Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 4.Surat An-Nisā’(The Women) – سورة النساء

Surat An-Nisā’ (The Women) – سورة النساء

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

4:1

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha annasuittaqoo rabbakumu allathee khalaqakum min nafsin wahidatinwakhalaqa minha zawjaha wabaththa minhumarijalan katheeran wanisaan wattaqoo Allahaallathee tasaaloona bihi wal-arhamainna Allaha kana AAalaykum raqeeb

Translation

O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women. And fear Allah , through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over you, an Observer.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O people, of Mecca, fear your Lord, that is, His punishment by being obedient to Him, Who created you of a single soul, Adam, and from it created its mate, Eve (Hawwā’), from one of his left ribs, and from the pair of them, Adam and Eve, scattered, separated and spread, many men and, many, women; and fear God by whom you claim [your rights] from one another (tassā’alūna: the original tā’ [of tatasā’alūna] has been assimilated with the sīn; a variant reading has tasā’alūna), so that one of you says to the other, ‘I ask you, by God…’, or ‘For God’s sake…’; and, fear, kinship ties, lest you sever them (a variant reading [of wa’l-arhāma, ‘and kinship ties’] is wa’l-arhāmi, as a supplement to the pronoun contained in bihi [sc. God]). They used to implore one another by ties of kinship. Surely God has been watchful over you, heedful of your deeds, for which He will requite you, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such an attribute.

4:2

وَآتُوا الْيَتَامَىٰ أَمْوَالَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَبَدَّلُوا الْخَبِيثَ بِالطَّيِّبِ ۖ وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلَىٰ أَمْوَالِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ حُوبًا كَبِيرًا

Pronunciation

Waatoo alyatama amwalahumwala tatabaddaloo alkhabeetha bittayyibiwala ta/kuloo amwalahum ila amwalikuminnahu kana hooban kabeera

Translation

And give to the orphans their properties and do not substitute the defective [of your own] for the good [of theirs]. And do not consume their properties into your own. Indeed, that is ever a great sin.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed regarding an orphan who demanded his property from his guardian but was refused it: Give the orphans, the under-age ones that have no father, their property, when they have reached maturity, and do not exchange the evil, the unlawful, for the good, the lawful, that is, taking the one in place of the other, as you do when you take what is good from the orphan’s property, and leave him your faulty property instead; and absorb not their property, [by] adding it, into your property; surely that, the absorbing of it, is a great crime, a serious sin. When this was revealed they found it difficult to maintain guardianship over orphans, and some of them had ten or eight wives under their care, and did not treat them all equally, and so the following was revealed:

4:3

وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تُقْسِطُوا فِي الْيَتَامَىٰ فَانكِحُوا مَا طَابَ لَكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ مَثْنَىٰ وَثُلَاثَ وَرُبَاعَ ۖ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تَعْدِلُوا فَوَاحِدَةً أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَلَّا تَعُولُوا

Pronunciation

Wa-in khiftum alla tuqsitoo feealyatama fankihoo ma tabalakum mina annisa-i mathna wathulathawarubaAAa fa-in khiftum alla taAAdiloo fawahidatanaw ma malakat aymanukum thalika adnaalla taAAooloo

Translation

And if you fear that you will not deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry those that please you of [other] women, two or three or four. But if you fear that you will not be just, then [marry only] one or those your right hand possesses. That is more suitable that you may not incline [to injustice].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

If you fear that you will not act justly, [that] you will [not] be equitable, towards the orphans, and are thus distressed in this matter, then also fear lest you be unjust towards women when you marry them; marry such (mā means man) women as seem good to you, two or three or four, that is, [each man may marry] two, or three, or four, but do not exceed this; but if you fear you will not be equitable, towards them in terms of [their] expenses and [individual] share; then, marry, only one, or, restrict yourself to, what your right hands own, of slavegirls, since these do not have the same rights as wives; thus, by that marrying of only four, or only one, or resorting to slave girls, it is likelier, it is nearer [in outcome], that you will not be unjust, [that] you will [not] be inequitable.

4:4

وَآتُوا النِّسَاءَ صَدُقَاتِهِنَّ نِحْلَةً ۚ فَإِن طِبْنَ لَكُمْ عَن شَيْءٍ مِّنْهُ نَفْسًا فَكُلُوهُ هَنِيئًا مَّرِيئًا

Pronunciation

Waatoo annisaa saduqatihinnanihlatan fa-in tibna lakum AAan shay-in minhunafsan fakuloohu hanee-an maree-a

Translation

And give the women [upon marriage] their [bridal] gifts graciously. But if they give up willingly to you anything of it, then take it in satisfaction and ease.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And give women their dowries (saduqāt, plural of sudqa), their bridal money (mahr, muhūr), as a free gift (nihlatan, is a verbal noun), a present given out of the kindness of one’s heart; but if they are pleased to offer you any of it of their own accord (nafsan, ‘of their own accord’, is for specification and is taken from the subject of the verb [thus, it refers back to ‘they’, the women]), meaning, [if] their own selves are pleased that you should have something of the dowry and they give it to you then, consume it with, good, wholesome appetite, a praiseworthy consequence, with no harm therein for you with regard to the Hereafter: this was revealed in response to those who were opposed to this [consumption].

4:5

وَلَا تُؤْتُوا السُّفَهَاءَ أَمْوَالَكُمُ الَّتِي جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَامًا وَارْزُقُوهُمْ فِيهَا وَاكْسُوهُمْ وَقُولُوا لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا

Pronunciation

Wala tu/too assufahaaamwalakumu allatee jaAAala Allahu lakum qiyamanwarzuqoohum feeha waksoohum waqooloo lahumqawlan maAAroofa

Translation

And do not give the weak-minded your property, which Allah has made a means of sustenance for you, but provide for them with it and clothe them and speak to them words of appropriate kindness.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But do not, O guardians, give to the foolish, the squanderers from among men, women and children, your property, that is, the property that is theirs but held by you, which God has assigned to you as maintenance (qiyāman, ‘maintenance’, is the verbal noun from qāma; a variant reading has qiyaman, the plural of qīma, ‘value’, that is, that with which property is valued), meaning that the property which sustains your livelihoods and the well-being of your children, lest they expend it improperly; provide for them thereof, that is, feed them from it, and clothe them, and speak to them decent words, prepare for them a kind reception, by giving them their property when they reach maturity.

4:6

وَابْتَلُوا الْيَتَامَىٰ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا بَلَغُوا النِّكَاحَ فَإِنْ آنَسْتُم مِّنْهُمْ رُشْدًا فَادْفَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَأْكُلُوهَا إِسْرَافًا وَبِدَارًا أَن يَكْبَرُوا ۚ وَمَن كَانَ غَنِيًّا فَلْيَسْتَعْفِفْ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ فَقِيرًا فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ فَإِذَا دَفَعْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فَأَشْهِدُوا عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ حَسِيبًا

Pronunciation

Wabtaloo alyatama hattaitha balaghoo annikaha fa-in anastumminhum rushdan fadfaAAoo ilayhim amwalahum walata/kulooha israfan wabidaran an yakbaroowaman kana ghaniyyan falyastaAAfif waman kanafaqeeran falya/kul bilmaAAroofi fa-itha dafaAAtumilayhim amwalahum faashhidoo AAalayhim wakafa billahihaseeba

Translation

And test the orphans [in their abilities] until they reach marriageable age. Then if you perceive in them sound judgement, release their property to them. And do not consume it excessively and quickly, [anticipating] that they will grow up. And whoever, [when acting as guardian], is self-sufficient should refrain [from taking a fee]; and whoever is poor – let him take according to what is acceptable. Then when you release their property to them, bring witnesses upon them. And sufficient is Allah as Accountant.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Try, test, well the orphans, before reaching maturity with regard [the duties of] religion and [before] they can [legally] manage their own affairs, until they reach the age of marrying, that is, until they have become eligible for it through puberty or [legal] age, which, according to al-Shāfi‘ī, is the completion of fifteen years; then, if you perceive in them maturity, that is, right [judgement] in matters of religion and their property, deliver their property to them; consume it not, O guardians, wastefully, without due merit, and in haste, that is, hastening to expend it, fearing, lest they should grow up, and become mature, at which time you will be obliged to hand it over to them. If any man, who is a guardian, is rich, let him be abstinent, that is, let him abstain from the orphan’s property and refrain from consuming it; if he is poor, let him consume, of it, honourably, that is, in line with the wage for his work. And when you deliver to them, the orphans, their property, take witnesses over them, that they have received it and that you are absolved [of the obligation], so that if any dispute occurs, you are able to refer to a clear proof: this is a command [intended] for guidance. God suffices as a reckoner, as a guardian of His creatures’ deeds and as a reckoner of these [deeds] (the bā’ [in bi’Llāhi] is extra).

4:7

لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ مِمَّا قَلَّ مِنْهُ أَوْ كَثُرَ ۚ نَصِيبًا مَّفْرُوضًا

Pronunciation

Lirrijali naseebun mimmataraka alwalidani wal-aqraboona walinnisa-inaseebun mimma taraka alwalidani wal-aqraboonamimma qalla minhu aw kathura naseeban mafrooda

Translation

For men is a share of what the parents and close relatives leave, and for women is a share of what the parents and close relatives leave, be it little or much – an obligatory share.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed as a repudiation of pre-Islamic practices in which women and children were not given any inheritance: To the men, young ones and kin, belongs a share, a portion, of what, deceased, parents and kinsmen leave, and to the women belongs a share of what parents and kinsmen leave, whether it, the property, be little or much. God has made it, an obligatory share, apportioned, to be given to them.

4:8

وَإِذَا حَضَرَ الْقِسْمَةَ أُولُو الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينُ فَارْزُقُوهُم مِّنْهُ وَقُولُوا لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا

Pronunciation

Wa-itha hadara alqismataoloo alqurba walyatama walmasakeenufarzuqoohum minhu waqooloo lahum qawlan maAAroofa

Translation

And when [other] relatives and orphans and the needy are present at the [time of] division, then provide for them [something] out of the estate and speak to them words of appropriate kindness.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when the division, of the inheritance, is attended by kinsmen, those of kinship who cannot inherit, and orphans and the poor, grant them, something, out of it, before the division [is effected]; and, if the inheritors are young, speak to them, O guardians, honourable words, kindly, by apologising to them that it is not your possession [to divide as you wish], but that it is for the young [inheritors]. Some say that this [stipulation] was abrogated; others say that it was not, only that people were all too readily neglecting it, since it was encouraged [but not prescribed]. According to Ibn ‘Abbās, however, it is a duty.

4:9

وَلْيَخْشَ الَّذِينَ لَوْ تَرَكُوا مِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّةً ضِعَافًا خَافُوا عَلَيْهِمْ فَلْيَتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَلْيَقُولُوا قَوْلًا سَدِيدًا

Pronunciation

Walyakhsha allatheena law tarakoo minkhalfihim thurriyyatan diAAafan khafooAAalayhim falyattaqoo Allaha walyaqooloo qawlan sadeeda

Translation

And let those [executors and guardians] fear [injustice] as if they [themselves] had left weak offspring behind and feared for them. So let them fear Allah and speak words of appropriate justice.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And let them fear, let them be concerned for the orphans, those who, if they, are about to, leave behind them, that is, after their death, weak offspring, young children, would be afraid for them; that they be ruined; let them fear God, in the matter concerning orphans, and let them give what they would love for their own offspring after their death; and speak, to the one approached by death, pertinent words, the right [words], by enjoining him to give as voluntary almsgiving no more than the third [of the inheritance], and leave the remainder for the ones inheriting, so that they do not end up as dependants.

4:10

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَالَ الْيَتَامَىٰ ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ نَارًا ۖ وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena ya/kuloona amwalaalyatama thulman innamaya/kuloona fee butoonihim naran wasayaslawnasaAAeera

Translation

Indeed, those who devour the property of orphans unjustly are only consuming into their bellies fire. And they will be burned in a Blaze.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those who consume the property of orphans unjustly, without any right, are only consuming, the whole of it as, fire in their bellies, because that is where such [action] leads, and they shall be exposed to (read active yaslawna, or passive yuslawna), that is, they shall enter, a blaze, an intense fire, in which they shall burn.

4:11

يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ ۖ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۚ فَإِن كُنَّ نِسَاءً فَوْقَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ ۖ وَإِن كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَلَهَا النِّصْفُ ۚ وَلِأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِن كَانَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ فَلِأُمِّهِ الثُّلُثُ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُ إِخْوَةٌ فَلِأُمِّهِ السُّدُسُ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِي بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ لَا تَدْرُونَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ لَكُمْ نَفْعًا ۚ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Yooseekumu Allahu fee awladikumliththakari mithlu haththialonthayayni fa-in kunna nisaan fawqa ithnatayni falahunnathulutha ma taraka wa-in kanat wahidatanfalaha annisfu wali-abawayhi likulli wahidinminhuma assudusu mimma taraka in kanalahu waladun fa-in lam yakun lahu waladun wawarithahu abawahufali-ommihi aththuluthu fa-in kana lahu ikhwatunfali-ommihi assudusu min baAAdi wasiyyatin yooseebiha aw daynin abaokum waabnaokum latadroona ayyuhum aqrabu lakum nafAAan fareedatan mina Allahiinna Allaha kana AAaleeman hakeema

Translation

Allah instructs you concerning your children: for the male, what is equal to the share of two females. But if there are [only] daughters, two or more, for them is two thirds of one’s estate. And if there is only one, for her is half. And for one’s parents, to each one of them is a sixth of his estate if he left children. But if he had no children and the parents [alone] inherit from him, then for his mother is one third. And if he had brothers [or sisters], for his mother is a sixth, after any bequest he [may have] made or debt. Your parents or your children – you know not which of them are nearest to you in benefit. [These shares are] an obligation [imposed] by Allah . Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God charges you, He commands you, concerning, the matter of, your children, with what He will mention: to the male, of them, the equivalent of the portion, the lot, of two females, if there are two [women] with him, so that half the property is his, and the other half is theirs; if there is only one female with him, then she has a third, and he receives two thirds; if he is the only one, he takes it all; and if they, the offspring, be, only, women more than two, then for them two-thirds of what he, the deceased, leaves; likewise if they be two women, since in the case of two sisters, more deserving of such a share, God says, They shall receive two-thirds of what he leaves [Q. 4:176]; and since a female is entitled to a third with a male, she is all the more deserving [of the same share] with a female. It is said that fawq, ‘more than’, introduces a relative clause; it is also said to guard against the wrong impression that the greater the number [of females] the greater the portion [they are entitled to], since, it is [mistakenly] thought that the entitlement of two females to two-thirds derives from the fact that a female is entitled to one third when with a male; but if she, the daughter, be one (wāhidatan, is also read wāhidatun, making the kāna [construction] syntactically complete) then to her a half; and to his parents, the deceased’s, to each one of the two (li-kulli wāhidin minhumā, substitutes for the previous li-abawayhi, ‘to his parents’) the sixth of what he leaves, if he has a child, male or female: the point of the substitution is to show that they do not share the sixth [but receive one each]. [The term] ‘child’ (walad) also applies to a grandchild, and likewise ‘parent’ (abb) to a grandparent; but if he has no child, and his heirs are his parents, alone or along with a spouse, then to his mother (read li-ummihi; also read, in both places [here and further down], li-immihi in order to avoid the cumbersome transition from a damma [‘u’] to a kasra [‘I’]) a third, of the property, or what remains after the spouse, the rest being for the father; or, if he has siblings, two or more, males or females, to his mother a sixth, and the rest for the father, and nothing for the siblings.

