Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 13.Surat Ar-Ra`d (The Thunder) – سورة الرعد

Surat Ar-Ra`d (The Thunder) – سورة الرعد

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

13:1

المر ۚ تِلْكَ آيَاتُ الْكِتَابِ ۗ وَالَّذِي أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ الْحَقُّ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Alif-lam-meem-ra tilka ayatualkitabi wallathee onzila ilayka minrabbika alhaqqu walakinna akthara annasila yu/minoon

Translation

Alif, Lam, Meem, Ra. These are the verses of the Book; and what has been revealed to you from your Lord is the truth, but most of the people do not believe.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Alif lām mīm rā’: God knows best what He means by these [letters]. Those, these verses, are the verses of the Book, the Qur’ān (the genitive annexation carries the meaning of [partitive] min, ‘from’), and that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, namely, the Qur’ān (this [preceding sentence] constitutes the subject, the predicate of which is [the following]), is the Truth, wherein is no doubt, but most people, that is, the people of Mecca, do not believe, that it is from God, exalted be He.

13:2

اللَّهُ الَّذِي رَفَعَ السَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا ۖ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ ۖ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ ۖ كُلٌّ يَجْرِي لِأَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى ۚ يُدَبِّرُ الْأَمْرَ يُفَصِّلُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُم بِلِقَاءِ رَبِّكُمْ تُوقِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Allahu allathee rafaAAa assamawatibighayri AAamadin tarawnaha thumma istawa AAalaalAAarshi wasakhkhara ashshamsa walqamara kullunyajree li-ajalin musamman yudabbiru al-amra yufassilu al-ayatilaAAallakum biliqa-i rabbikum tooqinoon

Translation

It is Allah who erected the heavens without pillars that you [can] see; then He established Himself above the Throne and made subject the sun and the moon, each running [its course] for a specified term. He arranges [each] matter; He details the signs that you may, of the meeting with your Lord, be certain.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God is He Who raised up the heavens without visible supports (‘amad is the plural of ‘imād, which is [the same as] an ustuwāna, ‘a column’; and this [statement] is true, since there are no actual supports) then presided upon the Throne, a presiding befitting Him, and disposed, made subservient, the sun and the moon, each one, of them, moving, along its course, until [the conclusion of] an appointed time, that is, [until] the Day of Resurrection. He directs the command, He conducts the affairs of His Kingdom. He details, He expounds, the signs, the indications of His power, so that you, O people of Mecca, might be certain of the encounter with your Lord, through resurrection.

13:3

وَهُوَ الَّذِي مَدَّ الْأَرْضَ وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَاسِيَ وَأَنْهَارًا ۖ وَمِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ جَعَلَ فِيهَا زَوْجَيْنِ اثْنَيْنِ ۖ يُغْشِي اللَّيْلَ النَّهَارَ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Pronunciation

Wahuwa allathee madda al-ardawajaAAala feeha rawasiya waanharan waminkulli aththamarati jaAAala feeha zawjayniithnayni yughshee allayla annahara inna fee thalikalaayatin liqawmin yatafakkaroon

Translation

And it is He who spread the earth and placed therein firmly set mountains and rivers; and from all of the fruits He made therein two mates; He causes the night to cover the day. Indeed in that are signs for a people who give thought.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And He it is Who spread out, extended [flat], the earth and set, created, therein firm mountains and rivers, and of every fruit He has made in it two kinds, of every species. He covers, He cloaks, the night, and its darkness, with the day. Surely in that, which is mentioned, are signs, indications of His Oneness, exalted be He, for a people who reflect, upon God’s handiwork.

13:4

وَفِي الْأَرْضِ قِطَعٌ مُّتَجَاوِرَاتٌ وَجَنَّاتٌ مِّنْ أَعْنَابٍ وَزَرْعٌ وَنَخِيلٌ صِنْوَانٌ وَغَيْرُ صِنْوَانٍ يُسْقَىٰ بِمَاءٍ وَاحِدٍ وَنُفَضِّلُ بَعْضَهَا عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ فِي الْأُكُلِ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ

Pronunciation

Wafee al-ardi qitaAAun mutajawiratunwajannatun min aAAnabin wazarAAun wanakheelun sinwanunwaghayru sinwanin yusqa bima-in wahidinwanufaddilu baAAdaha AAala baAAdinfee alokuli inna fee thalika laayatinliqawmin yaAAqiloon

Translation

And within the land are neighboring plots and gardens of grapevines and crops and palm trees, [growing] several from a root or otherwise, watered with one water; but We make some of them exceed others in [quality of] fruit. Indeed in that are signs for a people who reason.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And on the earth are tracts, diverse terrains, neighbouring each other, joined side by side, some good, some briny, some of little yield and some fruitful — and these constitute proofs of His power, exalted be He — and gardens, orchards, of vines and sown fields (read zar‘un, in the nominative, as a supplement to jannātun, ‘gardens’, or read zar‘in, in the genitive, [as a supplement] to a‘nābin, ‘of vines’); similarly [constituting proofs of His power are] His words: and date-palms sharing one root (sinwān is the plural of sinw, which are date-palms belonging to the same root, but with many offshoots) and date-palms otherwise, [each] of individual root, watered (read tusqā as [referring to] jannāt, ‘gardens’, and what is in them, or read yusqā as [referring to] the mentioned [date-palms]) by the same water; and We make some of them to excel (wa-nufaddil, or read wa-yufaddil, ‘and He [God] makes [some of them] to excel’) others in flavour (read fī’l-ukul or fī’l-ukl): and so some are sweet, others, bitter — and these are [also] proofs of His power, exalted be He. Surely in that, which is mentioned, are signs for a people who understand, [who] reflect.

