ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَهُمْ سَدًّا

Pronunciation

Qaloo ya tha alqarnayniinna ya/jooja wama/jooja mufsidoona fee al-ardi fahalnajAAalu laka kharjan AAala an tajAAala baynanawabaynahum sadda

Translation

They said, “O Dhul-Qarnayn, indeed Gog and Magog are [great] corrupters in the land. So may we assign for you an expenditure that you might make between us and them a barrier?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They said, ‘O Dhū’l-Qarnayn, truly Gog and Magog (read Ya’jūj wa-Ma’jūj or Yājūj wa-Mājūj: these two are non-Arabic names of two tribes and are therefore indeclinable) are causing corruption in the land, plundering and oppressing [us] when they come forth to attack us. So shall we pay you a tribute, some [form of] payment (a variant reading [for kharjan] is kharājan), on condition that you build between us and them a barrier?, an obstruction, so that they will not be able to reach us.

18:95

قَالَ مَا مَكَّنِّي فِيهِ رَبِّي خَيْرٌ فَأَعِينُونِي بِقُوَّةٍ أَجْعَلْ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ رَدْمًا

Pronunciation

Qala ma makkannee feehi rabbeekhayrun faaAAeenoonee biquwwatin ajAAal baynakum wabaynahum radma

Translation

He said, “That in which my Lord has established me is better [than what you offer], but assist me with strength; I will make between you and them a dam.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘That, wealth and so on, wherewith my Lord has empowered me (makkannī, a variant reading has makkananī) is better, than the tribute that you offer me, and so I have no need for it. I shall build for you the barrier without [demanding] a fee; so help me with strength, in that which I [will] demand from you, and I will build between you and them a rampart, a fortified barricade.

18:96

آتُونِي زُبَرَ الْحَدِيدِ ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا سَاوَىٰ بَيْنَ الصَّدَفَيْنِ قَالَ انفُخُوا ۖ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَعَلَهُ نَارًا قَالَ آتُونِي أُفْرِغْ عَلَيْهِ قِطْرًا

Pronunciation

Atoonee zubara alhadeedi hattaitha sawa bayna asadafayni qalaonfukhoo hatta itha jaAAalahu naran qalaatoonee ofrigh AAalayhi qitra

Translation

Bring me sheets of iron” – until, when he had leveled [them] between the two mountain walls, he said, “Blow [with bellows],” until when he had made it [like] fire, he said, “Bring me, that I may pour over it molten copper.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Bring me ingots of iron!’, namely, pieces thereof, as large as the [blocks of] stone to be used in the construction; he used these [ingots] in his construction, placing between them firewood and coal. Until, when he had levelled up [the gap] between the two flanks (read al-sudufayn, or al-sadafayn or al-sudfayn, meaning, the two flanks of the two mountains) he set up bellows and [lit a] fire around this [construction] — he said, ‘Blow!’, and they blew, until, when he had made it, namely, the iron, a fire, that is, like a fire, he said, ‘Bring me molten copper to pour over it’ (the two verbs [ātūnī, ‘bring me’, and ufrigh, ‘pour’] are in contention over this [direct object, qitran, ‘molten copper’]; it [this direct object] has been omitted before the first [verb] because it is being governed by the second [verb]). Thus he poured the molten copper over the hot iron so that it penetrated between the [individual] ingots, making a [solid] single whole.

18:97

فَمَا اسْطَاعُوا أَن يَظْهَرُوهُ وَمَا اسْتَطَاعُوا لَهُ نَقْبًا

Pronunciation

Fama istaAAoo an yathharoohuwama istataAAoo lahu naqba

Translation

So Gog and Magog were unable to pass over it, nor were they able [to effect] in it any penetration.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And so they, Gog and Magog, were not able to scale it, to climb up its length, because of its [great] height and smoothness, nor could they pierce it, because of its firmness and thickness.

18:98

قَالَ هَٰذَا رَحْمَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّي ۖ فَإِذَا جَاءَ وَعْدُ رَبِّي جَعَلَهُ دَكَّاءَ ۖ وَكَانَ وَعْدُ رَبِّي حَقًّا

Pronunciation

Qala hatha rahmatun minrabbee fa-itha jaa waAAdu rabbee jaAAalahu dakkaawakana waAAdu rabbee haqqa