4:12

وَلَكُمْ نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزْوَاجُكُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُنَّ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَلَكُمُ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْنَ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِينَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۚ وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّكُمْ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُم ۚ مِّن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ تُوصُونَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ وَإِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلَالَةً أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ ۚ فَإِن كَانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فِي الثُّلُثِ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصَىٰ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ غَيْرَ مُضَارٍّ ۚ وَصِيَّةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Walakum nisfu ma taraka azwajukumin lam yakun lahunna waladun fa-in kana lahunna waladunfalakumu arrubuAAu mimma tarakna min baAAdi wasiyyatinyooseena biha aw daynin walahunna arrubuAAumimma taraktum in lam yakun lakum waladun fa-in kanalakum waladun falahunna aththumunu mimma taraktummin baAAdi wasiyyatin toosoona biha awdaynin wa-in kana rajulun yoorathu kalalatan awiimraatun walahu akhun aw okhtun falikulli wahidin minhumaassudusu fa-in kanoo akthara min thalikafahum shurakao fee aththuluthi min baAAdi wasiyyatinyoosa biha aw daynin ghayra mudarrin wasiyyatanmina Allahi wallahu AAaleemun haleem

Translation

And for you is half of what your wives leave if they have no child. But if they have a child, for you is one fourth of what they leave, after any bequest they [may have] made or debt. And for the wives is one fourth if you leave no child. But if you leave a child, then for them is an eighth of what you leave, after any bequest you [may have] made or debt. And if a man or woman leaves neither ascendants nor descendants but has a brother or a sister, then for each one of them is a sixth. But if they are more than two, they share a third, after any bequest which was made or debt, as long as there is no detriment [caused]. [This is] an ordinance from Allah , and Allah is Knowing and Forbearing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And for you a half of what your wives leave, if they have no children, from you or from another; but if they have children, then for you a fourth of what they leave, after any bequest they may bequeath, or any debt: the consensus is that the grandchild in this case is like the child. And for them, the wives, whether one or more, a fourth of what you leave, if you have no children; but if you have children, from them or from others, then for them an eighth of what you leave, after any bequest you may bequeath, or any debt; again the consensus is that the grandchild is as the child. If it be a man leaving an inheritance (yūrathu, ‘being inherited from’, is an adjectival qualification, the predicate of which is [the following kalālatan, ‘without direct heir’]) and not having a direct heir, that is, [having] neither a parent nor child, or it be a woman, leaving an inheritance and having no direct heir, but it be that such, a man leaving an inheritance with no direct heir, has a brother or a sister, from the same mother, as read by Ibn Mas‘ūd and others, then to each of the two a sixth, of what he leaves; but if they, the siblings from the same mother, be more than that, that is, [more] than one, then they share a third, the male and female equally, after any bequest to be bequeathed or any debt without prejudice (ghayra mudārrin, is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person governing [the verb] yūsā, ‘to be bequeathed’) in other words, without causing any prejudice to the inheritors by bequeathing more than the third); a charge (wasiyyatan, a verbal noun reaffirming [the import of] yūsīkum, ‘He charges you’ [of the beginning of the previous verse]) from God. God is Knowing, of the obligations which He has ordained for His creatures, Forbearing, in deferring the punishment of those that disobey Him. The Sunna specifies that the individuals mentioned may receive the relevant inheritance provided that they are not barred from it on account of their having committed murder, or [their belonging to] a different religion or being slaves.

4:13

تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ

Pronunciation

Tilka hudoodu Allahi waman yutiAAiAllaha warasoolahu yudkhilhu jannatin tajree min tahtihaal-anharu khalideena feeha wathalikaalfawzu alAAatheem

Translation

These are the limits [set by] Allah , and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted by Him to gardens [in Paradise] under which rivers flow, abiding eternally therein; and that is the great attainment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those, rulings mentioned with respect to orphans and what followed, are God’s bounds, His laws, which He has delimited for His servants, so that they may act in accordance with them and not infringe them. Whoever obeys God and His Messenger, in what He has ruled, He will admit him (yudkhilhu, or, as a shift [to the first person plural] read nudkhilhu, ‘We will admit him’) to Gardens underneath which rivers flow, abiding therein; that is the great triumph.

4:14

وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ نَارًا خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَلَهُ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ

Pronunciation

Waman yaAAsi Allahawarasoolahu wayataAAadda hudoodahu yudkhilhu narankhalidan feeha walahu AAathabun muheen

Translation

And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and transgresses His limits – He will put him into the Fire to abide eternally therein, and he will have a humiliating punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But whoever disobeys God, and His Messenger; and transgresses His bounds, him He will admit ([read] in both ways [as above, yudkhilhu and nudkhilhu]) to a Fire, abiding therein, and for him, in it, there shall be a humbling chastisement, one of humiliation. (In both [of the last] verses, the [singular] person [of the suffixed pronouns and the verbs] accords with the [singular] form of [the particle] man, ‘whoever’, while [the plural person in] khālidīn, ‘abiding’, accords with its [general plural] import.)

4:15

وَاللَّاتِي يَأْتِينَ الْفَاحِشَةَ مِن نِّسَائِكُمْ فَاسْتَشْهِدُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةً مِّنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن شَهِدُوا فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ فِي الْبُيُوتِ حَتَّىٰ يَتَوَفَّاهُنَّ الْمَوْتُ أَوْ يَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لَهُنَّ سَبِيلًا

Pronunciation

Wallatee ya/teena alfahishatamin nisa-ikum fastashhidoo AAalayhinna arbaAAatanminkum fa-in shahidoo faamsikoohunna fee albuyooti hattayatawaffahunna almawtu aw yajAAala Allahu lahunnasabeela

Translation

Those who commit unlawful sexual intercourse of your women – bring against them four [witnesses] from among you. And if they testify, confine the guilty women to houses until death takes them or Allah ordains for them [another] way.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

As for those of your women who commit lewdness, adultery, call four, Muslim men, of you to witness against them; and if they witness, against them such [lewdness], then detain them in their houses, and prevent them from mixing with people, until, the angels of, death take them or, until, God appoints for them a way, out of it. This was stipulated for them at the very beginning of Islam, but then a way out was appointed for them through [the stipulation] that the virgin should receive a hundred lashes and be banished for a year, and the married woman be stoned. The prescribed punishment was explained thus in the hadīth, ‘Come listen to me! Come listen to me! God has now made a way out for them’, as reported by Muslim.

4:16

وَاللَّذَانِ يَأْتِيَانِهَا مِنكُمْ فَآذُوهُمَا ۖ فَإِن تَابَا وَأَصْلَحَا فَأَعْرِضُوا عَنْهُمَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ تَوَّابًا رَّحِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wallathani ya/tiyanihaminkum faathoohuma fa-in taba waaslahafaaAAridoo AAanhuma inna Allaha kanatawwaban raheema

Translation

And the two who commit it among you, dishonor them both. But if they repent and correct themselves, leave them alone. Indeed, Allah is ever Accepting of repentance and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when two of you (read wa’lladhāni or wa’lladhānni) men, commit it, that is, a lewd act, adultery or homosexual intercourse, punish them both, with insults and beatings with sandals; but if they repent, of this [lewd act], and make amends, through [good] action, then leave them be, and do not harm them. God ever turns [relenting], to those who repent, and is Merciful, to them. This [verse] is abrogated by the prescribed punishment if adultery is meant [by the lewd act], and similarly if homosexual intercourse is meant, according to al-Shāfi‘ī; but according to him, the person who is the object of the [penetrative] act is not stoned, even if he be married; rather, he is flogged and banished. Judging by the dual person pronoun, it seems more obvious that homosexual fornication is meant [by this verse], even though the former [sc. al-Shāfi‘ī] was of the opinion that it referred to an adulterer and an adulteress; but this [opinion of his] may be countered by the fact that [the reference to] the two [men] becomes clear on account of the particle min being attached to a masculine pronoun [minkum, ‘of you’], and by the fact that they suffer the same punishment, [both effect the action of] repentance and [are both granted] that they be left alone [thereafter], [all of] which applies specifically to men, given that for women detention is stipulated, as was stated before.

4:17

إِنَّمَا التَّوْبَةُ عَلَى اللَّهِ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السُّوءَ بِجَهَالَةٍ ثُمَّ يَتُوبُونَ مِن قَرِيبٍ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَتُوبُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Innama attawbatu AAalaAllahi lillatheena yaAAmaloona assoo-abijahalatin thumma yatooboona min qareebin faola-ikayatoobu Allahu AAalayhim wakana AllahuAAaleeman hakeema

Translation

The repentance accepted by Allah is only for those who do wrong in ignorance [or carelessness] and then repent soon after. It is those to whom Allah will turn in forgiveness, and Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The repentance that God accepts, that is, the one which He has prescribed for Himself to accept, out of His bounty, is only of those who do evil, an act of disobedience, in ignorance (bi-jahālatin, a circumstantial qualifier, in other words, ‘they are ignorant’ while they are disobeying their Lord); then repent shortly thereafter, before the last gasps of death; God will relent to those, He will accept their repentance. And God is ever Knowing, of His creatures, Wise, in what He does with them.

4:18

وَلَيْسَتِ التَّوْبَةُ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ السَّيِّئَاتِ حَتَّىٰ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ إِنِّي تُبْتُ الْآنَ وَلَا الَّذِينَ يَمُوتُونَ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ أَعْتَدْنَا لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Walaysati attawbatu lillatheenayaAAmaloona assayyi-ati hatta ithahadara ahadahumu almawtu qala inneetubtu al-ana wala allatheena yamootoonawahum kuffarun ola-ika aAAtadna lahum Aaathabanaleema

Translation

But repentance is not [accepted] of those who [continue to] do evil deeds up until, when death comes to one of them, he says, “Indeed, I have repented now,” or of those who die while they are disbelievers. For them We have prepared a painful punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Repentance is not for those who do evil deeds, sins, until, when death approaches one of them, and the pangs of death begin, he says, upon witnessing his predicament: ‘Indeed now I repent’, for this would not avail him and would not be accepted from him; neither for those who die disbelieving, if they repent in the Hereafter upon seeing the chastisement: it will not be accepted from them. Those — We have prepared for them a painful chastisement.

4:19

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَرِثُوا النِّسَاءَ كَرْهًا ۖ وَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ لِتَذْهَبُوا بِبَعْضِ مَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ ۚ وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ فَإِن كَرِهْتُمُوهُنَّ فَعَسَىٰ أَن تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَيَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola yahillu lakum an tarithoo annisaakarhan wala taAAduloohunna litathhaboobibaAAdi ma ataytumoohunna illa anya/teena bifahishatin mubayyinatin waAAashiroohunnabilmaAAroofi fa-in karihtumoohunna faAAasa antakrahoo shay-an wayajAAala Allahu feehi khayran katheera

Translation

O you who have believed, it is not lawful for you to inherit women by compulsion. And do not make difficulties for them in order to take [back] part of what you gave them unless they commit a clear immorality. And live with them in kindness. For if you dislike them – perhaps you dislike a thing and Allah makes therein much good.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, it is not lawful for you to inherit women against their will (read either karhan or kurhan, as alternative forms) that is to say, coercing them into this. In pre-Islamic times, they used to inherit women from their kin, and if they so wished they could marry [a woman] without a dowry, or marry her off and take the dowry for themselves, or prevent her [from marriage] until she gave up what she had inherited, or until she died and they could inherit from her. They were thus forbidden such practices; neither debar them, your [former] wives from marrying others by retaining them while you have no desire for them yourselves, only to harm them; so that you may go off with part of what you have given them, of the dowry, except when they commit flagrant (read mubayyina, ‘making it clear’, or mubayyana, ‘clear’) lewdness, such as adultery or rebellion, then you have the right to coerce them until they redeem themselves to you or forfeit [their dowries]. Consort with them in kindness, that is, being decent in speaking [to them], with regard to [their] expenditure and lodging; for if you hate them, then be patient; it may happen that you hate a thing wherein God has set much good, that is to say, perhaps He does this when He provides you with a righteous child through them.

4:20

وَإِنْ أَرَدتُّمُ اسْتِبْدَالَ زَوْجٍ مَّكَانَ زَوْجٍ وَآتَيْتُمْ إِحْدَاهُنَّ قِنطَارًا فَلَا تَأْخُذُوا مِنْهُ شَيْئًا ۚ أَتَأْخُذُونَهُ بُهْتَانًا وَإِثْمًا مُّبِينًا

Pronunciation

Wa-in aradtumu istibdala zawjin makanazawjin waataytum ihdahunna qintaranfala ta/khuthoo minhu shay-an ata/khuthoonahubuhtanan wa-ithman mubeena

Translation

But if you want to replace one wife with another and you have given one of them a great amount [in gifts], do not take [back] from it anything. Would you take it in injustice and manifest sin?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if you desire to exchange a wife in place of another, by divorcing the one, and you have given to one, of the spouses, a hundredweight, that is, a large sum as dowry, take of it nothing. Would you take it by way of calumny, injustice, and manifest sin? (buhtānan, ‘calumny’, and ithman, ‘sin’, end in the accusative because they are circumstantial qualifiers); the interrogative here is meant as a rebuke, and as a disavowal where He says:

4:21

وَكَيْفَ تَأْخُذُونَهُ وَقَدْ أَفْضَىٰ بَعْضُكُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَأَخَذْنَ مِنكُم مِّيثَاقًا غَلِيظًا

Pronunciation

Wakayfa ta/khuthoonahu waqad afdabaAAdukum ila baAAdin waakhathnaminkum meethaqan ghaleetha

Translation

And how could you take it while you have gone in unto each other and they have taken from you a solemn covenant?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

How shall you take it, that is, by what right, when each of you has been privily with the other, through sexual intercourse, which validates the dowry, and they have taken from you a solemn covenant, a binding pledge, and that is what God commanded, namely, that they should be retained honourably or set free virtuously.

4:22

وَلَا تَنكِحُوا مَا نَكَحَ آبَاؤُكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَمَقْتًا وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا

Pronunciation

Wala tankihoo ma nakahaabaokum mina annisa-i illa maqad salafa innahu kana fahishatan wamaqtan wasaasabeela

Translation

And do not marry those [women] whom your fathers married, except what has already occurred. Indeed, it was an immorality and hateful [to Allah ] and was evil as a way.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And do not marry women whom (mā means man) your fathers married, unless it be a thing of the past, which is forgiven you; surely that, marrying them, is obscene, vile, and abominable (maqtan, means it results in maqt, ‘severe hate’, from God), an evil way, [an evil] path is this.