13:5

وَإِن تَعْجَبْ فَعَجَبٌ قَوْلُهُمْ أَإِذَا كُنَّا تُرَابًا أَإِنَّا لَفِي خَلْقٍ جَدِيدٍ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ الْأَغْلَالُ فِي أَعْنَاقِهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-in taAAjab faAAajabun qawluhum a-ithakunna turaban a-inna lafee khalqin jadeedinola-ika allatheena kafaroo birabbihim waola-ikaal-aghlalu fee aAAnaqihim waola-ika as-habuannari hum feeha khalidoon

Translation

And if you are astonished, [O Muhammad] – then astonishing is their saying, “When we are dust, will we indeed be [brought] into a new creation?” Those are the ones who have disbelieved in their Lord, and those will have shackles upon their necks, and those are the companions of the Fire; they will abide therein eternally.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if you wonder, O Muhammad (s), at the disbelievers denying you, then surely wondrous, [surely] deserving wonder, is their saying, in denial of resurrection: ‘When we have become dust, shall we indeed then be [raised] in a new creation?’, [it is wondrous] because the One Who has the power to originate creation and [to originate] what has been mentioned [above], without any precedent, has [also] the power to restore them [to life] (both hamzas, in both instances [a-idhā and a-innā], are pronounced; or [one may] pronounce the first and not pronounce the second, but in both cases inserting an alif or not [inserting it]; one variant reading has the first [a-idhā] as the interrogative, and the second one [a-innā] as the predicate, while another variant reading has the [exact] opposite). Those are the ones who disbelieve in their Lord; those — fetters shall be around their necks; and those, they shall be the inhabitants of the Fire, abiding therein.

13:6

وَيَسْتَعْجِلُونَكَ بِالسَّيِّئَةِ قَبْلَ الْحَسَنَةِ وَقَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِمُ الْمَثُلَاتُ ۗ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو مَغْفِرَةٍ لِّلنَّاسِ عَلَىٰ ظُلْمِهِمْ ۖ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَشَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ

Pronunciation

WayastaAAjiloonaka bissayyi-atiqabla alhasanati waqad khalat min qablihimu almathulatuwa-inna rabbaka lathoo maghfiratin linnasiAAala thulmihim wa-inna rabbaka lashadeedualAAiqab

Translation

They impatiently urge you to bring about evil before good, while there has already occurred before them similar punishments [to what they demand]. And indeed, your Lord is full of forgiveness for the people despite their wrongdoing, and indeed, your Lord is severe in penalty.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed regarding their hastening on, out of mockery, of the chastisement: And they would have you hasten on the evil, the chastisement, rather than the good, [rather than] mercy, when there have indeed occurred before them exemplary punishments (mathulāt is the plural of mathula, similar [in pattern] to samura [pl. samurāt], ‘acacia’), that is to say, the punishments of disbelievers like them: will they not take warning from these? Truly your Lord is forgiving to mankind despite their evil-doing, for otherwise He would not have left a single creature on the face of it [the earth]; and truly your Lord is severe in retribution, against those who disobey Him.

13:7

وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْلَا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ ۗ إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرٌ ۖ وَلِكُلِّ قَوْمٍ هَادٍ

Pronunciation

Wayaqoolu allatheena kafaroo lawlaonzila AAalayhi ayatun min rabbihi innama anta munthirunwalikulli qawmin had

Translation

And those who disbelieved say, “Why has a sign not been sent down to him from his Lord?” You are only a warner, and for every people is a guide.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those who disbelieve say, ‘Why has not some sign been sent down upon him, upon Muhammad (s), from his Lord!’, the like of the staff and the [glowing] hand, or the she-camel. God, exalted be He, says: You are only a warner, one to threaten the disbelievers, for it is not your duty to bring forth signs; and for every folk there is a guide, a prophet, to guide them to their Lord with the signs that He gives him, and not what with they request.

13:8

اللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَحْمِلُ كُلُّ أُنثَىٰ وَمَا تَغِيضُ الْأَرْحَامُ وَمَا تَزْدَادُ ۖ وَكُلُّ شَيْءٍ عِندَهُ بِمِقْدَارٍ

Pronunciation

Allahu yaAAlamu ma tahmilukullu ontha wama tagheedu al-arhamuwama tazdadu wakullu shay-in AAindahu bimiqdar

Translation

Allah knows what every female carries and what the wombs lose [prematurely] or exceed. And everything with Him is by due measure.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God knows what every female bears, of male or female, one or more, and otherwise, and what the wombs reduce, of the time of gestation, and what they increase, of it. And everything with Him is according to a [precise] measure, a [precise] amount and limit which it does not exceed;

13:9

عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ الْكَبِيرُ الْمُتَعَالِ

Pronunciation

AAalimu alghaybi washshahadatialkabeeru almutaAAal

Translation

[He is] Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, the Grand, the Exalted.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

[He is] the Knower of the unseen and the visible, [of] what is hidden and what is witnessed; the Great, the Tremendous, the High Exalted, above His creation, through His [overpowering] subjugation (read al-muta‘ālī or al-muta‘āl, ‘the High Exalted’).

13:10

سَوَاءٌ مِّنكُم مَّنْ أَسَرَّ الْقَوْلَ وَمَن جَهَرَ بِهِ وَمَنْ هُوَ مُسْتَخْفٍ بِاللَّيْلِ وَسَارِبٌ بِالنَّهَارِ

Pronunciation

Sawaon minkum man asarra alqawlawaman jahara bihi waman huwa mustakhfin billayli wasaribunbinnahar

Translation

It is the same [to Him] concerning you whether one conceals [his] speech or one publicizes it and whether one is hidden by night or conspicuous [among others] by day.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

[They are all] the same, according to His knowledge, exalted be He, those of you who speak secretly and those who do so openly, and those who lurk, [who] hide themselves, in the night, in its darkness, and those who go forth, [those who] are manifest [to view] when they make their way, by day.

13:11

لَهُ مُعَقِّبَاتٌ مِّن بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِ يَحْفَظُونَهُ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُغَيِّرُ مَا بِقَوْمٍ حَتَّىٰ يُغَيِّرُوا مَا بِأَنفُسِهِمْ ۗ وَإِذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ سُوءًا فَلَا مَرَدَّ لَهُ ۚ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن دُونِهِ مِن وَالٍ

Pronunciation

Lahu muAAaqqibatun min bayni yadayhiwamin khalfihi yahfathoonahu min amri Allahiinna Allaha la yughayyiru ma biqawmin hattayughayyiroo ma bi-anfusihim wa-itha aradaAllahu biqawmin soo-an fala maradda lahu wamalahum min doonihi min wal

Translation

For each one are successive [angels] before and behind him who protect him by the decree of Allah . Indeed, Allah will not change the condition of a people until they change what is in themselves. And when Allah intends for a people ill, there is no repelling it. And there is not for them besides Him any patron.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

For him, for man, are attendants, angels who follow him, to his front and to his rear, guarding him through God’s command, that is, by His command, from [the danger of] the jinn and others. Indeed God does not alter the state of a people — He does not deprive them of His grace — unless they have altered the state of their souls, from [their] comely nature, through an act of disobedience. And if God wills misfortune, chastisement, for a people there is none that can repel it, either from among the attendant angels or others; and they, for whom God wills misfortune, have no protector (min wālin: min is extra) to avert it from them, apart from Him, that is, other than God.