Translation

[Dhul-Qarnayn] said, “This is a mercy from my Lord; but when the promise of my Lord comes, He will make it level, and ever is the promise of my Lord true.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Said he, Dhū’l-Qarnayn, ‘This, namely, the barrier, the ability to make it, is a mercy from my Lord, a grace [from Him], because it prevents them from coming forth. But when the promise of my Lord comes to pass, [the promise] of their coming forth, which will be near [the time of] the Resurrection, He will level it, pulverised and flattened, for my Lord’s promise, of their coming forth and [of] other things, is [always] true’, it will be. God, exalted be He says:

18:99

وَتَرَكْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ يَمُوجُ فِي بَعْضٍ ۖ وَنُفِخَ فِي الصُّورِ فَجَمَعْنَاهُمْ جَمْعًا

Pronunciation

Watarakna baAAdahum yawma-ithinyamooju fee baAAdin wanufikha fee assoorifajamaAAnahum jamAAa

Translation

And We will leave them that day surging over each other, and [then] the Horn will be blown, and We will assemble them in [one] assembly.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And on that day, the day of their coming forth, We shall let some of them surge against others, mixing with one another, on account of their multitude, and the Trumpet, namely, the Horn signalling the Resurrection, shall be blown and We shall gather them, namely, creatures, in one place, on the Day of Resurrection, a [single] gathering.

18:100

وَعَرَضْنَا جَهَنَّمَ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْكَافِرِينَ عَرْضًا

Pronunciation

WaAAaradna jahannama yawma-ithinlilkafireena AAarda

Translation

And We will present Hell that Day to the Disbelievers, on display –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And on that day We shall present, We shall bring close, Hell to the disbelievers, plain to view,

18:101

الَّذِينَ كَانَتْ أَعْيُنُهُمْ فِي غِطَاءٍ عَن ذِكْرِي وَكَانُوا لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ سَمْعًا

Pronunciation

Allatheena kanat aAAyunuhumfee ghita-in AAan thikree wakanoo layastateeAAoona samAAa

Translation

Those whose eyes had been within a cover [removed] from My remembrance, and they were not able to hear.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

those [disbelievers] whose eyes (alladhīna kānat a‘yunuhum substitutes for al-kāfirīna, ‘the disbelievers’) were masked from My remembrance, namely, the Qur’ān, such that they were blind, unable to be guided thereby, and who could not [bear to] hear, that is to say, they were unable to listen to what the Prophet used to recite to them, out of spite for him, and so they did not believe therein.

18:102

أَفَحَسِبَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَن يَتَّخِذُوا عِبَادِي مِن دُونِي أَوْلِيَاءَ ۚ إِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا جَهَنَّمَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ نُزُلًا

Pronunciation

Afahasiba allatheena kafarooan yattakhithoo AAibadee min doonee awliyaainna aAAtadna jahannama lilkafireena nuzula

Translation

Then do those who disbelieve think that they can take My servants instead of Me as allies? Indeed, We have prepared Hell for the disbelievers as a lodging.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Do the disbelievers reckon that they can take My servants, namely, My angels, [as well as] Jesus and Ezra, as patrons, as lords, beside Me? (awliyā’a, ‘as patrons’, constitutes the second [direct] object of [the verb] yattakhidhū, ‘that they can take’; the second direct object of [the verb] hasiba, ‘reckon’, has been omitted). The meaning is: do they suppose that the mentioned ‘taking [as patrons]’ will not incur My wrath and that I will not punish them for this? No! Truly We have prepared Hell for the disbelievers, these [the ones mentioned above] and others, as [a place of] hospitality, in other words, it has been prepared for them just as a house is prepared for a guest.

18:103

قُلْ هَلْ نُنَبِّئُكُم بِالْأَخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالًا

Pronunciation

Qul hal nunabbi-okum bil-akhsareenaaAAmala

Translation

Say, [O Muhammad], “Shall we [believers] inform you of the greatest losers as to [their] deeds?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say: ‘Shall We inform you who will be the greatest losers in [regard to] their works? (al-akhsarīna a‘mālan, a specification that happens to correspond to that which is specifically meant); and these [losers] are described in His words [as being]:

18:104

الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعًا

Pronunciation

Allatheena dalla saAAyuhumfee alhayati addunya wahum yahsaboonaannahum yuhsinoona sunAAa

Translation

[They are] those whose effort is lost in worldly life, while they think that they are doing well in work.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those whose effort goes astray in the life of this world, [those] whose deeds are invalid, while they reckon, they think, that they are doing good work, [good] deeds for which they will be rewarded.