4:23

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُمْ وَعَمَّاتُكُمْ وَخَالَاتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُ الْأَخِ وَبَنَاتُ الْأُخْتِ وَأُمَّهَاتُكُمُ اللَّاتِي أَرْضَعْنَكُمْ وَأَخَوَاتُكُم مِّنَ الرَّضَاعَةِ وَأُمَّهَاتُ نِسَائِكُمْ وَرَبَائِبُكُمُ اللَّاتِي فِي حُجُورِكُم مِّن نِّسَائِكُمُ اللَّاتِي دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَإِن لَّمْ تَكُونُوا دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَحَلَائِلُ أَبْنَائِكُمُ الَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلَابِكُمْ وَأَن تَجْمَعُوا بَيْنَ الْأُخْتَيْنِ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Pronunciation

Hurrimat AAalaykum ommahatukumwabanatukum waakhawatukum waAAammatukum wakhalatukumwabanatu al-akhi wabanatu al-okhti waommahatukumuallatee ardaAAnakum waakhawatukum mina arradaAAatiwaommahatu nisa-ikum waraba-ibukumu allateefee hujoorikum min nisa-ikumu allateedakhaltum bihinna fa-in lam takoonoo dakhaltum bihinna falajunaha AAalaykum wahala-ilu abna-ikumuallatheena min aslabikum waan tajmaAAoobayna al-okhtayni illa ma qad salafa inna Allahakana ghafooran raheema

Translation

Prohibited to you [for marriage] are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father’s sisters, your mother’s sisters, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your [milk] mothers who nursed you, your sisters through nursing, your wives’ mothers, and your step-daughters under your guardianship [born] of your wives unto whom you have gone in. But if you have not gone in unto them, there is no sin upon you. And [also prohibited are] the wives of your sons who are from your [own] loins, and that you take [in marriage] two sisters simultaneously, except for what has already occurred. Indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Forbidden to you are your mothers, in marriage, and this includes the paternal and maternal grandmothers; and daughters, including their children, if they should lower themselves [to such standards]; your sisters, from your fathers and mothers; your paternal aunts, that is, the sisters of your fathers and grandfathers; and maternal aunts, that is, the sisters of your mothers and grandmothers; your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, including the children of these daughters; your foster mothers who have given you milk, five times within the first two years, as pointed out in a hadīth; your foster sisters, and, according to the Sunna, the daughters of these; and these foster-sisters include those suckled by a woman with whom the man has had intercourse, those suckled by the man’s paternal aunts, or maternal aunts, or those suckled by his brother’s daughters, or his sister’s daughters, on account of the [Prophet’s] hadīth that, ‘What kinship makes unlawful suckling also makes unlawful’, as reported by al-Bukhārī and Muslim; your mothers-in-law, your step-daughters (rabā’ib, plural of rabība, the daughter of one’s wife from another husband), who are, being brought up, in your care (allātī fī hujūrikum is an adjectival qualifier, reiterating the obvious, without any additional import); being born of your wives you have been in to, in sexual intercourse — but if you have not yet been in to them you are not at fault, if you leave them, to then marry their daughters — and the spouses of your sons who are of your loins, as opposed to those whom you have adopted, whose spouses, in contrast, you may marry; and that you should take to you, in marriage, two sisters together, [sisters] by kinship or by suckling: the Sunna adds that you may not marry her together with her paternal or maternal aunt; it is permissible to marry each of these separately or to own them [as handmaidens] together, but only have sexual intercourse with one of them; unless it be a thing of the past, from pre-Islamic times, when you may have married in one of the ways mentioned: you are not at fault. God is ever Forgiving, of what you have done in the past, prior to this prohibition, Merciful, to you in this matter.

4:24

وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۖ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَأُحِلَّ لَكُم مَّا وَرَاءَ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَن تَبْتَغُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُم مُّحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحِينَ ۚ فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُم بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا تَرَاضَيْتُم بِهِ مِن بَعْدِ الْفَرِيضَةِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Walmuhsanatu mina annisa-iilla ma malakat aymanukum kitaba AllahiAAalaykum waohilla lakum ma waraa thalikuman tabtaghoo bi-amwalikum muhsineena ghayra musafiheenafama istamtaAAtum bihi minhunna faatoohunnaojoorahunna fareedatan wala junaha AAalaykumfeema taradaytum bihi min baAAdi alfareedatiinna Allaha kana AAaleeman hakeema

Translation

And [also prohibited to you are all] married women except those your right hands possess. [This is] the decree of Allah upon you. And lawful to you are [all others] beyond these, [provided] that you seek them [in marriage] with [gifts from] your property, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse. So for whatever you enjoy [of marriage] from them, give them their due compensation as an obligation. And there is no blame upon you for what you mutually agree to beyond the obligation. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, forbidden to you are, wedded women, those with spouses, that you should marry them before they have left their spouses, be they Muslim free women or not; save what your right hands own, of captured [slave] girls, whom you may have sexual intercourse with, even if they should have spouses among the enemy camp, but only after they have been absolved of the possibility of pregnancy [after the completion of one menstrual cycle]; this is what God has prescribed for you (kitāba is in the accusative because it is the verbal noun). Lawful for you (read passive wa-uhilla, or active wa-ahalla), beyond all that, that is, except what He has forbidden you of women, is that you seek, women, using your wealth, by way of a dowry or a price, in wedlock and not, fornicating, in illicitly. Such wives as you enjoy thereby, and have had sexual intercourse with, give them their wages, the dowries that you have assigned them, as an obligation; you are not at fault in agreeing together, you and they, after the obligation, is waived, decreased or increased. God is ever Knowing, of His creatures, Wise, in what He has ordained for them.

4:25

وَمَن لَّمْ يَسْتَطِعْ مِنكُمْ طَوْلًا أَن يَنكِحَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ فَمِن مَّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُم مِّن فَتَيَاتِكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِكُم ۚ بَعْضُكُم مِّن بَعْضٍ ۚ فَانكِحُوهُنَّ بِإِذْنِ أَهْلِهِنَّ وَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ مُحْصَنَاتٍ غَيْرَ مُسَافِحَاتٍ وَلَا مُتَّخِذَاتِ أَخْدَانٍ ۚ فَإِذَا أُحْصِنَّ فَإِنْ أَتَيْنَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ فَعَلَيْهِنَّ نِصْفُ مَا عَلَى الْمُحْصَنَاتِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَنْ خَشِيَ الْعَنَتَ مِنكُمْ ۚ وَأَن تَصْبِرُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Waman lam yastatiAA minkum tawlanan yankiha almuhsanati almu/minatifamin ma malakat aymanukum min fatayatikumualmu/minati wallahu aAAlamu bi-eemanikumbaAAdukum min baAAdin fankihoohunnabi-ithni ahlihinna waatoohunna ojoorahunna bilmaAAroofimuhsanatin ghayra masafihatin walamuttakhithati akhdanin fa-itha ohsinnafa-in atayna bifahishatin faAAalayhinna nisfu maAAala almuhsanati mina alAAathabi thalikaliman khashiya alAAanata minkum waan tasbiroo khayrunlakum wallahu ghafoorun raheem

Translation

And whoever among you cannot [find] the means to marry free, believing women, then [he may marry] from those whom your right hands possess of believing slave girls. And Allah is most knowing about your faith. You [believers] are of one another. So marry them with the permission of their people and give them their due compensation according to what is acceptable. [They should be] chaste, neither [of] those who commit unlawful intercourse randomly nor those who take [secret] lovers. But once they are sheltered in marriage, if they should commit adultery, then for them is half the punishment for free [unmarried] women. This [allowance] is for him among you who fears sin, but to be patient is better for you. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And whoever has not the means wherewith, [whoever] is not wealthy enough, to be able to marry believing (al-mu’mināt, ‘believing’, is in accordance with the prevalent practice, and does not add to the import), free, women in wedlock, let him take, in marriage, believing maids whom your right hands own. God knows very well your faith, so suffice yourself with its outward manifestation and leave the innermost matters to Him, for He is the One to know her [true] merit: many a slavegirl may be more excellent [in faith] than a free woman, and this is meant to encourage marriage with slavegirls; the one of you is as the other, being equal in religion, so do not disdain to marry with them. So marry them, with the permission of their folk, their guardians, and give them their wages, their dowries, honourably, without procrastination or diminution, as women in wedlock (muhsanāt, a circumstantial qualifier), in decency, not illicitly, openly fornicating, or taking lovers, companions fornicating in secret. But when they are given in wedlock, [when] they are married off (a variant reading [for the passive uhsinna, ‘they are given in wedlock’] has the active ahsanna, ‘they enter into wedlock’), if they commit lewdness, such as adultery, they shall be liable to half the chastisement, the legal punishment, of married, free, virgin, women, who commit adultery, and are thus given fifty lashes and banished for half a year; [male] slaves by analogy are liable to the same punishment. Here, God has not made wedlock the precondition for the prescribed punishment to show that stoning does not apply in their case [sc. slavegirls]. That, marrying of slavegirls on account of insufficient means, is for those of you who fear the distress of sin, fornication (al-‘anat originally means distress, but is used to mean zinā, ‘fornication’, because of the distress that it causes in the way of the punishment in this world and in the Hereafter), as opposed to those of you who might not have such a fear [of distress] with regard to their free women and for whom it is unlawful to marry her [the slavegirl]; likewise for one who has sufficient means to marry a free woman [it is unlawful for him to marry a slavegirl instead]: this is the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī. Moreover, God’s words ‘believing maids’ precludes unbelieving women, whom it is unlawful to marry, even if one should find no believing women and fear [the distress of fornication]; yet it is better for you to be patient, and abstain from marrying slavegirls, lest the child should become enslaved also. God is Forgiving, Merciful, by allowing room for manoeuvre in these matters.

4:26

يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ سُنَنَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَيَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Yureedu Allahu liyubayyina lakumwayahdiyakum sunana allatheena min qablikum wayatoobaAAalaykum wallahu AAaleemun hakeem

Translation

Allah wants to make clear to you [the lawful from the unlawful] and guide you to the [good] practices of those before you and to accept your repentance. And Allah is Knowing and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God desires to make clear to you, the laws of your religion and what is in your best interests, and to guide you in the ways, the paths, of those, prophets, before you, in the way of what is lawful and what is unlawful, so that you might follow them, and to turn [in forgiveness] towards you, bringing you back from the disobedience which you practised, to obedience to Him; God is Knowing, of you, Wise, in what He has ordained for you.

4:27

وَاللَّهُ يُرِيدُ أَن يَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَيُرِيدُ الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الشَّهَوَاتِ أَن تَمِيلُوا مَيْلًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wallahu yureedu an yatoobaAAalaykum wayureedu allatheena yattabiAAoona ashshahawatian tameeloo maylan Aaatheem

Translation

Allah wants to accept your repentance, but those who follow [their] passions want you to digress [into] a great deviation.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And God desires to turn [forgivingly] towards you (He repeats this in order to expand upon it), but those who follow their passions, the Jews and Christians, or the Magians and adulterers, desire that you deviate with a terrible deviation, transgressing what is right by committing what has been forbidden you, so that you might be like them.

4:28

يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَن يُخَفِّفَ عَنكُمْ ۚ وَخُلِقَ الْإِنسَانُ ضَعِيفًا

Pronunciation

Yureedu Allahu an yukhaffifa AAankumwakhuliqa al-insanu daAAeefa

Translation

And Allah wants to lighten for you [your difficulties]; and mankind was created weak.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God desires to lighten things for you, and make the rulings of the Law easier for you; for man was created weak, unable to abstain from women and passions.

4:29

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنكُمْ ۚ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola ta/kuloo amwalakum baynakum bilbatiliilla an takoona tijaratan AAan taradinminkum wala taqtuloo anfusakum inna Allaha kanabikum raheema

Translation

O you who have believed, do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly but only [in lawful] business by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves [or one another]. Indeed, Allah is to you ever Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, consume not your goods between you wrongly, unlawfully according to the Law, through usury or usurpation, except it be trading (tijāratan, also read tijāratun), so that the goods be from trade effected, through mutual agreement, through mutual good-will: such [goods] you may consume. And kill not yourselves, by committing what leads towards destruction on account of some affiliation, be it in this world or the Hereafter. Surely God is ever Merciful to you, when He forbids you such things.

4:30

وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ عُدْوَانًا وَظُلْمًا فَسَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِ نَارًا ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا

Pronunciation

Waman yafAAal thalika AAudwananwathulman fasawfa nusleehi naran wakanathalika AAala Allahi yaseera

Translation

And whoever does that in aggression and injustice – then We will drive him into a Fire. And that, for Allah , is [always] easy.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And whoever does that, which he has been forbidden, through aggression (‘udwānan, a circumstantial qualifier), transgressing what is lawful, and injustice (zulman, [reiterated] for emphasis), him We shall certainly expose, admit, to a fire, wherein he shall burn; and that for God is an easy matter.

4:31

إِن تَجْتَنِبُوا كَبَائِرَ مَا تُنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ نُكَفِّرْ عَنكُمْ سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ وَنُدْخِلْكُم مُّدْخَلًا كَرِيمًا

Pronunciation

In tajtaniboo kaba-ira matunhawna AAanhu nukaffir AAankum sayyi-atikum wanudkhilkummudkhalan kareema

Translation

If you avoid the major sins which you are forbidden, We will remove from you your lesser sins and admit you to a noble entrance [into Paradise].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

If you avoid the grave sins that are forbidden you, those for which the threat of punishment has been prescribed, like murder, fornication or theft — according to Ibn ‘Abbās, these number as much as seven hundred — We will absolve you of your, minor, evil deeds, on account of your acts of obedience, and admit you by an honourable gate (read mudkhalan or madkhalan), that is, [by an honourable] admittance or location, namely, Paradise.

4:32

وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوْا مَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بِهِ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۚ لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبُوا ۖ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبْنَ ۚ وَاسْأَلُوا اللَّهَ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wala tatamannaw ma faddalaAllahu bihi baAAdakum AAala baAAdinlirrijali naseebun mimma iktasaboowalinnisa-i naseebun mimma iktasabnawas-aloo Allaha min fadlihi inna Allahakana bikulli shay-in Aaaleema

Translation

And do not wish for that by which Allah has made some of you exceed others. For men is a share of what they have earned, and for women is a share of what they have earned. And ask Allah of his bounty. Indeed Allah is ever, of all things, Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Do not covet that in which God has preferred some of you above others, in the way of worldly affairs or religion, lest it lead to mutual envy and hatred. To men a share from, a reward for, what they have earned, for their acts in the struggle and so on, and to women a share from what they have earned, by way of being obedient to their spouses and guarding their private parts: this was revealed when Umm Salama said: ‘Would that we were men, so that we could join the struggle and receive the reward they receive!’ And ask (read wa-s’alū or wa-salū) God of His bounty, what you need and He will give it to you; God is ever Knower of all things, including where merit is deserved and that for which you ask.