13:12

هُوَ الَّذِي يُرِيكُمُ الْبَرْقَ خَوْفًا وَطَمَعًا وَيُنشِئُ السَّحَابَ الثِّقَالَ

Pronunciation

Huwa allathee yureekumu albarqakhawfan watamaAAan wayunshi-o assahaba aththiqal

Translation

It is He who shows you lightening, [causing] fear and aspiration, and generates the heavy clouds.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He it is Who shows you the lightning, [inspiring] fear, in travellers, of thunderbolts, and hope, for those who are at home, of rain; and He produces, He creates, the clouds that are heavy, with rain.

13:13

وَيُسَبِّحُ الرَّعْدُ بِحَمْدِهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ مِنْ خِيفَتِهِ وَيُرْسِلُ الصَّوَاعِقَ فَيُصِيبُ بِهَا مَن يَشَاءُ وَهُمْ يُجَادِلُونَ فِي اللَّهِ وَهُوَ شَدِيدُ الْمِحَالِ

Pronunciation

Wayusabbihu arraAAdu bihamdihiwalmala-ikatu min kheefatihi wayursilu assawaAAiqafayuseebu biha man yashao wahum yujadiloonafee Allahi wahuwa shadeedu almihal

Translation

And the thunder exalts [Allah] with praise of Him – and the angels [as well] from fear of Him – and He sends thunderbolts and strikes therewith whom He wills while they dispute about Allah; and He is severe in assault.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And the thunder — this is an angel, who is in charge of the clouds, driving them, [while he] constantly, proclaims His praise, that is, he says, ‘Glory be to God through His praise’ (subhāna’Llāh wa-bi-hamdihi), and so too the angels, proclaim His praise, in awe of Him, that is, of God. He unleashes the thunderbolts — these are a fire which issues forth from the clouds — and smites with them whom He will, such that it burns [that person]: this was revealed regarding a man to whom the Prophet (s) had sent someone to invite [to Islam] and who said, ‘Who is the Messenger of God? And what is God? Is He [made] of gold, or of silver, or of copper?’, whereupon a thunderbolt came down on him and blew off the top of his head; yet they, that is, the disbelievers, dispute, argue with the Prophet (s), about God, though He is great in might, in power, or in [the severity of His] retribution.

13:14

لَهُ دَعْوَةُ الْحَقِّ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ لَا يَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُم بِشَيْءٍ إِلَّا كَبَاسِطِ كَفَّيْهِ إِلَى الْمَاءِ لِيَبْلُغَ فَاهُ وَمَا هُوَ بِبَالِغِهِ ۚ وَمَا دُعَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ إِلَّا فِي ضَلَالٍ

Pronunciation

Lahu daAAwatu alhaqqi wallatheenayadAAoona min doonihi la yastajeeboona lahum bishay-in illakabasiti kaffayhi ila alma-iliyablugha fahu wama huwa bibalighihi wamaduAAao alkafireena illa fee dalal

Translation

To Him [alone] is the supplication of truth. And those they call upon besides Him do not respond to them with a thing, except as one who stretches his hands toward water [from afar, calling it] to reach his mouth, but it will not reach it [thus]. And the supplication of the disbelievers is not but in error [i.e. futility].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

His, exalted be He, is the call of truth, that is, the words that constitute it [the truth], and these are: ‘there is no god but God’ (lā ilāha illā’Llāh); and those upon whom they call (read yad‘ūn or tad‘ūn, ‘you call’), [those whom] they worship, apart from Him, that is, other than Him — namely, the idols — do not answer them anything, of which they ask; save as, is the response to, one who stretches forth his hands towards water, at the edge of a well, calling to it, that it may reach his mouth, by its rising through the well to [reach] him, but it would never reach it, that is, [reach] his mouth, ever: likewise they [the idols] will not answer them; and the call of the disbelievers, their worship of idols — or their actual supplication — goes only astray, [it is only] in perdition.

13:15

وَلِلَّهِ يَسْجُدُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ طَوْعًا وَكَرْهًا وَظِلَالُهُم بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالْآصَالِ ۩

Pronunciation

Walillahi yasjudu man fee assamawatiwal-ardi tawAAan wakarhan wathilaluhumbilghuduwwi wal-asal

Translation

And to Allah prostrates whoever is within the heavens and the earth, willingly or by compulsion, and their shadows [as well] in the mornings and the afternoons.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And to God prostrate whoever is in the heavens and the earth, willingly, such as believers, or unwillingly, such as hypocrites and those coerced by the sword, and their shadows also, prostrate, in the mornings and the evenings.

13:16

قُلْ مَن رَّبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ قُلِ اللَّهُ ۚ قُلْ أَفَاتَّخَذْتُم مِّن دُونِهِ أَوْلِيَاءَ لَا يَمْلِكُونَ لِأَنفُسِهِمْ نَفْعًا وَلَا ضَرًّا ۚ قُلْ هَلْ يَسْتَوِي الْأَعْمَىٰ وَالْبَصِيرُ أَمْ هَلْ تَسْتَوِي الظُّلُمَاتُ وَالنُّورُ ۗ أَمْ جَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ خَلَقُوا كَخَلْقِهِ فَتَشَابَهَ الْخَلْقُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ قُلِ اللَّهُ خَالِقُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ

Pronunciation

Qul man rabbu assamawatiwal-ardi quli Allahu qul afattakhathtummin doonihi awliyaa la yamlikoona li-anfusihimnafAAan wala darran qul hal yastawee al-aAAmawalbaseeru am hal tastawee aththulumatuwannooru am jaAAaloo lillahi shurakaakhalaqoo kakhalqihi fatashabaha alkhalqu AAalayhim quliAllahu khaliqu kulli shay-in wahuwa alwahidualqahhar

Translation

Say, “Who is Lord of the heavens and earth?” Say, “Allah.” Say, “Have you then taken besides Him allies not possessing [even] for themselves any benefit or any harm?” Say, “Is the blind equivalent to the seeing? Or is darkness equivalent to light? Or have they attributed to Allah partners who created like His creation so that the creation [of each] seemed similar to them?” Say, “Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Prevailing.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say, O Muhammad (s), to your people: ‘Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth?’ Say: ‘God’ — and even if they do not say it, there can be no other response. Say, to them: ‘Then have you taken beside Him, other than Him, protectors, idols, to worship, who have no power to benefit or harm themselves?’, and you abandon the One Who is their Possessor? (an interrogative meant as a rebuke). Say: ‘Are the blind one and the seer, [respectively], the disbeliever and the believer, equal? Or are darkness, disbelief, and the light, faith, equal? No! Or have they set up for God associates who have created the like of His creation, so that creation seems alike, that is, [is] what the associates create and the creation of God [alike], to them?’, so that they believe them worthy of being worshipped on account of what these [associates] have created? (an interrogative of disavowal); in other words, not so! None save the Creator is worthy of being worshipped. Say: ‘God is the Creator of all things, having no associate therein, and so He cannot have an associate in terms of worship; and He is the One, the Subjugator’, of His servants.

13:17

أَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَسَالَتْ أَوْدِيَةٌ بِقَدَرِهَا فَاحْتَمَلَ السَّيْلُ زَبَدًا رَّابِيًا ۚ وَمِمَّا يُوقِدُونَ عَلَيْهِ فِي النَّارِ ابْتِغَاءَ حِلْيَةٍ أَوْ مَتَاعٍ زَبَدٌ مِّثْلُهُ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْحَقَّ وَالْبَاطِلَ ۚ فَأَمَّا الزَّبَدُ فَيَذْهَبُ جُفَاءً ۖ وَأَمَّا مَا يَنفَعُ النَّاسَ فَيَمْكُثُ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ

Pronunciation

Anzala mina assama-i maanfasalat awdiyatun biqadariha fahtamalaassaylu zabadan rabiyan wamimma yooqidoonaAAalayhi fee annari ibtighaa hilyatinaw mataAAin zabadun mithluhu kathalika yadribuAllahu alhaqqa walbatila faammaazzabadu fayathhabu jufaan waamma mayanfaAAu annasa fayamkuthu fee al-ardi kathalikayadribu Allahu al-amthal

Translation

He sends down from the sky, rain, and valleys flow according to their capacity, and the torrent carries a rising foam. And from that [ore] which they heat in the fire, desiring adornments and utensils, is a foam like it. Thus Allah presents [the example of] truth and falsehood. As for the foam, it vanishes, [being] cast off; but as for that which benefits the people, it remains on the earth. Thus does Allah present examples.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He then strikes a similitude of truth and falsehood, saying: He, exalted be He, sends down water, rain, from the sky, whereat the valleys flow according to their measure, according to their full capacity, and the flood carries a scum that swells, rising above it, and this [scum] is the filth and the like that lies on the surface of the earth, and from that which they smelt (read tūqidūn, ‘you smelt’, or yūqidūn, ‘they smelt’) in the fire, of the earth’s minerals, such as gold, silver or copper, desiring, seeking [to make], ornaments, adornment, or ware, which is useful, such as utensils, when they [the minerals] are melted; [there rises] a scum the like of it, that is, the like of the scum of the flood, and this [latter scum] consists of the impurities expelled by the bellows. Thus, in the way mentioned, God points out truth and falsehood, that is, [He points out] the similitude thereof. As for the scum, of the flood and of the minerals smelted, it passes away as dross, useless refuse, while that which is of use to mankind, in the way of water and minerals, lingers, remains, in the earth, for a time: likewise, falsehood wanes and is [eventually] effaced, even if it should prevail over the truth at certain times. Truth, on the other hand, is established and enduring. Thus, in the way mentioned, God strikes, He makes clear, similitudes.

13:18

لِلَّذِينَ اسْتَجَابُوا لِرَبِّهِمُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ لَمْ يَسْتَجِيبُوا لَهُ لَوْ أَنَّ لَهُم مَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا وَمِثْلَهُ مَعَهُ لَافْتَدَوْا بِهِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ سُوءُ الْحِسَابِ وَمَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ

Pronunciation

Lillatheena istajaboolirabbihimu alhusna wallatheena lamyastajeeboo lahu law anna lahum ma fee al-ardijameeAAan wamithlahu maAAahu laftadaw bihi ola-ikalahum soo-o alhisabi wama/wahum jahannamuwabi/sa almihad

Translation

For those who have responded to their Lord is the best [reward], but those who did not respond to Him – if they had all that is in the earth entirely and the like of it with it, they would [attempt to] ransom themselves thereby. Those will have the worst account, and their refuge is Hell, and wretched is the resting place.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

For those who respond to their Lord, [those who] answer Him, by way of obedience, there shall be the goodly reward, Paradise, and those who do not respond to Him, namely the disbelievers — if they possessed all that is in the earth, and therewith the like of it, they would offer it to redeem themselves therewith, against the chastisement. For such there shall be an awful reckoning, and that is that they will be requited for every single thing they did, none of which will be forgiven, and their abode shall be Hell, an evil resting place, it is!