18:105

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَلِقَائِهِ فَحَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فَلَا نُقِيمُ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَزْنًا

Pronunciation

Ola-ika allatheena kafaroobi-ayati rabbihim waliqa-ihi fahabitataAAmaluhum fala nuqeemu lahum yawma alqiyamatiwazna

Translation

Those are the ones who disbelieve in the verses of their Lord and in [their] meeting Him, so their deeds have become worthless; and We will not assign to them on the Day of Resurrection any importance.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those are they who disbelieve in the signs of their Lord, in the proofs of His Oneness, [proofs] such as the Qur’ān and otherwise, and the encounter with Him’, that is, and [who disbelieve] in resurrection, reckoning, reward and punishment. So their works have failed, they are invalid, and on the Day of Resurrection We shall not assign any weight to them, in other words, We shall not accord them any value.

18:106

ذَٰلِكَ جَزَاؤُهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ بِمَا كَفَرُوا وَاتَّخَذُوا آيَاتِي وَرُسُلِي هُزُوًا

Pronunciation

Thalika jazaohum jahannamubima kafaroo wattakhathoo ayateewarusulee huzuwa

Translation

That is their recompense – Hell – for what they denied and [because] they took My signs and My messengers in ridicule.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

That, namely, the matter which I [God] have mentioned concerning the failure of their deeds and so on (dhālika, ‘that’, constitutes the subject) is their requital — Hell — because they disbelieved and took My signs and My messengers in mockery, that is to say, [taking] both of them as something to be derided.

18:107

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ كَانَتْ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتُ الْفِرْدَوْسِ نُزُلًا

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo assalihati kanat lahumjannatu alfirdawsi nuzula

Translation

Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous deeds – they will have the Gardens of Paradise as a lodging,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Truly those who believe and perform righteous deeds — theirs will be, according to God’s prescience, the gardens of Firdaws, which are at the centre of Paradise and [at] its highest part (the annexation thereto [of firdaws to jannāt, ‘gardens’] is explicative) as [a place of] hospitality, as an abode;

18:108

خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا لَا يَبْغُونَ عَنْهَا حِوَلًا

Pronunciation

Khalideena feeha layabghoona AAanha hiwala

Translation

Wherein they abide eternally. They will not desire from it any transfer.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

wherein they will abide, with no desire, demand, to be removed from them, to be transferred to some other [gardens].

18:109

قُل لَّوْ كَانَ الْبَحْرُ مِدَادًا لِّكَلِمَاتِ رَبِّي لَنَفِدَ الْبَحْرُ قَبْلَ أَن تَنفَدَ كَلِمَاتُ رَبِّي وَلَوْ جِئْنَا بِمِثْلِهِ مَدَدًا

Pronunciation

Qul law kana albahru midadanlikalimati rabbee lanafida albahru qabla an tanfadakalimatu rabbee walaw ji/na bimithlihi madada

Translation

Say, “If the sea were ink for [writing] the words of my Lord, the sea would be exhausted before the words of my Lord were exhausted, even if We brought the like of it as a supplement.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say: ‘If the sea, in other words, [if] its waters, were ink (midād is what one writes with) for the Words of my Lord, [Words] that testify to His laws and His marvels, such that these [Words] are written with it, the sea would be spent, in recording them, before the Words of my Lord were spent (read as tanfada or yanfada) even though We brought the like of it, namely, [the like of] the sea, as replenishment’, in order to add it to the other [sea], it would [also] be spent, while they [God’s Words] would not be exhausted (madadan, ‘as replenishment’, in the accusative because it is a specification).

18:110

قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ مِّثْلُكُمْ يُوحَىٰ إِلَيَّ أَنَّمَا إِلَٰهُكُمْ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ فَمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو لِقَاءَ رَبِّهِ فَلْيَعْمَلْ عَمَلًا صَالِحًا وَلَا يُشْرِكْ بِعِبَادَةِ رَبِّهِ أَحَدًا

Pronunciation

Qul innama ana basharunmithlukum yooha ilayya annama ilahukum ilahunwahidun faman kana yarjoo liqaa rabbihifalyaAAmal AAamalan salihan wala yushrikbiAAibadati rabbihi ahada

Translation

Say, “I am only a man like you, to whom has been revealed that your god is one God. So whoever would hope for the meeting with his Lord – let him do righteous work and not associate in the worship of his Lord anyone.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say: ‘I am only a human being, a son of Adam, like you; it has been revealed to me that your God is only One God (annamā, the anna assimilated with the mā retains [its function of referring to] the verbal noun), in other words, the Oneness of the Divine is [what is being] revealed to me. So whoever hopes to encounter his Lord, through the Resurrection and the Requital, let him do righteous work and not associate with the worship of his Lord, that is to say, [let him not commit idolatry] in [performing] it by feigning [faith] before, anyone’.

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