4:33

وَلِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مَوَالِيَ مِمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ عَقَدَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ فَآتُوهُمْ نَصِيبَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ شَهِيدًا

Pronunciation

Walikullin jaAAalna mawaliyamimma taraka alwalidani wal-aqraboonawallatheena AAaqadat aymanukum faatoohumnaseebahum inna Allaha kana AAalakulli shay-in shaheeda

Translation

And for all, We have made heirs to what is left by parents and relatives. And to those whom your oaths have bound [to you] – give them their share. Indeed Allah is ever, over all things, a Witness.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

To each, man and woman, We have appointed heirs, relations to be given, of that, property, which parents and kinsmen leave, for them, and to those to whom your right hands (aymān, plural of yamīn, meaning ‘oath’ or ‘hand’) were pledged (read ‘āqadat or ‘aqadat), that is, those allies with whom before the coming of Islam you made covenants of mutual assitance and inheritance. So give them, now, their share, their portions of the inheritance, which is a sixth. God is ever Witness over everything, [ever] aware [of it], including your circumstances: this verse was abrogated by His words, But those related by blood are nearer to one another [Q. 8:75 and 33:6].

4:34

الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ ۚ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا

Pronunciation

Arrijalu qawwamoonaAAala annisa-i bima faddalaAllahu baAAdahum AAala baAAdin wabimaanfaqoo min amwalihim fassalihatu qanitatunhafithatun lilghaybi bima hafithaAllahu wallatee takhafoonanushoozahunna faAAithoohunna wahjuroohunnafee almadajiAAi wadriboohunna fa-in ataAAnakumfala tabghoo AAalayhinna sabeelan inna Allaha kanaAAaliyyan kabeera

Translation

Men are in charge of women by [right of] what Allah has given one over the other and what they spend [for maintenance] from their wealth. So righteous women are devoutly obedient, guarding in [the husband’s] absence what Allah would have them guard. But those [wives] from whom you fear arrogance – [first] advise them; [then if they persist], forsake them in bed; and [finally], strike them. But if they obey you [once more], seek no means against them. Indeed, Allah is ever Exalted and Grand.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Men are in charge of, they have authority over, women, disciplining them and keeping them in check, because of that with which God has preferred the one over the other, that is, because God has given them the advantage over women, in knowledge, reason, authority and otherwise, and because of what they expend, on them [the women], of their property. Therefore righteous women, among them, are obedient, to their husbands, guarding in the unseen, that is, [guarding] their private parts and otherwise during their spouses’ absence, because of what God has guarded, for them, when He enjoined their male spouses to look after them well. And those you fear may be rebellious, disobedient to you, when such signs appear, admonish them, make them fear God, and share not beds with them, retire to other beds if they manifest such disobedience, and strike them, but not violently, if they refuse to desist [from their rebellion] after leaving them [in separate beds]. If they then obey you, in what is desired from them, do not seek a way against them, a reason to strike them unjustly. God is ever High, Great, so beware of Him, lest He punish you for treating them unjustly.

4:35

وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَابْعَثُوا حَكَمًا مِّنْ أَهْلِهِ وَحَكَمًا مِّنْ أَهْلِهَا إِن يُرِيدَا إِصْلَاحًا يُوَفِّقِ اللَّهُ بَيْنَهُمَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا خَبِيرًا

Pronunciation

Wa-in khiftum shiqaqa baynihimafabAAathoo hakaman min ahlihi wahakaman minahliha in yureeda islahan yuwaffiqiAllahu baynahuma inna Allaha kanaAAaleeman khabeera

Translation

And if you fear dissension between the two, send an arbitrator from his people and an arbitrator from her people. If they both desire reconciliation, Allah will cause it between them. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Acquainted [with all things].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if you fear, become aware of, a breach, a dispute, between the two, the married couple (the genitive construction shiqāqa baynihimā, ‘[any] breach between the two’, is for a range [of alternatives], in other words: shiqāqan baynihimā [is the normal construction]) send forth, for them with their consent, an arbiter, a just man, from his folk, his kinsmen, and an arbiter from her folk: the husband delegates to his arbiter the [matter of] divorce or the acceptance of compensation in its place, while she delegates to her arbiter the [matter of] separation. The two arbiters do their best and bid the one guilty of the injustice to desist, or they suggest separation if they see fit. God, exalted be He, says, if they, the two arbiters, desire to set things right, God will grant them, the married couple, success, determining for them what constitutes [an act of] obedience, be it reconciliation or separation. Surely God is ever Knower, of everything, Aware, of what is hidden and what is manifested.

4:36

وَاعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا ۖ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَبِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَالْجَارِ ذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْجَارِ الْجُنُبِ وَالصَّاحِبِ بِالْجَنبِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخْتَالًا فَخُورًا

Pronunciation

WaAAbudoo Allaha walatushrikoo bihi shay-an wabilwalidayni ihsananwabithee alqurba walyatama walmasakeeniwaljari thee alqurba waljarialjunubi wassahibi biljanbi wabniassabeeli wama malakat aymanukum inna Allahala yuhibbu man kana mukhtalan fakhoora

Translation

Worship Allah and associate nothing with Him, and to parents do good, and to relatives, orphans, the needy, the near neighbor, the neighbor farther away, the companion at your side, the traveler, and those whom your right hands possess. Indeed, Allah does not like those who are self-deluding and boastful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And worship God, declare His Oneness, and associate nothing with Him. Be kind to parents, being dutiful and gentle-mannered, and near kindred, and to orphans, and to the needy, and to the neighbour who is near, to you in terms of [physical] vicinity or kinship, and to the neighbour who is a stranger, the one far from you in terms of [physical] vicinity or kinship; and to the friend at your side, a travelling companion, or a colleague at work, and, it is also said, one’s wife; and to the wayfarer, the one cut off during a journey, and to what your right hands own, of bondsmen. Surely God loves not the conceited, the arrogant, and the boastful, [the one who boasts] before people of what he has been given.

4:37

الَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ وَيَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبُخْلِ وَيَكْتُمُونَ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۗ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Pronunciation

Allatheena yabkhaloona waya/muroona annasabilbukhli wayaktumoona ma atahumuAllahu min fadlihi waaAAtadna lilkafireenaAAathaban muheena

Translation

Who are stingy and enjoin upon [other] people stinginess and conceal what Allah has given them of His bounty – and We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those (alladhīna, the subject) who are niggardly, in their duty, and bid other people to be niggardly, in the same, and conceal what God has bestowed upon them of His bounty, in the way of knowledge and property: these are the Jews (the predicate of the [said] subject is [an implied] lahum wa‘īdun shadīd, ‘for them there is a promise of severe punishment’). And We have prepared for those that disbelieve, in this and other matters, a humbling chastisement, one of humiliation.

4:38

وَالَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ رِئَاءَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۗ وَمَن يَكُنِ الشَّيْطَانُ لَهُ قَرِينًا فَسَاءَ قَرِينًا

Pronunciation

Wallatheena yunfiqoona amwalahumri-aa annasi wala yu/minoona billahiwala bilyawmi al-akhiri waman yakuni ashshaytanulahu qareenan fasaa qareena

Translation

And [also] those who spend of their wealth to be seen by the people and believe not in Allah nor in the Last Day. And he to whom Satan is a companion – then evil is he as a companion.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those (wa’lladhīna, a supplement to the previous alladhīna, ‘those’) who expend of their substance to show off to people, to be seen of them, and believe not in God and the Last Day, the likes of the hypocrites and the Meccans. Whoever has Satan for a comrade, for a companion, whose command he follows, as these do, then an evil comrade has he.

4:39

وَمَاذَا عَلَيْهِمْ لَوْ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَأَنفَقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِهِمْ عَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wamatha AAalayhim law amanoobillahi walyawmi al-akhiriwaanfaqoo mimma razaqahumu Allahu wakana Allahubihim Aaaleema

Translation

And what [harm would come] upon them if they believed in Allah and the Last Day and spent out of what Allah provided for them? And Allah is ever, about them, Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And what burden is on them if they were to believe in God and the Last Day, and expend of what God has provided them?, that is to say, what harm would this cause them? In other words, there is no harm therein. Rather, harm lies in what they follow (the interrogative is meant as a disavowal; the law [of law āmanū, ‘if they were to believe’] conveys the sense of the verbal noun [sc. mādhā ‘alayhim īmānuhum, ‘what burden would their belief be upon them?’]). God is ever Aware of them, and will requite them for what they have done.

4:40

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَظْلِمُ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ ۖ وَإِن تَكُ حَسَنَةً يُضَاعِفْهَا وَيُؤْتِ مِن لَّدُنْهُ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Inna Allaha la yathlimumithqala tharratin wa-in taku hasanatan yudaAAifhawayu/ti min ladunhu ajran Aaatheema

Translation

Indeed, Allah does not do injustice, [even] as much as an atom’s weight; while if there is a good deed, He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Surely God shall not wrong, anyone, so much as the weight of an atom, [the weight of] the smallest ant, by diminishing thereby a person’s good deeds or increase thereby his evil deeds; and if it, the atom, be a good deed (in taku hasanatan, ‘if it be a good deed’, is also read in taku hasanatun, in which case the kāna [construction] is [syntactically] complete), from a believer, He will double it (yudā‘ifuhā, also read yuda‘‘ifuhā), from ten times up to more than seven hundred times, and give from Himself, in addition to the doubling, a great wage, that no one can estimate.

4:41

فَكَيْفَ إِذَا جِئْنَا مِن كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ بِشَهِيدٍ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ عَلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ شَهِيدًا

Pronunciation

Fakayfa itha ji/na min kulliommatin bishaheedin waji/na bika AAala haola-ishaheeda

Translation

So how [will it be] when We bring from every nation a witness and we bring you, [O Muhammad] against these [people] as a witness?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So how shall it be, the predicament of the disbelievers, when We bring forward from every community a witness, to testify against it regarding its deeds, and this shall be its prophet; and We bring you, O Muhammad (s), as witness against these?

4:42

يَوْمَئِذٍ يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَعَصَوُا الرَّسُولَ لَوْ تُسَوَّىٰ بِهِمُ الْأَرْضُ وَلَا يَكْتُمُونَ اللَّهَ حَدِيثًا

Pronunciation

Yawma-ithin yawaddu allatheenakafaroo waAAasawoo arrasoola law tusawwabihimu al-ardu wala yaktumoona Allaha hadeetha

Translation

That Day, those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Messenger will wish they could be covered by the earth. And they will not conceal from Allah a [single] statement.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Upon that day, the day of bringing forward; the disbelievers, those who have disobeyed the Messenger, will wish that (law, ‘if’, means an, ‘that’) the earth might be levelled with them (read passive tusawwā, or active tasawwā, or tassawwā), so that like it they might also become dust, [and this is] because of the terror of that day, as is stated in another verse: The disbeliever shall say, ‘O would that I were dust!’ [Q. 78:40]. And they will not hide from God any talk, of what they did, although at another stage they do actually hide it and say, ‘By God, our Lord, we never associated anything with You’ [Q. 6:23].

4:43

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقْرَبُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلَا جُنُبًا إِلَّا عَابِرِي سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُوا ۚ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَاءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنكُم مِّنَ الْغَائِطِ أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا مَاءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَامْسَحُوا بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola taqraboo assalata waantum sukarahatta taAAlamoo ma taqooloona walajunuban illa AAabiree sabeelin hattataghtasiloo wa-in kuntum marda aw AAala safarin awjaa ahadun minkum mina algha-iti aw lamastumuannisaa falam tajidoo maan fatayammamoo saAAeedantayyiban famsahoo biwujoohikum waaydeekuminna Allaha kana AAafuwwan ghafoora

Translation

O you who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying or in a state of janabah, except those passing through [a place of prayer], until you have washed [your whole body]. And if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women and find no water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and your hands [with it]. Indeed, Allah is ever Pardoning and Forgiving.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, draw not near to prayer, that is, do not perform prayer, whilst you are inebriated, by a drink: this was revealed concerning being drunk during the congregational prayer; until you know what you are saying, when you have sobered up; nor whilst you are defiled, as a result of [sexual] penetration or ejaculation (junuban, ‘defiled’, is in the accusative because it is a circumstantial qualifier, and may be used to refer to the singular or plural) — unless you are traversing, crossing, a way, a route, that is, [unless] you are travelling — until you have washed yourselves, in which case you may perform prayer: a proviso is made for the traveller because a different stipulation applies to him, as will follow. It is said that the purpose [of this verse] is to prohibit the approach to places of prayer, that is, mosques, the exception being if one were merely passing through and not staying. But if you are sick, with an illness made worse by [contact with] water, or on a journey, that is, [or] travelling whilst you are [ritually] defiled or impure, or if any of you comes from the privy (al-ghā’it), a place designated for relieving nature, that is to say, [or if any of you] have defecated, or you have touched women (lāmastum, a variant reading has lamastum: both mean lams, that is, ‘touching with the hand’, as stated by Ibn ‘Umar; this is also the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī, and it extends to touching with other parts of the skin; according to Ibn ‘Abbās, however, it is [referring to] sexual intercourse); and you can find no water, with which to purify yourselves for prayer, having made the effort to seek it out and search for it — the sick being exempt in this case — then resort to, seek, when the time [for the prayer] has commenced, wholesome soil, clean earth, strike it twice, and wipe your faces and your hands, with it, up to the elbows (the verb masaha, ‘to wipe’, may stand on its own with a direct object or take a particle [before the direct object, sc. masaha bi-]). God is ever Pardoning, Forgiving.

4:44

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ يَشْتَرُونَ الضَّلَالَةَ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن تَضِلُّوا السَّبِيلَ

Pronunciation

Alam tara ila allatheena ootoonaseeban mina alkitabi yashtaroona addalalatawayureedoona an tadilloo assabeel

Translation

Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture, purchasing error [in exchange for it] and wishing you would lose the way?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Have you not seen those who were given a share, a portion, of the Book, namely, the Jews, purchasing error, with guidance, and desiring that you should err from the way?, that you should stray from the path of truth and be like them.

4:45

وَاللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِأَعْدَائِكُمْ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ نَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Wallahu aAAlamu bi-aAAda-ikumwakafa billahi waliyyan wakafa billahinaseera

Translation

And Allah is most knowing of your enemies; and sufficient is Allah as an ally, and sufficient is Allah as a helper.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God has better knowledge of your enemies, than you do, and He informs you of them in order that you avoid them. God suffices as a Protector, a Preserver of you from them, God suffices as a Helper, defending you against their plotting.