13:19

أَفَمَن يَعْلَمُ أَنَّمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ الْحَقُّ كَمَنْ هُوَ أَعْمَىٰ ۚ إِنَّمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

Pronunciation

Afaman yaAAlamu annama onzila ilaykamin rabbika alhaqqu kaman huwa aAAma innamayatathakkaru oloo al-albab

Translation

Then is he who knows that what has been revealed to you from your Lord is the truth like one who is blind? They will only be reminded who are people of understanding –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed regarding Hamza and Abū Jahl: Is he who knows that what is revealed to you from your Lord is the truth, and so believes in it, like him who is blind?, and does not know it, nor believes in it? No! But only people of pith, possessors of intellect, remember, heed [such admonitions];

13:20

الَّذِينَ يُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِ اللَّهِ وَلَا يَنقُضُونَ الْمِيثَاقَ

Pronunciation

Allatheena yoofoona biAAahdi Allahiwala yanqudoona almeethaq

Translation

Those who fulfill the covenant of Allah and do not break the contract,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

such as fulfil God’s covenant, [meaning] the one that was taken from them while they were still atoms — or [meaning] any covenant — and do not break the pact, by abandoning belief, or [religious] obligations;

13:21

وَالَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُمْ وَيَخَافُونَ سُوءَ الْحِسَابِ

Pronunciation

Wallatheena yasiloonama amara Allahu bihi an yoosala wayakhshawnarabbahum wayakhafoona soo-a alhisab

Translation

And those who join that which Allah has ordered to be joined and fear their Lord and are afraid of the evil of [their] account,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and such as cement what God has commanded should be cemented, of faith and kinship ties and so forth, and fear their Lord, that is, His Threat [of punishment], and dread an awful reckoning — a similar [statement] has preceded;

13:22

وَالَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ رَبِّهِمْ وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنفَقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ سِرًّا وَعَلَانِيَةً وَيَدْرَءُونَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ السَّيِّئَةَ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عُقْبَى الدَّارِ

Pronunciation

Wallatheena sabarooibtighaa wajhi rabbihim waaqamoo assalatawaanfaqoo mimma razaqnahum sirran waAAalaniyatanwayadraoona bilhasanati assayyi-ata ola-ikalahum AAuqba addar

Translation

And those who are patient, seeking the countenance of their Lord, and establish prayer and spend from what We have provided for them secretly and publicly and prevent evil with good – those will have the good consequence of [this] home –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

such as are patient, through obedience and [during] hardship, and [staying] away from disobedience, desiring, seeking, their Lord’s countenance, and nothing else, from among the transient things of this world; and maintain the prayer and expend, in obedience, of that which We have provided them, secretly and openly, and repel evil with good, such as [repelling] ignorance through forbearance, and harm through patience; those, theirs shall be the sequel of the [heavenly] Abode: that is, the praiseworthy sequel in the Hereafter, namely:

13:23

جَنَّاتُ عَدْنٍ يَدْخُلُونَهَا وَمَن صَلَحَ مِنْ آبَائِهِمْ وَأَزْوَاجِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ ۖ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ يَدْخُلُونَ عَلَيْهِم مِّن كُلِّ بَابٍ

Pronunciation

Jannatu AAadnin yadkhuloonahawaman salaha min aba-ihim waazwajihimwathurriyyatihim walmala-ikatuyadkhuloona AAalayhim min kulli bab

Translation

Gardens of perpetual residence; they will enter them with whoever were righteous among their fathers, their spouses and their descendants. And the angels will enter upon them from every gate, [saying],

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Gardens of Eden, as a [place of] residence, which they shall enter, they, along with those who were righteous, [those who] believed, from among their fathers and their spouses and their descendants, even if these [latter] did not perform deeds of the same [merit] as theirs, they shall share with them their stations [of Paradise] as an honouring for them; and the angels shall enter to them from every gate, of the gates of Paradise or of [the gates of] the palaces [of Paradise], when they first enter, in order to congratulate them.

13:24

سَلَامٌ عَلَيْكُم بِمَا صَبَرْتُمْ ۚ فَنِعْمَ عُقْبَى الدَّارِ

Pronunciation

Salamun AAalaykum bima sabartumfaniAAma AAuqba addar

Translation

“Peace be upon you for what you patiently endured. And excellent is the final home.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They will say [to them]: ‘Peace be upon you, this is the reward, for your patience’, during life on earth. How excellent is, your sequel, the sequel of the [heavenly] Abode!

13:25

وَالَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مِيثَاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمُ اللَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ

Pronunciation

Wallatheena yanqudoonaAAahda Allahi min baAAdi meethaqihi wayaqtaAAoonama amara Allahu bihi an yoosala wayufsidoonafee al-ardi ola-ika lahumu allaAAnatu walahum soo-oaddar

Translation

But those who break the covenant of Allah after contracting it and sever that which Allah has ordered to be joined and spread corruption on earth – for them is the curse, and they will have the worst home.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those who break God’s covenant after pledging it, and sever what God has commanded should be cemented, and work corruption in the earth, through unbelief and acts of disobedience, theirs shall be the curse, banishment from God’s mercy, and theirs shall be the awful abode, the awful sequel in the abode of the Hereafter, namely, Hell.

13:26

اللَّهُ يَبْسُطُ الرِّزْقَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيَقْدِرُ ۚ وَفَرِحُوا بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا فِي الْآخِرَةِ إِلَّا مَتَاعٌ

Pronunciation

Allahu yabsutu arrizqaliman yashao wayaqdiru wafarihoo bilhayatiaddunya wama alhayatu addunyafee al-akhirati illa mataAA

Translation

Allah extends provision for whom He wills and restricts [it]. And they rejoice in the worldly life, while the worldly life is not, compared to the Hereafter, except [brief] enjoyment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God expands provision, He makes it abundant, for whom He will, and straitens, restricts it, for whomever He will; and they, the people of Mecca, rejoice, a wanton rejoicing, in the life of this world, that is, in what they acquire therein, yet the life of this world, in, comparison with the life of, the Hereafter, is but [a brief] enjoyment, a trifling thing, enjoyed and then lost.