4:46

مِّنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُوا يُحَرِّفُونَ الْكَلِمَ عَن مَّوَاضِعِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَاسْمَعْ غَيْرَ مُسْمَعٍ وَرَاعِنَا لَيًّا بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ وَطَعْنًا فِي الدِّينِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا وَاسْمَعْ وَانظُرْنَا لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ وَأَقْوَمَ وَلَٰكِن لَّعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Pronunciation

Mina allatheena hadoo yuharrifoonaalkalima AAan mawadiAAihi wayaqooloona samiAAnawaAAasayna wasmaAA ghayra musmaAAin waraAAinalayyan bi-alsinatihim wataAAnan fee addeeni walawannahum qaloo samiAAna waataAAna wasmaAAwanthurna lakana khayranlahum waaqwama walakin laAAanahumu Allahubikufrihim fala yu/minoona illa qaleela

Translation

Among the Jews are those who distort words from their [proper] usages and say, “We hear and disobey” and “Hear but be not heard” and “Ra’ina,” twisting their tongues and defaming the religion. And if they had said [instead], “We hear and obey” and “Wait for us [to understand],” it would have been better for them and more suitable. But Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, so they believe not, except for a few.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Some, group, from among the Jews distort, alter, the words, that God revealed in the Torah pertaining to the descriptions of Muhammad (s), from their contexts, those [contexts] in which they were placed, and they say, to the Prophet (s), when he commands them something, ‘We have heard, your words, and we disobey, your command; and hear as one who does not hear’ (wa’sma‘ ghayr musma‘in is a circumstantial qualifier, functioning as an invocation, in other words, ‘And may you not hear!’) and, they say to him, ‘Mind us’ (rā‘inā), [a term] with which it had been forbidden to address him, being a curse word in their language; twisting, distorting, with their tongues and slandering, defaming, religion, Islam. If they had said, ‘We have heard and obey’, instead of ‘And we disobey’, and, only, ‘Hear’, and ‘Consider us,’ (unzur ilaynā) instead of rā‘inā, it would have been better for them, than what they said, and more upright, more just than that, but God has cursed them, removing them from His mercy, for their unbelief, so they believe not except a few, among them, such as ‘Abd Allāh b. Salām and his companions.

4:47

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ آمِنُوا بِمَا نَزَّلْنَا مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّطْمِسَ وُجُوهًا فَنَرُدَّهَا عَلَىٰ أَدْبَارِهَا أَوْ نَلْعَنَهُمْ كَمَا لَعَنَّا أَصْحَابَ السَّبْتِ ۚ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ مَفْعُولًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheenaootoo alkitaba aminoo bima nazzalnamusaddiqan lima maAAakum min qabli an natmisawujoohan fanaruddaha AAala adbarihaaw nalAAanahum kama laAAanna as-habaassabti wakana amru Allahi mafAAoola

Translation

O you who were given the Scripture, believe in what We have sent down [to Muhammad], confirming that which is with you, before We obliterate faces and turn them toward their backs or curse them as We cursed the sabbath-breakers. And ever is the decree of Allah accomplished.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who have been given the Scripture, believe in what We have revealed, of the Qur’ān, confirming what is with you, of the Torah, before We obliterate faces, erasing the eyes, noses and eyebrows in them, and turn them inside out, and make them like the napes of the neck, a flat plate, or curse them, by transforming them into apes, as We cursed, [as] We transformed, those of the Sabbath, among them, and God’s command, His decree, is done: after this was revealed, ‘Abd Allāh b. Salām converted to Islam, and so it was said that this had been a conditional threat of punishment, so that when some of them converted to Islam, it [the threat] was lifted. It is also said that obliteration and transformation will take place before the rising of the Hour.

4:48

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ افْتَرَىٰ إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Inna Allaha la yaghfiru anyushraka bihi wayaghfiru ma doona thalika limanyashao waman yushrik billahi faqadi iftaraithman Aaatheema

Translation

Indeed, Allah does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allah has certainly fabricated a tremendous sin.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God forgives not that anything should be associated with Him. But He forgives other than, save, that, of sins, to whomever He wills, forgiveness for, by admitting him into Paradise without punishment. And whomever He wills of the believers He punishes for their sins, and then admits them into Paradise. Whoever associates anything with God, then he has indeed invented a tremendous, a great, sin.

4:49

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنفُسَهُم ۚ بَلِ اللَّهُ يُزَكِّي مَن يَشَاءُ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا

Pronunciation

Alam tara ila allatheenayuzakkoona anfusahum bali Allahu yuzakkee man yashaowala yuthlamoona fateela

Translation

Have you not seen those who claim themselves to be pure? Rather, Allah purifies whom He wills, and injustice is not done to them, [even] as much as a thread [inside a date seed].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Have you not seen those who praise themselves for purity? namely, the Jews, when they say, ‘We are God’s children and His beloved’, in other words, it is not a matter of their purifying themselves. Nay, God purifies whom He will, through faith, and they shall not be wronged, they shall not be diminished of their deeds, a single date-thread, as much as the peel on a date-stone.

4:50

انظُرْ كَيْفَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الْكَذِبَ ۖ وَكَفَىٰ بِهِ إِثْمًا مُّبِينًا

Pronunciation

Onthur kayfa yaftaroona AAalaAllahi alkathiba wakafa bihi ithman mubeena

Translation

Look how they invent about Allah untruth, and sufficient is that as a manifest sin.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Consider, in amazement, how they invent falsehood against God, in that way, and that suffices for a clear, an evident, sin.

4:51

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا نَصِيبًا مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْجِبْتِ وَالطَّاغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا هَٰؤُلَاءِ أَهْدَىٰ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا سَبِيلًا

Pronunciation

Alam tara ila allatheena ootoonaseeban mina alkitabi yu/minoona biljibtiwattaghooti wayaqooloona lillatheenakafaroo haola-i ahda mina allatheena amanoosabeela

Translation

Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture, who believe in superstition and false objects of worship and say about the disbelievers, “These are better guided than the believers as to the way”?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed regarding Ka‘b b. al-Ashraf and other such scholars from among the Jews, when they came to Mecca and saw those killed at Badr, and began to incite the idolaters to avenge them [their dead] by waging war against the Prophet (s): Have you not seen those who were given a share of the Book, how they believe in al-Jibt and al-Tāghūt, two idols belonging to Quraysh, and say to the disbelievers, to Abū Sufyān and his companions, when they [the latter] said to them: ‘Are we, who are the guardians of the House, who give drink to the pilgrim, offer hospitality to the guest, set free the captive, and do such and such … not more rightly guided than Muhammad, he who has contravened the religion of his forefathers, severed the ties of kinship, and abandoned the Sanctuary?’, ‘These, in other words, you, are more rightly guided, upon a more upright way, than the believers’?

4:52

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ وَمَن يَلْعَنِ اللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ نَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Ola-ika allatheena laAAanahumuAllahu waman yalAAani Allahu falan tajida lahu naseera

Translation

Those are the ones whom Allah has cursed; and he whom Allah curses – never will you find for him a helper.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those are the ones whom God has cursed; and he whom God has cursed, you will never find for him any helper, anyone to protect him from His chastisement.

4:53

أَمْ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّنَ الْمُلْكِ فَإِذًا لَّا يُؤْتُونَ النَّاسَ نَقِيرًا

Pronunciation

Am lahum naseebun mina almulki fa-ithanla yu/toona annasa naqeera

Translation

Or have they a share of dominion? Then [if that were so], they would not give the people [even as much as] the speck on a date seed.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Or have they a share in the Kingdom?, that is to say, they have no share in it whatever, and even if they did, then they would not give the people a single date-spot, that is, [not even] something as worthless as the tiny spot on the back of a date-pit, because of the extent of their niggardliness.

4:54

أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ النَّاسَ عَلَىٰ مَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۖ فَقَدْ آتَيْنَا آلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَآتَيْنَاهُم مُّلْكًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Am yahsudoona annasaAAala ma atahumu Allahu min fadlihifaqad atayna ala ibraheema alkitabawalhikmata waataynahum mulkan Aaatheema

Translation

Or do they envy people for what Allah has given them of His bounty? But we had already given the family of Abraham the Scripture and wisdom and conferred upon them a great kingdom.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Or, nay, are they jealous of people, namely, of the Prophet (s), for the bounty that God has bestowed upon them, in the way of prophethood and abundance of women? In other words, they wish that he be deprived of such things, saying, ‘If he were truly a prophet, he would not be concerned with women’. For We gave the House of Abraham, his forefather, the likes of Moses, David and Solomon, the Book and wisdom, and prophethood, and We gave them a mighty kingdom: David had ninety–nine women, and Solomon had a thousand, free women and slavegirls.

4:55

فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَمِنْهُم مَّن صَدَّ عَنْهُ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِجَهَنَّمَ سَعِيرًا

Pronunciation

Faminhum man amana bihi waminhum man saddaAAanhu wakafa bijahannama saAAeera

Translation

And some among them believed in it, and some among them were averse to it. And sufficient is Hell as a blaze.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And there are some of them who believe in him, in Muhammad (s), and some of them who bar from him, [who] reject [him] and do not believe. Hell suffices for a blaze, as a chastisement for those who do not believe.

4:56

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلْنَاهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُوا الْعَذَابَ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena kafaroo bi-ayatinasawfa nusleehim naran kullama nadijatjulooduhum baddalnahum juloodan ghayraha liyathooqooalAAathaba inna Allaha kana AAazeezan hakeema

Translation

Indeed, those who disbelieve in Our verses – We will drive them into a Fire. Every time their skins are roasted through We will replace them with other skins so they may taste the punishment. Indeed, Allah is ever Exalted in Might and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Surely those who disbelieve in Our signs — We shall expose them, We shall admit them, to a Fire, wherein they shall burn; as often as their skins are consumed, burnt, We shall replace them with other skins, restoring them to their initial unburnt state, that they may taste the chastisement, that they may suffer its severity. Surely God is ever Mighty, nothing being beyond His power, Wise, in His creation.

4:57

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۖ لَّهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ ۖ وَنُدْخِلُهُمْ ظِلًّا ظَلِيلًا

Pronunciation

Wallatheena amanoowaAAamiloo assalihati sanudkhiluhum jannatintajree min tahtiha al-anharu khalideenafeeha abadan lahum feeha azwajun mutahharatunwanudkhiluhum thillan thaleela

Translation

But those who believe and do righteous deeds – We will admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide forever. For them therein are purified spouses, and We will admit them to deepening shade.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those that believe, and perform righteous deeds, We shall admit them to Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide: they shall have therein spouses purified, of menstruation and every impurity, and We shall admit them to plenteous shade, that is everlasting [shade], never replaced by any sun, and this is the shade of Paradise.

4:58

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤَدُّوا الْأَمَانَاتِ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمْتُم بَيْنَ النَّاسِ أَن تَحْكُمُوا بِالْعَدْلِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُم بِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Inna Allaha ya/murukum an tu-addooal-amanati ila ahliha wa-itha hakamtumbayna annasi an tahkumoo bilAAadliinna Allaha niAAimma yaAAithukum bihiinna Allaha kana sameeAAan baseera

Translation

Indeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due and when you judge between people to judge with justice. Excellent is that which Allah instructs you. Indeed, Allah is ever Hearing and Seeing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Verily, God commands you to restore trusts, that is, the rights entrusted [to you by others], back to their owners: this was revealed when ‘Alī, may God be pleased with him, took the key of the Ka‘ba from its keeper, ‘Uthmān b. Talha al-Hajabī, by force, upon the arrival of the Prophet (s) in Mecca in the year of the Conquest, after he [‘Uthmān] had tried to prevent him [‘Alī from taking it] saying, ‘If I had known that he was the Messenger of God, I would not have prevented him’. The Messenger of God (s) then ordered him [‘Alī] to give it back to him [‘Uthmān] saying to him, ‘Here you are, [it is yours] now and always’. He [‘Uthmān] was amazed by this, whereupon ‘Alī recited to him this verse, and he accepted Islam. Upon his death, he [‘Uthmān] gave it [the key] to his brother, Shayba, and thus it remained in [the keep of] his descendants. Although the verse was revealed regarding a specific occasion, it holds true in general on account of the plural person [to which it is addressed]. And when you judge between people, He commands, that you judge with justice. Excellent is (ni‘immā, the mīm of ni‘ima has been assimilated with the indefinite particle mā, which is the object described, in other words, na‘ima shay’an, ‘an excellent thing [is]’) the admonition God gives you, to restore a trust and to judge with justice. God is ever Hearer, of what is said, Seer, of what is done.

4:59

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooateeAAoo Allaha waateeAAoo arrasoolawaolee al-amri minkum fa-in tanazaAAtum fee shay-infaruddoohu ila Allahi warrasooli in kuntumtu/minoona billahi walyawmi al-akhirithalika khayrun waahsanu ta/weela

Translation

O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, obey God, and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you, that is, rulers, when they command you to obey God and His Messenger. If you should quarrel, disagree, about anything, refer it to God, that is, to His Book, and the Messenger, while he lives, and thereafter [refer] to his Sunna: in other words examine these [disputes] with reference to these two [sources], if you believe in God and the Last Day; that, reference to the two [sources], is better, for you than quarrelling or [adhering to] personal opinions, and more excellent in interpretation, in the end.

4:60

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَن يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ وَيُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَن يُضِلَّهُمْ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا

Pronunciation

Alam tara ila allatheenayazAAumoona annahum amanoo bima onzila ilayka wamaonzila min qablika yureedoona an yatahakamoo ila attaghootiwaqad omiroo an yakfuroo bihi wayureedu ashshaytanuan yudillahum dalalan baAAeeda

Translation

Have you not seen those who claim to have believed in what was revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you? They wish to refer legislation to Taghut, while they were commanded to reject it; and Satan wishes to lead them far astray.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following verse was revealed when a Jew and a hypocrite fell into a dispute. The hypocrite called on Ka‘b b. al-Ashraf, to arbitrate between them, while the Jew called on the Prophet (s). When they came to him, the Prophet ruled in favour of the Jew. But the hypocrite was not satisfied, and so they went before ‘Umar. The Jew told him what had happened, whereupon he [‘Umar] turned to the hypocrite and asked him, ‘Is this true?’, and when he replied, ‘Yes’, he [‘Umar] killed him. Have you not seen those who claim that they believe in what has been revealed to you, and what was revealed before you, desiring to take their disputes to a false deity (tāghūt), one excessive in tempting [others] to falsehood (tughyān), namely, Ka‘b b. al-Ashraf, when they have been commanded to renounce him?, and not to associate with him. But Satan desires to mislead them, far astray, from the truth.

4:61

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَإِلَى الرَّسُولِ رَأَيْتَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنكَ صُدُودًا

Pronunciation

Wa-itha qeela lahum taAAalawila ma anzala Allahu wa-ila arrasooliraayta almunafiqeena yasuddoona AAanka sudooda

Translation

And when it is said to them, “Come to what Allah has revealed and to the Messenger,” you see the hypocrites turning away from you in aversion.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when it is said to them, ‘Come to what God has revealed, as regards rulings in the Qur’ān, and the Messenger’, that he may judge between you, you see the hypocrites turn away from you vehemently, to others.

4:62

فَكَيْفَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ جَاءُوكَ يَحْلِفُونَ بِاللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَدْنَا إِلَّا إِحْسَانًا وَتَوْفِيقًا

Pronunciation

Fakayfa itha asabat-hum museebatunbima qaddamat aydeehim thumma jaooka yahlifoonabillahi in aradna illa ihsananwatawfeeqa

Translation

So how [will it be] when disaster strikes them because of what their hands have put forth and then they come to you swearing by Allah , “We intended nothing but good conduct and accommodation.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

How would it be, [what] would they do, when an affliction, a punishment, befalls them for what their own hands have sent before them, of unbelief and acts of disobedience, that is to say, would they then be able to turn away and escape it? No! They then come to you (thumma jā’ūka, a supplement to yasuddūn, ‘they turn away’ [of the previous verse]), swearing by God that, in turning to other than you for arbitration, ‘We sought only virtue, settlement, and harmony’, reconciliation between the disputing parties by [any] approximate judgement without regard for the painful truth.

4:63

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُ اللَّهُ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَعِظْهُمْ وَقُل لَّهُمْ فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَوْلًا بَلِيغًا

Pronunciation

Ola-ika allatheena yaAAlamuAllahu ma fee quloobihim faaAArid AAanhumwaAAithhum waqul lahum fee anfusihim qawlan baleegha

Translation

Those are the ones of whom Allah knows what is in their hearts, so turn away from them but admonish them and speak to them a far-reaching word.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those — God knows what is in their hearts, in the way of hypocrisy and the mendacity of their excuses; so turn away from them, with forgiveness, and admonish them, make them fear God, and say to them regarding, the issue of, their souls penetrating words, affecting them, in other words, reprimand them so that they repent of their unbelief.

4:64

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذ ظَّلَمُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ جَاءُوكَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا اللَّهَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ الرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُوا اللَّهَ تَوَّابًا رَّحِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wama arsalna min rasoolin illaliyutaAAa bi-ithni Allahi walaw annahum iththalamoo anfusahum jaooka fastaghfarooAllaha wastaghfara lahumu arrasoolulawajadoo Allaha tawwaban raheema

Translation

And We did not send any messenger except to be obeyed by permission of Allah . And if, when they wronged themselves, they had come to you, [O Muhammad], and asked forgiveness of Allah and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah Accepting of repentance and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

We never sent any Messenger, but that he should be obeyed, in what he commands and judges, by the leave, by the command, of God, and not that he should be disobeyed or opposed. If, when they had wronged themselves, by seeking the judgement of the false idol, they had come to you, repentant, and asked forgiveness from God, and the Messenger had asked forgiveness for them (there is a shift from the second [to the third] person in this address, in deference to his [the Prophet’s (s)] status); they would have found God Relenting, to them, Merciful, to them.

4:65

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Fala warabbika la yu/minoona hattayuhakkimooka feema shajara baynahum thumma layajidoo fee anfusihim harajan mimma qadaytawayusallimoo tasleema

Translation

But no, by your Lord, they will not [truly] believe until they make you, [O Muhammad], judge concerning that over which they dispute among themselves and then find within themselves no discomfort from what you have judged and submit in [full, willing] submission.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But no, (fa-lā, the lā is extra) by your Lord! They will not believe until they make you judge over what has broken out, has become mixed up, between them and find in themselves no inhibition, [no] constraint or doubt, regarding what you decide, but submit, [but] comply with your ruling, in full submission, without objection.

4:66

وَلَوْ أَنَّا كَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَنِ اقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ أَوِ اخْرُجُوا مِن دِيَارِكُم مَّا فَعَلُوهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ مِّنْهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ فَعَلُوا مَا يُوعَظُونَ بِهِ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ وَأَشَدَّ تَثْبِيتًا

Pronunciation

Walaw anna katabna AAalayhimani oqtuloo anfusakum awi okhrujoo min diyarikum mafaAAaloohu illa qaleelun minhum walaw annahum faAAaloo mayooAAathoona bihi lakana khayran lahumwaashadda tathbeeta

Translation

And if We had decreed upon them, “Kill yourselves” or “Leave your homes,” they would not have done it, except for a few of them. But if they had done what they were instructed, it would have been better for them and a firmer position [for them in faith].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And had We prescribed for them: (the particle an, ‘that’, is explicative) ‘Slay yourselves’ or ‘Leave your habitations’, as We did for the Children of Israel, they would not have done it, that is, what has been prescribed for them, save a few (read nominative qalīlun, as a substitution; or read accusative qalīlan, as an exceptive clause) of them; yet if they had done what they were admonished to do, of obedience to the Messenger (s), it would have been better for them, and stronger in establishing, [a stronger] confirmation of their faith.

4:67

وَإِذًا لَّآتَيْنَاهُم مِّن لَّدُنَّا أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wa-ithan laataynahummin ladunna ajran AAatheema

Translation

And then We would have given them from Us a great reward.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And then, that is, had they confirmed themselves, We would have surely given them from Us a great wage, that is, Paradise.

4:68

وَلَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا

Pronunciation

Walahadaynahum siratanmustaqeema

Translation

And We would have guided them to a straight path.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We would have guided them to a straight path. Some Companions said to the Prophet (s): ‘How will we be able to see you in Paradise, when you will be in the highest stations and we will be lower than you?’, and so the following was revealed:

4:69

وَمَن يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ ۚ وَحَسُنَ أُولَٰئِكَ رَفِيقًا

Pronunciation

Waman yutiAAi Allaha warrasoolafaola-ika maAAa allatheena anAAama AllahuAAalayhim mina annabiyyeena wassiddeeqeenawashshuhada-i wassaliheenawahasuna ola-ika rafeeqa

Translation

And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger – those will be with the ones upon whom Allah has bestowed favor of the prophets, the steadfast affirmers of truth, the martyrs and the righteous. And excellent are those as companions.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Whoever obeys God and the Messenger, in what he commands, they are with those whom God has blessed of the prophets and the truthful, that is, the most excellent of the Prophet’s Companions, because of the fullness of their truthfulness and their affirmation of the truth; and the martyrs, those slain in the path of God; and the righteous, [all those] other than the ones mentioned. What fine companions they are!, in Paradise, since in it one will enjoy seeing them, visiting them and being in their presence, even though they will be in the highest stations in relation to others.

4:70

ذَٰلِكَ الْفَضْلُ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ عَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Thalika alfadlu mina Allahiwakafa billahi Aaaleema

Translation

That is the bounty from Allah , and sufficient is Allah as Knower.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

That, namely, their being with those mentioned (dhālika, ‘that’, is the subject, the predicate of which is [the following]) is bounty from God, with which He has favoured them, and not because they have earned it through their obedience. God suffices as Knower, of the reward of the Hereafter, in other words, trust in what He has told you: None can tell you like One Who is aware [Q. 35:14].

4:71

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا خُذُوا حِذْرَكُمْ فَانفِرُوا ثُبَاتٍ أَوِ انفِرُوا جَمِيعًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanookhuthoo hithrakum fanfiroo thubatinawi infiroo jameeAAa

Translation

O you who have believed, take your precaution and [either] go forth in companies or go forth all together.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, take your precautions, against your enemy, that is, be wary of him and be vigilant against him; then move forward, prepare to fight him, in companies, in separate groups, one raiding party followed by the next; or move forward all together, in one assembly.

4:72

وَإِنَّ مِنكُمْ لَمَن لَّيُبَطِّئَنَّ فَإِنْ أَصَابَتْكُم مُّصِيبَةٌ قَالَ قَدْ أَنْعَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَيَّ إِذْ لَمْ أَكُن مَّعَهُمْ شَهِيدًا

Pronunciation

Wa-inna minkum laman layubatti-annafa-in asabatkum museebatun qala qad anAAamaAllahu AAalayya ith lam akun maAAahum shaheeda

Translation

And indeed, there is among you he who lingers behind; and if disaster strikes you, he says, ” Allah has favored me in that I was not present with them.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Verily, there are some of you who tarry, who indeed hesitate to join the fighting, such as ‘Abd Allāh b. Ubayy, the hypocrite, and his companions — counting him [the one who tarries] as one of them [the Muslims] is from the perspective of outward appearances — (the lām in the verb [la-yubatti’anna, ‘verily … who tarry’] is for oaths); then, if an affliction befalls you, such as slaughter or defeat, he says, ‘God has been gracious to me, for I was not a witness with them’, present [at the fighting], lest I should be hurt.

4:73

وَلَئِنْ أَصَابَكُمْ فَضْلٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ لَيَقُولَنَّ كَأَن لَّمْ تَكُن بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُ مَوَدَّةٌ يَا لَيْتَنِي كُنتُ مَعَهُمْ فَأَفُوزَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wala-in asabakum fadlun minaAllahi layaqoolanna kaan lam takun baynakum wabaynahumawaddatun ya laytanee kuntu maAAahum faafooza fawzan AAatheema

Translation

But if bounty comes to you from Allah , he will surely say, as if there had never been between you and him any affection. “Oh, I wish I had been with them so I could have attained a great attainment.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But if (wa-la-in, the lām is for oaths) a bounty from God befalls you, such as a conquest or booty, he will surely cry, in regret, as if (ka’an is softened, its subject having been omitted, in other words [it should be] ka’annahu) there had never been (read lam yakun, or lam takun) any affection, any acquaintance or friendship, between you and him: this [statement] refers back to the words [in the previous verse] ‘God has been gracious to me’, and comes as a parenthesis between the statement ‘that he will cry’ and the very words he cries, which are: ‘Oh (yā, is for exclamation), would that I had been with them, so that I might have won a great triumph!’, that is, [that] I might have taken a good share of the booty.

4:74

فَلْيُقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ يَشْرُونَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَمَن يُقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَيُقْتَلْ أَوْ يَغْلِبْ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Falyuqatil fee sabeeli Allahiallatheena yashroona alhayata addunyabil-akhirati waman yuqatil fee sabeeli Allahifayuqtal aw yaghlib fasawfa nu/teehi ajran AAatheema

Translation

So let those fight in the cause of Allah who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter. And he who fights in the cause of Allah and is killed or achieves victory – We will bestow upon him a great reward.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God, exalted be He, says: So let them fight in the way of God, to elevate His religion, those who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter; and whoever fights in the way of God and is slain, dies a martyr, or conquers, overcomes his enemy, We shall give him a great wage, a plentiful reward.

4:75

وَمَا لَكُمْ لَا تُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ الَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةِ الظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيًّا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ نَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Wama lakum la tuqatiloonafee sabeeli Allahi walmustadAAafeena mina arrijaliwannisa-i walwildani allatheenayaqooloona rabbana akhrijna min hathihialqaryati aththalimi ahluhawajAAal lana min ladunka waliyyan wajAAallana min ladunka naseera

Translation

And what is [the matter] with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah and [for] the oppressed among men, women, and children who say, “Our Lord, take us out of this city of oppressive people and appoint for us from Yourself a protector and appoint for us from Yourself a helper?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

What is wrong with you, that you do not fight: this is an interrogative of rebuke, in other words, there is nothing to prevent you from fighting, in the way of God, and for, the deliverance of, the oppressed men, women, and children, whom the disbelievers persecuted and prevented from emigrating. Ibn ‘Abbās, may God be pleased with him and his father, said, ‘My mother and I were among them’; who say, supplicating, ‘O, our Lord, bring us forth from this town, Mecca, whose people are evildoers, through unbelief, and appoint for us a protector from You, to take charge of our affair, and appoint for us from You a helper’, to defend us against them. God responded to their supplication and facilitated escape for some of them, while others remained behind until Mecca was conquered — in charge of them the Prophet (s) placed ‘Attāb b. Asīd, who proceeded to seek justice for the wronged from those that had wronged them.

4:76

الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ الطَّاغُوتِ فَقَاتِلُوا أَوْلِيَاءَ الشَّيْطَانِ ۖ إِنَّ كَيْدَ الشَّيْطَانِ كَانَ ضَعِيفًا

Pronunciation

Allatheena amanoo yuqatiloonafee sabeeli Allahi wallatheena kafaroo yuqatiloonafee sabeeli attaghooti faqatiloo awliyaaashshaytani inna kayda ashshaytanikana daAAeefa

Translation

Those who believe fight in the cause of Allah , and those who disbelieve fight in the cause of Taghut. So fight against the allies of Satan. Indeed, the plot of Satan has ever been weak.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those who believe fight in the way of God, and those who disbelieve fight in the way of a false deity, Satan. Fight therefore against the friends of Satan, the supporters of his religion and you will defeat them with the strength you draw from God; surely the plotting of Satan, against believers, is ever feeble, of no substance, and cannot stand up to God’s plotting against the disbelievers.

4:77

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ قِيلَ لَهُمْ كُفُّوا أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَخْشَوْنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً ۚ وَقَالُوا رَبَّنَا لِمَ كَتَبْتَ عَلَيْنَا الْقِتَالَ لَوْلَا أَخَّرْتَنَا إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ ۗ قُلْ مَتَاعُ الدُّنْيَا قَلِيلٌ وَالْآخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنِ اتَّقَىٰ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا

Pronunciation

Alam tara ila allatheena qeelalahum kuffoo aydiyakum waaqeemoo assalatawaatoo azzakata falamma kutibaAAalayhimu alqitalu itha fareequn minhum yakhshawnaannasa kakhashyati Allahi aw ashaddakhashyatan waqaloo rabbana lima katabta AAalaynaalqitala lawla akhkhartana ila ajalinqareebin qul mataAAu addunya qaleelun wal-akhiratukhayrun limani ittaqa wala tuthlamoonafateela

Translation

Have you not seen those who were told, “Restrain your hands [from fighting] and establish prayer and give zakah”? But then when fighting was ordained for them, at once a party of them feared men as they fear Allah or with [even] greater fear. They said, “Our Lord, why have You decreed upon us fighting? If only You had postponed [it for] us for a short time.” Say, The enjoyment of this world is little, and the Hereafter is better for he who fears Allah . And injustice will not be done to you, [even] as much as a thread [inside a date seed].”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Have you not seen those to whom it was said, ‘Restrain your hands, from fighting the disbelievers when they desired it at Mecca, because of the harm the disbelievers had inflicted upon them — and these were a group from among the Companions — and establish the prayer, and pay the alms’? Then, as soon as fighting was prescribed, was made obligatory, for them, lo, a party of them fear people, the disbelievers, that is, [they fear] punishment at their hands through death, as they would fear, the punishment of, God, or with more fear, than their fear of Him (ashadda, ‘more’, is in the accusative because it is a circumstantial qualifier; the response to the lammā, ‘as soon as’, is indicated by idhā, ‘lo’, and what follows), in other words, they are taken aback by fear, and they said, frightened of death, ‘Our Lord, why have You prescribed fighting for us? Why not (lawlā is [to be understood as] hallā) defer us to a near term?’ Say, to them: ‘The enjoyment of this world, that which is enjoyed therein, or enjoying it [the world], is trifling, it will end up by perishing; and the Hereafter, Paradise, is better for him who fears God’s punishment by avoiding disobedience to Him; and you shall not be wronged (lā tuzlamūna, may also be read lā yuzlamūna, ‘they shall not be wronged’) you shall not be diminished of your deeds, a single date-thread, as much as the peel on a date-stone, so struggle [in the way of God].