13:27

وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْلَا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ آيَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُضِلُّ مَن يَشَاءُ وَيَهْدِي إِلَيْهِ مَنْ أَنَابَ

Pronunciation

Wayaqoolu allatheena kafaroo lawlaonzila AAalayhi ayatun min rabbihi qul inna Allahayudillu man yashao wayahdee ilayhi man anab

Translation

And those who disbelieved say, “Why has a sign not been sent down to him from his Lord?” Say, [O Muhammad], “Indeed, Allah leaves astray whom He wills and guides to Himself whoever turns back [to Him] –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those who disbelieve, from among the people of Mecca, say, ‘Why has not some sign, like the staff and the [glowing] hand or the she-camel, been sent down upon him, upon Muhammad (s), from his Lord?’ Say, to them: ‘Indeed God sends astray whomever He will, to send astray — such that signs cannot avail him in any way — and He guides, He directs, to Him, to His religion, those who turn in repentance’, [those who] return to Him (man, ‘those who’, is substituted by [the following, alladhīna, ‘those who …’]);

13:28

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَتَطْمَئِنُّ قُلُوبُهُم بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ ۗ أَلَا بِذِكْرِ اللَّهِ تَطْمَئِنُّ الْقُلُوبُ

Pronunciation

Allatheena amanoo watatma-innuquloobuhum bithikri Allahi ala bithikriAllahi tatma-innu alquloob

Translation

Those who have believed and whose hearts are assured by the remembrance of Allah . Unquestionably, by the remembrance of Allah hearts are assured.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

those who believe and whose hearts are reassured, find rest, by God’s remembrance, that is, by His promise [of reward]. Verily by God’s remembrance are hearts reassured, that is, the hearts of the believers;

13:29

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ طُوبَىٰ لَهُمْ وَحُسْنُ مَآبٍ

Pronunciation

Allatheena amanoo waAAamiloo assalihatitooba lahum wahusnu maab

Translation

Those who have believed and done righteous deeds – a good state is theirs and a good return.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

those who believe and perform righteous deeds: (alladhīna āmanū wa-‘amilū’l-sālihāt is the subject, the predicate of which [is the following]) theirs shall be blessedness (tūbā is a verbal noun derived from tīb, ‘goodness’, or [the name of] a tree in Paradise, whose shade a mounted traveller travelling for 100 years would still not traverse) and a fair resort, [a fair] place to return to.

13:30

كَذَٰلِكَ أَرْسَلْنَاكَ فِي أُمَّةٍ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهَا أُمَمٌ لِّتَتْلُوَ عَلَيْهِمُ الَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ وَهُمْ يَكْفُرُونَ بِالرَّحْمَٰنِ ۚ قُلْ هُوَ رَبِّي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَإِلَيْهِ مَتَابِ

Pronunciation

Kathalika arsalnaka feeommatin qad khalat min qabliha omamun litatluwa AAalayhimuallathee awhayna ilayka wahum yakfuroona birrahmaniqul huwa rabbee la ilaha illa huwa AAalayhitawakkaltu wa-ilayhi matab

Translation

Thus have We sent you to a community before which [other] communities have passed on so you might recite to them that which We revealed to you, while they disbelieve in the Most Merciful. Say, “He is my Lord; there is no deity except Him. Upon Him I rely, and to Him is my return.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thus, just as We sent prophets before you, We have sent you to a community before whom other communities have passed away, that you may recite to them that which We have revealed to you, that is, the Qur’ān; yet they disbelieve in the Compassionate One, for, when they were commanded to prostrate themselves to Him, they said, ‘And what is the Compassionate One?’ Say, to them, O Muhammad (s): ‘He is my Lord; there is no god save Him. In Him I trust and to Him is my recourse’.

13:31

وَلَوْ أَنَّ قُرْآنًا سُيِّرَتْ بِهِ الْجِبَالُ أَوْ قُطِّعَتْ بِهِ الْأَرْضُ أَوْ كُلِّمَ بِهِ الْمَوْتَىٰ ۗ بَل لِّلَّهِ الْأَمْرُ جَمِيعًا ۗ أَفَلَمْ يَيْأَسِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَن لَّوْ يَشَاءُ اللَّهُ لَهَدَى النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا ۗ وَلَا يَزَالُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا تُصِيبُهُم بِمَا صَنَعُوا قَارِعَةٌ أَوْ تَحُلُّ قَرِيبًا مِّن دَارِهِمْ حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِيَ وَعْدُ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُخْلِفُ الْمِيعَادَ

Pronunciation

Walaw anna qur-anan suyyirat bihialjibalu aw quttiAAat bihi al-ardu awkullima bihi almawta bal lillahi al-amru jameeAAanafalam yay-asi allatheena amanoo an law yashaoAllahu lahada annasa jameeAAan walayazalu allatheena kafaroo tuseebuhum bimasanaAAoo qariAAatun aw tahullu qareeban mindarihim hatta ya/tiya waAAdu Allahiinna Allaha la yukhlifu almeeAAad

Translation

And if there was any qur’an by which the mountains would be removed or the earth would be broken apart or the dead would be made to speak, [it would be this Qur’an], but to Allah belongs the affair entirely. Then have those who believed not accepted that had Allah willed, He would have guided the people, all of them? And those who disbelieve do not cease to be struck, for what they have done, by calamity – or it will descend near their home – until there comes the promise of Allah . Indeed, Allah does not fail in [His] promise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed when they said to him, ‘If you are [truly] a prophet, then make these mountains of Mecca drift away before us, and make for us rivers and springs in it, that we may plant and sow seeds, and resurrect for us our dead fathers to speak to us and tell us that you are a prophet’: Even if it were a Qur’ān whereby the mountains were set in motion, moved from their places, or the earth were cleft, torn, or the dead were spoken to, such that they would respond, they still would not believe. Nay, but the affair belongs entirely to God, and none other, so that none believes except he whom He wills that he believes, and no other; even if they were given what they request [of signs]. The following was revealed when the Companions were keen that what was requested [of signs] should be manifested, hoping that they [the ones requesting them] might believe: Have they not realised, those who believe, that (an is softened, in other words [understand it as] annahu) had God willed, He could have guided all mankind?, to faith, without [the need for] any sign? And the disbelievers, from among the people of Mecca, continue to be struck by devastation, a catastrophe that devastates them through all manner of hardship, such as being killed, taken captive, and [suffering] war or drought, because of what they wrought, because of their actions, that is, their disbelief; or you alight, O Muhammad (s), together with your army, near their home — Mecca — until God’s promise, of victory against them, comes to pass; truly God does not break His promise: and indeed, he alighted at Hudaybiyya until the conquest of Mecca took place;

13:32

وَلَقَدِ اسْتُهْزِئَ بِرُسُلٍ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَأَمْلَيْتُ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ أَخَذْتُهُمْ ۖ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عِقَابِ

Pronunciation

Walaqadi istuhzi-a birusulin min qablikafaamlaytu lillatheena kafaroo thumma akhathtuhumfakayfa kana AAiqab

Translation

And already were [other] messengers ridiculed before you, and I extended the time of those who disbelieved; then I seized them, and how [terrible] was My penalty.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

messengers were certainly mocked before you, in the same way that you have been mocked — this is meant as solace for the Prophet (s) — but I gave respite to those who disbelieved; then I seized them, with retribution, and how was My retribution?, that is to say, it [My retribution] will come to pass; and I shall deal with those who have mocked you in the same way.