4:78

أَيْنَمَا تَكُونُوا يُدْرِككُّمُ الْمَوْتُ وَلَوْ كُنتُمْ فِي بُرُوجٍ مُّشَيَّدَةٍ ۗ وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ حَسَنَةٌ يَقُولُوا هَٰذِهِ مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ يَقُولُوا هَٰذِهِ مِنْ عِندِكَ ۚ قُلْ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ ۖ فَمَالِ هَٰؤُلَاءِ الْقَوْمِ لَا يَكَادُونَ يَفْقَهُونَ حَدِيثًا

Pronunciation

Aynama takoonoo yudrikkumu almawtuwalaw kuntum fee buroojin mushayyadatin wa-in tusibhum hasanatunyaqooloo hathihi min AAindi Allahi wa-in tusibhumsayyi-atun yaqooloo hathihi min AAindika qul kullun minAAindi Allahi famali haola-i alqawmila yakadoona yafqahoona hadeetha

Translation

Wherever you may be, death will overtake you, even if you should be within towers of lofty construction. But if good comes to them, they say, “This is from Allah “; and if evil befalls them, they say, “This is from you.” Say, “All [things] are from Allah .” So what is [the matter] with those people that they can hardly understand any statement?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Wherever you may be, death will overtake you, though you should be in raised-up, lofty, towers’, forts, so do not shrink from fighting for fear of death. And if a good thing, such as fertility and abundance, befalls them, the Jews, they say, ‘This is from God’; but if an evil thing, such as drought or misfortune, befalls them, as it did with them when the Prophet (s) arrived in Medina, they say, ‘This is from you’, O Muhammad (s), that is, from the bad luck [you bring]. Say, to them: ‘Everything, good and evil, is from God.’ What is wrong with this people that they do not understand, that is, they do not come close to comprehending, any words, delivered to them (the mā, ‘what’ [of mā li-hā’ūlā’, ‘what is wrong with these’] is an interrogative intended to provoke amazement at their extreme ignorance; to state that one cannot even come close to doing something is [rhetorically] more intense than saying that he cannot do it).

4:79

مَّا أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَا أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِن نَّفْسِكَ ۚ وَأَرْسَلْنَاكَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُولًا ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا

Pronunciation

Ma asabaka min hasanatinfamina Allahi wama asabaka min sayyi-atinfamin nafsika waarsalnaka linnasi rasoolanwakafa billahi shaheedan

Translation

What comes to you of good is from Allah , but what comes to you of evil, [O man], is from yourself. And We have sent you, [O Muhammad], to the people as a messenger, and sufficient is Allah as Witness.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Whatever good (hasana means khayr) befalls you, O man, it is from God, it has come to you from His bounty; whatever evil, misfortune, befalls you is from yourself, it has come to you as a necessary consequence of sins you have committed. We have sent you, O Muhammad (s), to people as a messenger (rasūlan, is a circumstantial qualifier for emphasis), and God suffices as Witness, of your Mission.

4:80

مَّن يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللَّهَ ۖ وَمَن تَوَلَّىٰ فَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا

Pronunciation

Man yutiAAi arrasoola faqad ataAAaAllaha waman tawalla fama arsalnakaAAalayhim hafeetha

Translation

He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah ; but those who turn away – We have not sent you over them as a guardian.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Whoever obeys the Messenger, verily obeys God; and whoever turns his back, [whoever] avoids obedience to you, do not be concerned with them: We have not sent you as a watcher over them, to keep watch over their deeds, but as a warner. Their affair is Ours [to deal with] and We will requite them. This [statement] was before the command to fight [them was revealed].

4:81

وَيَقُولُونَ طَاعَةٌ فَإِذَا بَرَزُوا مِنْ عِندِكَ بَيَّتَ طَائِفَةٌ مِّنْهُمْ غَيْرَ الَّذِي تَقُولُ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَكْتُبُ مَا يُبَيِّتُونَ ۖ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا

Pronunciation

Wayaqooloona taAAatun fa-ithabarazoo min AAindika bayyata ta-ifatun minhum ghayra allatheetaqoolu wallahu yaktubu ma yubayyitoonafaaAArid AAanhum watawakkal AAala Allahiwakafa billahi wakeela

Translation

And they say, “[We pledge] obedience.” But when they leave you, a group of them spend the night determining to do other than what you say. But Allah records what they plan by night. So leave them alone and rely upon Allah . And sufficient is Allah as Disposer of affairs.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They say, that is, the hypocrites [say] when they come to you, ‘Our affair is [all about] Obedience, to you’; but when they sally forth, [when] they depart, from you, a party of them harbour (the [final] tā’ [of the feminine-ending in bayyatat, ‘harbour’] can either be elided with the following tā’ [of tā’ifa, ‘a party’] or simply omitted) they entertain secretly [feelings], other than what they say, to you in your presence in the way of [their] obedience, in other words, [they hide] disobedience to you. God writes down, He commands that it be written, what they harbour, in their scrolls [of deeds], so that they will be requited for it. So turn away from them, in forgiveness, rely on God, put your trust in Him, for He will suffice you; and God suffices as a Guardian, to Whom matters are entrusted.

4:82

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ اللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا فِيهِ اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا

Pronunciation

Afala yatadabbaroona alqur-anawalaw kana min AAindi ghayri Allahi lawajadoo feehiikhtilafan katheera

Translation

Then do they not reflect upon the Qur’an? If it had been from [any] other than Allah , they would have found within it much contradiction.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

What, do they not ponder, do they [not] contemplate, the Qur’ān?, and the marvellous truths contained in it. If it had been from other than God surely they would have found therein much inconsistency, [much] contradiction in meaning and irregularity in arrangement.

4:83

وَإِذَا جَاءَهُمْ أَمْرٌ مِّنَ الْأَمْنِ أَوِ الْخَوْفِ أَذَاعُوا بِهِ ۖ وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَإِلَىٰ أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ ۗ وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَاتَّبَعْتُمُ الشَّيْطَانَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Pronunciation

Wa-itha jaahum amrun minaal-amni awi alkhawfi athaAAoo bihi walaw raddoohu ilaarrasooli wa-ila olee al-amri minhum laAAalimahuallatheena yastanbitoonahu minhum walawla fadluAllahi AAalaykum warahmatuhu lattabaAAtumuashshaytana illa qaleela

Translation

And when there comes to them information about [public] security or fear, they spread it around. But if they had referred it back to the Messenger or to those of authority among them, then the ones who [can] draw correct conclusions from it would have known about it. And if not for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy, you would have followed Satan, except for a few.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when there comes to them an issue, [news] concerning the raiding parties sent by the Prophet (s) and what has happened to them, be it of security, through victory, or of fear, through defeat, they broadcast it, they make it widely-known: this was revealed regarding a group from among the hypocrites, or from among the feeble believers, who used to do this, and so the hearts of the believers would lose courage and the Prophet (s) would become distressed. If they had referred it, the news, to the Messenger and to those in authority among them, that is, the judicious elders among the Companions, in other words, if they had kept quiet about it until they were fully informed; those among them who are able to think it out, [those who] follow it up and seek knowledge of it, the ones who broadcast it, would have known it, and whether it is a matter that ought be broadcast or not, from them, from the Prophet (s) and those of authority. And but for the bounty of God to you, through Islam, and His mercy, to you through the Qur’ān, you would surely have followed Satan, in the abominations to which he commands you, except a few [of you].

4:84

فَقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَا تُكَلَّفُ إِلَّا نَفْسَكَ ۚ وَحَرِّضِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ عَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَكُفَّ بَأْسَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ وَاللَّهُ أَشَدُّ بَأْسًا وَأَشَدُّ تَنكِيلًا

Pronunciation

Faqatil fee sabeeli Allahi latukallafu illa nafsaka waharridialmu/mineena AAasa Allahu an yakuffa ba/sa allatheenakafaroo wallahu ashaddu ba/san waashaddu tankeela

Translation

So fight, [O Muhammad], in the cause of Allah ; you are not held responsible except for yourself. And encourage the believers [to join you] that perhaps Allah will restrain the [military] might of those who disbelieve. And Allah is greater in might and stronger in [exemplary] punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So fight, O Muhammad (s), in the way of God; you are charged only with yourself, so do not be concerned with their failing to join you, the meaning being: fight, even if you are on your own, for you have been promised victory. And urge on the believers, incite them to fight and make them desire it; maybe God will restrain the might, the war, of the disbelievers; God is mightier, than them, and more severe in castigation, in punishment, than them. And so the Messenger of God (s) said: ‘By Him in Whose Hand is my soul, I shall sally forth [to fight], even if [I go] alone’. Thereupon, he sallied forth with seventy cavalrymen to the first [battle at] Badr, where God restrained the might of the disbelievers by casting terror into their hearts and preventing Abū Sufyān from sallying forth, as has already been mentioned in [sūrat] Āl ‘Imrān [Q. 3:151].

4:85

مَّن يَشْفَعْ شَفَاعَةً حَسَنَةً يَكُن لَّهُ نَصِيبٌ مِّنْهَا ۖ وَمَن يَشْفَعْ شَفَاعَةً سَيِّئَةً يَكُن لَّهُ كِفْلٌ مِّنْهَا ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُّقِيتًا

Pronunciation

Man yashfaAA shafaAAatan hasanatanyakun lahu naseebun minha waman yashfaAA shafaAAatansayyi-atan yakun lahu kiflun minha wakana AllahuAAala kulli shay-in muqeeta

Translation

Whoever intercedes for a good cause will have a reward therefrom; and whoever intercedes for an evil cause will have a burden therefrom. And ever is Allah , over all things, a Keeper.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Whoever intercedes, between people, with a good intercession, one in accordance with the Law, shall receive a share of, the reward for, it, because of it; and whoever intercedes with an evil intercession, one in contravention of it [the Law], shall receive the like, the share of the sin, from it, because of it. God conserves, He has power over, all things, and so requites every person according to his deeds.

4:86

وَإِذَا حُيِّيتُم بِتَحِيَّةٍ فَحَيُّوا بِأَحْسَنَ مِنْهَا أَوْ رُدُّوهَا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ حَسِيبًا

Pronunciation

Wa-itha huyyeetum bitahiyyatinfahayyoo bi-ahsana minha aw ruddoohainna Allaha kana AAala kulli shay-in haseeba

Translation

And when you are greeted with a greeting, greet [in return] with one better than it or [at least] return it [in a like manner]. Indeed, Allah is ever, over all things, an Accountant.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when you are greeted with a greeting, as when it is said to you, ‘Peace be upon you’, greet, the one that greeted you, with better than it, by responding to him with, ‘Peace be upon you, and God’s mercy and blessings’, or return it, by saying back to him what he said; in other words, it is a duty to greet in one of these two ways, the former being the preferred one. Surely God keeps count of, He holds [you] accountable for, all things, and requites accordingly, including things such as returning a greeting. The Sunna specifies that one should not return the greeting of an disbeliever, an innovator, a wicked person, and of the one that greets a person who is in the act of relieving himself, or one in the bath, or one eating — indeed it is actually disapproved with the exception of the last. To the disbeliever [who says ‘peace be upon you’] one should simply say, ‘And upon you’.

4:87

اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ لَيَجْمَعَنَّكُمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ ۗ وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ حَدِيثًا

Pronunciation

Allahu la ilaha illahuwa layajmaAAannakum ila yawmi alqiyamati larayba feehi waman asdaqu mina Allahi hadeetha

Translation

Allah – there is no deity except Him. He will surely assemble you for [account on] the Day of Resurrection, about which there is no doubt. And who is more truthful than Allah in statement.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God — there is no god except Him, and by God, He will surely gather you, from your graves, to, on, the Day of Resurrection whereof there is no doubt, no uncertainty. And who is truer in statement, in speech, than God?, that is, no one is.

4:88

فَمَا لَكُمْ فِي الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِئَتَيْنِ وَاللَّهُ أَرْكَسَهُم بِمَا كَسَبُوا ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَهْدُوا مَنْ أَضَلَّ اللَّهُ ۖ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيلًا

Pronunciation

Fama lakum fee almunafiqeenafi-atayni wallahu arkasahum bima kasabooatureedoona an tahdoo man adalla Allahu waman yudliliAllahu falan tajida lahu sabeela

Translation

What is [the matter] with you [that you are] two groups concerning the hypocrites, while Allah has made them fall back [into error and disbelief] for what they earned. Do you wish to guide those whom Allah has sent astray? And he whom Allah sends astray – never will you find for him a way [of guidance].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When a group retreated from Uhud, people were at variance over their status. Some said, ‘Let us slay them’, while others said, ‘No!’ So the following was revealed: What is wrong with you, what is the matter with you, that you have become two parties, two groups, regarding the hypocrites, when God has overthrown them, He has turned them back [to disbelief], for what they earned?, in the way of disbelief and acts of disobedience. What, do you desire to guide him whom God has sent astray?, that is, to count them among the guided (the interrogative in both places is for disapproval). And he whom God sends astray, you will never find for him a way, a path to guidance.

4:89

وَدُّوا لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ كَمَا كَفَرُوا فَتَكُونُونَ سَوَاءً ۖ فَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ حَتَّىٰ يُهَاجِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَخُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Waddoo law takfuroona kama kafaroofatakoonoona sawaan fala tattakhithoo minhumawliyaa hatta yuhajiroo fee sabeeliAllahi fa-in tawallaw fakhuthoohum waqtuloohumhaythu wajadtumoohum wala tattakhithoominhum waliyyan wala naseera

Translation

They wish you would disbelieve as they disbelieved so you would be alike. So do not take from among them allies until they emigrate for the cause of Allah . But if they turn away, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them and take not from among them any ally or helper.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They long, they wish, that you should disbelieve as they disbelieve, so then you, and they, would be equal, in unbelief; therefore do not take friends from among them, associating with them, even if they should [outwardly] manifest belief, until they emigrate in the way of God, a proper emigration that would confirm their belief; then, if they turn away, and remain upon their ways, take them, as captives, and slay them wherever you find them; and do not take any of them as a patron, to associate with, or as a helper, to assist you against your enemy.