13:33

أَفَمَنْ هُوَ قَائِمٌ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ ۗ وَجَعَلُوا لِلَّهِ شُرَكَاءَ قُلْ سَمُّوهُمْ ۚ أَمْ تُنَبِّئُونَهُ بِمَا لَا يَعْلَمُ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَم بِظَاهِرٍ مِّنَ الْقَوْلِ ۗ بَلْ زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مَكْرُهُمْ وَصُدُّوا عَنِ السَّبِيلِ ۗ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ هَادٍ

Pronunciation

Afaman huwa qa-imun AAalakulli nafsin bima kasabat wajaAAaloo lillahi shurakaaqul sammoohum am tunabbi-oonahu bima la yaAAlamufee al-ardi am bithahirin minaalqawli bal zuyyina lillatheena kafaroo makruhum wasuddooAAani assabeeli waman yudlili Allahu famalahu min had

Translation

Then is He who is a maintainer of every soul, [knowing] what it has earned, [like any other]? But to Allah they have attributed partners. Say, “Name them. Or do you inform Him of that which He knows not upon the earth or of what is apparent of speech?” Rather, their [own] plan has been made attractive to those who disbelieve, and they have been averted from the way. And whomever Allah leaves astray – there will be for him no guide.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Is He Who stands, watches, over every soul what it has earned?, what it has done of good or evil — and this is God — like the idols who are not so? No! This [response] is suggested by [the following words]: Yet they ascribe to God associates. Say: ‘Name them!, for Him: who are they? Or will you inform Him, will you inform God, of something, that is, of an associate, which He does not know in the earth? (an interrogative of disavowal); in other words, He has no associate, for if He did, He would know him — exalted be He above such a thing. Or is it — nay — you call them associates, merely [a manner of] speaking?’, that is, [it is merely] on the basis of false conjecture, without any truth in it. Nay, but their scheming, their unbelief, has been adorned for those who disbelieve and they have been barred from the way, [from] the path of guidance; and whomever God sends astray, for him there is no guide.

13:34

لَّهُمْ عَذَابٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَعَذَابُ الْآخِرَةِ أَشَقُّ ۖ وَمَا لَهُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ مِن وَاقٍ

Pronunciation

Lahum AAathabun fee alhayatiaddunya walaAAathabu al-akhiratiashaqqu wama lahum mina Allahi min waq

Translation

For them will be punishment in the life of [this] world, and the punishment of the Hereafter is more severe. And they will not have from Allah any protector.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

For them there is chastisement in the life of this world, through being killed or taken captive; and verily the chastisement of the Hereafter is more grievous, is more severe; and they have no defender, protector, from God, that is, from His chastisement.

13:35

مَّثَلُ الْجَنَّةِ الَّتِي وُعِدَ الْمُتَّقُونَ ۖ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ أُكُلُهَا دَائِمٌ وَظِلُّهَا ۚ تِلْكَ عُقْبَى الَّذِينَ اتَّقَوا ۖ وَّعُقْبَى الْكَافِرِينَ النَّارُ

Pronunciation

Mathalu aljannati allatee wuAAidaalmuttaqoona tajree min tahtiha al-anharuokuluha da-imun wathilluhatilka AAuqba allatheena ittaqaw waAAuqba alkafireenaannar

Translation

The example of Paradise, which the righteous have been promised, is [that] beneath it rivers flow. Its fruit is lasting, and its shade. That is the consequence for the righteous, and the consequence for the disbelievers is the Fire.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The likeness, the description, of Paradise, which has been promised to the God-fearing (this is a subject, the predicate of which has been omitted), in other words, according to what We recount to you [is as follows]: beneath it rivers flow, its food, what is consumed in it, is everlasting, never perishing, and its shade, is everlasting, never replaced by any sun, because it does not exist therein. That, namely, Paradise, is the reward, the sequel, of those who were wary, of idolatry, and the requital of the disbelievers is the Fire!

13:36

وَالَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَفْرَحُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ ۖ وَمِنَ الْأَحْزَابِ مَن يُنكِرُ بَعْضَهُ ۚ قُلْ إِنَّمَا أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ وَلَا أُشْرِكَ بِهِ ۚ إِلَيْهِ أَدْعُو وَإِلَيْهِ مَآبِ

Pronunciation

Wallatheena ataynahumualkitaba yafrahoona bima onzila ilaykawamina al-ahzabi man yunkiru baAAdahu qulinnama omirtu an aAAbuda Allaha wala oshrikabihi ilayhi adAAoo wa-ilayhi maab

Translation

And [the believers among] those to whom We have given the [previous] Scripture rejoice at what has been revealed to you, [O Muhammad], but among the [opposing] factions are those who deny part of it. Say, “I have only been commanded to worship Allah and not associate [anything] with Him. To Him I invite, and to Him is my return.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those to whom We have given the Scripture, such as ‘Abd Allāh b. Salām and others from among the believing Jews, rejoice in that which has been revealed to you, because of its according with what they have with them [of revelation]; and among the factions, that aligned themselves against you in enmity, from among the idolaters and the Jews, are those who reject some of it, such as the mention of the ‘Compassionate One’ (al-Rahmān) and all that is other than the stories [related therein]. Say: ‘I have been commanded — in that which has been revealed to me — only to worship God, and not to associate [anything] with Him. To Him I call and to Him shall be my return’.

13:37

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَاهُ حُكْمًا عَرَبِيًّا ۚ وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءَهُم بَعْدَمَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ مَا لَكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا وَاقٍ

Pronunciation

Wakathalika anzalnahu hukmanAAarabiyyan wala-ini ittabaAAta ahwaahum baAAda majaaka mina alAAilmi ma laka mina Allahi minwaliyyin wala waq

Translation

And thus We have revealed it as an Arabic legislation. And if you should follow their inclinations after what has come to you of knowledge, you would not have against Allah any ally or any protector.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And so, just like that [manner of] revelation, We have revealed it, that is, the Qur’ān, as a [decisive] judgement in Arabic, in the language of the Arabs, for you to judge thereby between people. And if you should follow their whims, that is, [those of] the disbelievers, in that to which they summon you of their creed, hypothetically [speaking], after what has come to you of knowledge, of God’s Oneness, you shall have no protector, to assist you, against God (mina’Llāhi min: the [second] min is extra) and no defender, to ward off His chastisement.

13:38

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلًا مِّن قَبْلِكَ وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُمْ أَزْوَاجًا وَذُرِّيَّةً ۚ وَمَا كَانَ لِرَسُولٍ أَن يَأْتِيَ بِآيَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۗ لِكُلِّ أَجَلٍ كِتَابٌ

Pronunciation

Walaqad arsalna rusulan min qablikawajaAAalna lahum azwajan wathurriyyatan wamakana lirasoolin an ya/tiya bi-ayatin illabi-ithni Allahi likulli ajalin kitab

Translation

And We have already sent messengers before you and assigned to them wives and descendants. And it was not for a messenger to come with a sign except by permission of Allah. For every term is a decree.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when they derided him for having many wives, the following was revealed: And indeed We sent messengers before you, and We assigned to them wives and seed, children — and you are like them; and it was not for any Messenger, from among them, that he should bring a sign, save by God’s leave, because they are servants enthralled [by Him]. For every term, period, there is a Book, wherein is inscribed its delimitation.

13:39

يَمْحُو اللَّهُ مَا يَشَاءُ وَيُثْبِتُ ۖ وَعِندَهُ أُمُّ الْكِتَابِ

Pronunciation

Yamhoo Allahu ma yashaowayuthbitu waAAindahu ommu alkitab

Translation

Allah eliminates what He wills or confirms, and with Him is the Mother of the Book.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God effaces, of it [the Book], whatever He will and He fixes (read yuthbit or yuthabbit), therein whatever He will of rulings or other matters, and with Him is the Mother of the Book, its origin, of which nothing is ever changed, and which consists of what He inscribed in pre-eternity (azal).

13:40

وَإِن مَّا نُرِيَنَّكَ بَعْضَ الَّذِي نَعِدُهُمْ أَوْ نَتَوَفَّيَنَّكَ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَاغُ وَعَلَيْنَا الْحِسَابُ

Pronunciation

Wa-in ma nuriyannaka baAAdaallathee naAAiduhum aw natawaffayannaka fa-innamaAAalayka albalaghu waAAalayna alhisab

Translation

And whether We show you part of what We promise them or take you in death, upon you is only the [duty of] notification, and upon Us is the account.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And whether ([read as] immā: the nūn of the conditional particle in, ‘whether’, has been assimiliated with the extra mā) We show you a part of that which We promise them, of chastisement, during your lifetime (the response of the conditional statement has been omitted, in other words [understand it as being], fa-dhāk [‘then so shall it be’]); or We take you [to Us], before chastising them; it is for you only to convey [the Message], your duty is only to deliver [the Message], and it is for Us to do the reckoning, when they finally come to Us, whereupon We shall requite them.

13:41

أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّا نَأْتِي الْأَرْضَ نَنقُصُهَا مِنْ أَطْرَافِهَا ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ لَا مُعَقِّبَ لِحُكْمِهِ ۚ وَهُوَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ

Pronunciation

Awa lam yaraw anna na/tee al-ardananqusuha min atrafiha wallahuyahkumu la muAAaqqiba lihukmihi wahuwasareeAAu alhisab

Translation

Have they not seen that We set upon the land, reducing it from its borders? And Allah decides; there is no adjuster of His decision. And He is swift in account.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Or is it that they, the people of Mecca, have not seen how We visit the land, [how] We target their land, diminishing it at its outlying regions?, by giving victory to the Prophet (s). And God judges, among His creatures as He will; there is none that can repel His judgement and He is swift at reckoning.

13:42

وَقَدْ مَكَرَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ فَلِلَّهِ الْمَكْرُ جَمِيعًا ۖ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَكْسِبُ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ ۗ وَسَيَعْلَمُ الْكُفَّارُ لِمَنْ عُقْبَى الدَّارِ

Pronunciation

Waqad makara allatheena min qablihimfalillahi almakru jameeAAan yaAAlamu ma taksibukullu nafsin wasayaAAlamu alkuffaru liman AAuqba addar

Translation

And those before them had plotted, but to Allah belongs the plan entirely. He knows what every soul earns, and the disbelievers will know for whom is the final home.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And indeed those that were before them, of communities, plotted, against their prophets just as they plot against you; but to God belongs all plotting. And nor is their plotting like the plotting of God, for, exalted be He, He knows what every soul earns, and so its requital is prepared for it, and this is the ultimate plotting, since He brings it to them whence they are not aware. The disbeliever (the genus is meant here; a variant reading has kuffār [‘the disbelievers’]) shall assuredly know for whom shall be the sequel of the [heavenly] Abode, that is, the praiseworthy sequel in the abode of the Hereafter: will it be theirs or that of the Prophet (s) and his Companions?

13:43

وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَسْتَ مُرْسَلًا ۚ قُلْ كَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَكُمْ وَمَنْ عِندَهُ عِلْمُ الْكِتَابِ

Pronunciation

Wayaqoolu allatheena kafaroo lastamursalan qul kafa billahi shaheedan bayneewabaynakum waman AAindahu AAilmu alkitab

Translation

And those who have disbelieved say, “You are not a messenger.” Say, [O Muhammad], “Sufficient is Allah as Witness between me and you, and [the witness of] whoever has knowledge of the Scripture.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those who disbelieve say, to you: ‘You have not been sent [by God]!’ Say, to them: ‘God suffices as a witness between me and you, to my truthfulness [as a messenger], and he who possesses knowledge of the Book’, from among the Christian and Jewish believers.

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