4:90

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ أَوْ جَاءُوكُمْ حَصِرَتْ صُدُورُهُمْ أَن يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ أَوْ يُقَاتِلُوا قَوْمَهُمْ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَسَلَّطَهُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ فَلَقَاتَلُوكُمْ ۚ فَإِنِ اعْتَزَلُوكُمْ فَلَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ وَأَلْقَوْا إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ فَمَا جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبِيلًا

Pronunciation

Illa allatheena yasiloonaila qawmin baynakum wabaynahum meethaqun aw jaookumhasirat sudooruhum an yuqatilookum awyuqatiloo qawmahum walaw shaa Allahu lasallatahumAAalaykum falaqatalookum fa-ini iAAtazalookum falam yuqatilookumwaalqaw ilaykumu assalama fama jaAAala Allahulakum AAalayhim sabeela

Translation

Except for those who take refuge with a people between yourselves and whom is a treaty or those who come to you, their hearts strained at [the prospect of] fighting you or fighting their own people. And if Allah had willed, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they remove themselves from you and do not fight you and offer you peace, then Allah has not made for you a cause [for fighting] against them.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Except those who attach themselves to, [who] seek refuge with, a people between whom and you there is a covenant, a pledge of security for them and for whoever attaches himself to them, in the manner of the Prophet’s (s) covenant with Hilāl b. ‘Uwaymir al-Aslamī; or, those who, come to you with their breasts constricted, dejected, about the prospect of fighting you, [being] on the side of their people, or fighting their people, siding with you, in other words, [those who come to you] refraining from fighting either you or them, then do not interfere with them, neither taking them as captives nor slaying them: this statement and what follows was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse. Had God willed, to give them sway over you, He would have given them sway over you, by strengthening their hearts, so that assuredly they would have fought you: but God did not will it and so He cast terror into their hearts. And so if they stay away from you and do not fight you, and offer you peace, reconciliation, that is, [if] they submit, then God does not allow you any way against them, [He does not allow you] a means to take them captive or to slay them.

4:91

سَتَجِدُونَ آخَرِينَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَأْمَنُوكُمْ وَيَأْمَنُوا قَوْمَهُمْ كُلَّ مَا رُدُّوا إِلَى الْفِتْنَةِ أُرْكِسُوا فِيهَا ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ يَعْتَزِلُوكُمْ وَيُلْقُوا إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَمَ وَيَكُفُّوا أَيْدِيَهُمْ فَخُذُوهُمْ وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكُمْ جَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا

Pronunciation

Satajidoona akhareena yureedoona anya/manookum waya/manoo qawmahum kulla ma ruddoo ilaalfitnati orkisoo feeha fa-in lam yaAAtazilookum wayulqooilaykumu assalama wayakuffoo aydiyahum fakhuthoohumwaqtuloohum haythu thaqiftumoohum waola-ikumjaAAalna lakum AAalayhim sultanan mubeena

Translation

You will find others who wish to obtain security from you and [to] obtain security from their people. Every time they are returned to [the influence of] disbelief, they fall back into it. So if they do not withdraw from you or offer you peace or restrain their hands, then seize them and kill them wherever you overtake them. And those – We have made for you against them a clear authorization.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

You will find others desiring to have security from you, by manifesting belief before you, and security from their own people, through unbelief, when they return to them, and these were [the tribes of] Asad and Ghatafān; yet whenever they are returned to sedition, [whenever] they are summoned to idolatry, they are overwhelmed by it, falling into it in the worst of ways. So, if they do not stay away from you, by refraining from fighting you, and, do not, offer you peace, and, do not, restrain their hands, from you, then take them, as captives, and slay them wherever you come upon them, [wherever] you find them; against them We have given you clear warrant, a clear and manifest proof for you to slay them and capture them, on account of their treachery.

4:92

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَن يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِنًا إِلَّا خَطَأً ۚ وَمَن قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَأً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ إِلَّا أَن يَصَّدَّقُوا ۚ فَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَّكُمْ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ ۖ وَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ فَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِهِ وَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ ۖ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ تَوْبَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wama kana limu/minin anyaqtula mu/minan illa khataan waman qatala mu/minankhataan fatahreeru raqabatin mu/minatin wadiyatunmusallamatun ila ahlihi illa an yassaddaqoofa-in kana min qawmin AAaduwwin lakum wahuwa mu/minun fatahreeruraqabatin mu/minatin wa-in kana min qawmin baynakumwabaynahum meethaqun fadiyatun musallamatun ilaahlihi watahreeru raqabatin mu/minatin faman lam yajid fasiyamushahrayni mutatabiAAayni tawbatan mina Allahi wakanaAllahu AAaleeman hakeema

Translation

And never is it for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake. And whoever kills a believer by mistake – then the freeing of a believing slave and a compensation payment presented to the deceased’s family [is required] unless they give [up their right as] charity. But if the deceased was from a people at war with you and he was a believer – then [only] the freeing of a believing slave; and if he was from a people with whom you have a treaty – then a compensation payment presented to his family and the freeing of a believing slave. And whoever does not find [one or cannot afford to buy one] – then [instead], a fast for two months consecutively, [seeking] acceptance of repentance from Allah . And Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

It is not for a believer to slay a believer, in other words, no such slaying should result at his hands, except by mistake, killing him by mistake, unintentionally. He who slays a believer by mistake, when he meant to strike some other thing, as in the case of hunting or [shooting at] trees, but then happens to strike him with what in most cases would not kill, then let him set free, let him emancipate, a believing slave (raqaba denotes nasama, ‘a person’), an obligation on him, and blood-money is to be submitted, to be paid, to his family, that is, the slain person’s inheritors, unless they remit it as a charity, to him by waiving [their claim to] it. In the Sunna this [blood-money] is explained as being equivalent to one hundred camels: twenty pregnant, twenty female sucklings, twenty male sucklings, twenty mature ones and twenty young ones [not more than five years old]; and [the Sunna stipulates] that it is incumbent upon the killer’s clan, namely, his paternal relations [and not other relatives]. They share this [burden of the blood-money] over three years; the rich among them pays half a dinar, while the one of moderate means [pays] a quarter of a dinar each year; if they still cannot meet this, then it can be taken from the treasury, and if this is not possible, then from the killer himself. If he, the slain, belongs to a people at enmity, at war, with you and is a believer, then the setting free of a believing slave, is incumbent upon the slayer, as a redemption, but no bloodmoney is to be paid to his family, since they are at war [with you]. If he, the slain, belongs to a people between whom and you there is a covenant, a treaty, as is the case with the Protected People (ahl al-dhimma), then the blood-money, for him, must be paid to his family, and it constitutes a third of the blood-money for a believer, if the slain be a Jew or a Christian, and two thirds of a tenth of it, if he be a Magian; and the setting free of a believing slave, is incumbent upon the slayer. But if he has not the wherewithal, for [setting free] a slave, failing to find one, or the means to obtain one, then the fasting of two successive months, is incumbent upon him as a redemption: here God does not mention the transition to [an alternative to fasting which is] giving food [to the needy], as in the case of [repudiating one’s wife by] zihār, something which al-Shāfi‘ī advocates in the more correct of two opinions of his; a relenting from God (tawbatan, ‘relenting’, is the verbal noun, and is in the accusative because of the implied verb).

4:93

وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خَالِدًا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذَابًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Waman yaqtul mu/minan mutaAAammidan fajazaohujahannamu khalidan feeha waghadiba AllahuAAalayhi walaAAanahu waaAAadda lahu AAathaban AAatheema

Translation

But whoever kills a believer intentionally – his recompense is Hell, wherein he will abide eternally, and Allah has become angry with him and has cursed him and has prepared for him a great punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And whoever slays a believer deliberately, intending to kill him, with something that is lethal, aware of the fact that he [the slain] is a believer, his requital is Hell, abiding therein, and God is wroth with him and has cursed him, He has removed him from His mercy, and has prepared for him a mighty chastisement, in the Fire: this may be explained as [referring to] the person that deems such [killing] licit, or as being his requital if he were to be requited, but it would not be anything new if this threat [of punishment] were to be forgone, because of what He says: Other than that [that is, idolatry] He forgives whomever He will [Q. 4:48]. It is reported from Ibn ‘Abbās that it [the verse] should be understood as it stands, abrogating other verses of ‘forgiveness’. The verse in [sūrat] al-Baqara [Q. 2:178] clearly indicates that the one who kills deliberately should be killed in return, or if he is pardoned then he has to pay the blood-money, the value of which has already been mentioned. It is made clear in the Sunna that between the intentional and the unintentional, there is a type of killing that is identified as [being with] quasi-deliberate intent (shibh al-‘amd), where the killer has slain with what in most cases is not [a] lethal [implement]. In such a case, there is no [right to] retaliation and blood-money is paid instead, so that it [this type of killing] is described as intentional, but [considered] unintentional in [that there applies] the fixing of the period [for payment] and the sharing of the burden [by the killer’s clan]; in this [case] and that of intentional killing redemption is more urgent than in unintentional killing.

4:94

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَتَبَيَّنُوا وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَنْ أَلْقَىٰ إِلَيْكُمُ السَّلَامَ لَسْتَ مُؤْمِنًا تَبْتَغُونَ عَرَضَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فَعِندَ اللَّهِ مَغَانِمُ كَثِيرَةٌ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كُنتُم مِّن قَبْلُ فَمَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ فَتَبَيَّنُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooitha darabtum fee sabeeli Allahifatabayyanoo wala taqooloo liman alqa ilaykumu assalamalasta mu/minan tabtaghoona AAarada alhayatiaddunya faAAinda Allahi maghanimukatheeratun kathalika kuntum min qablu famanna AllahuAAalaykum fatabayyanoo inna Allaha kana bimataAAmaloona khabeera

Translation

O you who have believed, when you go forth [to fight] in the cause of Allah , investigate; and do not say to one who gives you [a greeting of] peace “You are not a believer,” aspiring for the goods of worldly life; for with Allah are many acquisitions. You [yourselves] were like that before; then Allah conferred His favor upon you, so investigate. Indeed Allah is ever, with what you do, Acquainted.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed when a group from among the Companions passed by a man from the Banū Sulaym driving his flock of sheep, and he offered them a greeting of peace. But they said, ‘He only greeted us dissimulating, out of fear’. So they killed him and took away his flock: O you who believe, when you are going forth, travelling in order to struggle, in the way of God, be discriminating (fa-tabayyanū; a variant reading has fa-tathabbatū, ‘ascertain’, here and further below); and do not say to him who offers you peace (read al-salām or al-salam), that is, the greeting, or [offers you] submission, declaring the profession of faith (shahāda), which is an indication of being a Muslim: ‘You are not a believer: you are only saying this to dissimulate for fear of your life and property’, so that you then end up killing him, desiring, seeking by this, the transient goods of the life of this world, that is, its enjoyment, in the way of spoils. With God are plenteous spoils, rendering you free of the need to kill such a person for his property. So you were formerly, when your lives and property were protected simply upon your professing the faith; but God has been gracious to you, making you known for your faith and uprightness. So be discriminating, lest you kill a believer and treat those entering the religion as you were treated [formerly]. Surely God is ever Aware of what you do, and will requite you for it.

4:95

لَّا يَسْتَوِي الْقَاعِدُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُولِي الضَّرَرِ وَالْمُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ ۚ فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ بِأَمْوَالِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ دَرَجَةً ۚ وَكُلًّا وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ وَفَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

La yastawee alqaAAidoona minaalmu/mineena ghayru olee addarari walmujahidoonafee sabeeli Allahi bi-amwalihim waanfusihim faddalaAllahu almujahideena bi-amwalihimwaanfusihim AAala alqaAAideena darajatan wakullanwaAAada Allahu alhusna wafaddala Allahualmujahideena AAala alqaAAideena ajran AAatheema

Translation

Not equal are those believers remaining [at home] – other than the disabled – and the mujahideen, [who strive and fight] in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has preferred the mujahideen through their wealth and their lives over those who remain [behind], by degrees. And to both Allah has promised the best [reward]. But Allah has preferred the mujahideen over those who remain [behind] with a great reward –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The believers who sit at home, away from the struggle, other than those who have an injury, such as a chronic illness or blindness or the like (read in the nominative, ghayru ūlī l-darar, ‘other than those who have an injury’, as an adjectival clause; or in the accusative, ghayra ūlī l-darar, as an exceptive clause) are not the equals of those who struggle in the way of God with their possessions and their lives. God has preferred those who struggle with their possessions and their lives over the ones who sit at home, on account of some injury, by a degree, by [a degree of] merit, since both have the same intention, but the extra degree is given to those who have carried out the struggle; yet to each, of the two groups, God has promised the goodly reward, Paradise, and God has preferred those who struggle over the ones who sit at home, without any injury, with a great reward (ajran ‘azīman, is substituted by [the following, darajātin minhu]),

4:96

دَرَجَاتٍ مِّنْهُ وَمَغْفِرَةً وَرَحْمَةً ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Pronunciation

Darajatin minhu wamaghfiratan warahmatanwakana Allahu ghafooran raheema

Translation

Degrees [of high position] from Him and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

degrees, that is, stations one higher than the other in honour, from Him, and forgiveness and mercy (maghfiratan and rahmatan are in the accusative because [they constitute an object] of the implied verb [faddala, ‘He has preferred’]). Surely God is ever Forgiving, to His friends, Merciful, to those that obey Him.

4:97

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنتُمْ ۖ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا ۚ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena tawaffahumualmala-ikatu thalimee anfusihim qaloofeema kuntum qaloo kunna mustadAAafeena feeal-ardi qaloo alam takun ardu AllahiwasiAAatan fatuhajiroo feeha faola-ikama/wahum jahannamu wasaat maseera

Translation

Indeed, those whom the angels take [in death] while wronging themselves – [the angels] will say, “In what [condition] were you?” They will say, “We were oppressed in the land.” The angels will say, “Was not the earth of Allah spacious [enough] for you to emigrate therein?” For those, their refuge is Hell – and evil it is as a destination.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed regarding a group of people who submitted to Islam but did not emigrate and were then slain in the battle of Badr alongside the disbelievers: And those whom the angels take [in death], while they are wronging their souls, having remained among the disbelievers and neglected to emigrate, the angels will say, to them in rebuke: ‘What was your predicament?’, in other words, ‘in what circumstances were you with regard to your religion’. They will say, giving excuses, ‘We were oppressed, unable to establish religion, in the land’, the land of Mecca. The angels will say, to them in rebuke: ‘But was not God’s earth spacious that you might have emigrated therein?’, from the land of unbelief to another land, as others did? God, exalted be He, says: as for such, their abode shall be Hell — an evil journey’s end, it is!

4:98

إِلَّا الْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ وَالنِّسَاءِ وَالْوِلْدَانِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ حِيلَةً وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ سَبِيلًا

Pronunciation

Illa almustadAAafeena mina arrijaliwannisa-i walwildani layastateeAAoona heelatan wala yahtadoonasabeela

Translation

Except for the oppressed among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan nor are they directed to a way –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Except the oppressed among the men, women, and children who are unable to devise a plan, having no strength to emigrate and no substance, and are not guided to a way, a means [of going] to the land of emigration.

4:99

فَأُولَٰئِكَ عَسَى اللَّهُ أَن يَعْفُوَ عَنْهُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا

Pronunciation

Faola-ika AAasa Allahuan yaAAfuwa AAanhum wakana Allahu AAafuwwan ghafoora

Translation

For those it is expected that Allah will pardon them, and Allah is ever Pardoning and Forgiving.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

As for such, perhaps God will pardon them, for God is ever Pardoning, Forgiving.

4:100

وَمَن يُهَاجِرْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ يَجِدْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُرَاغَمًا كَثِيرًا وَسَعَةً ۚ وَمَن يَخْرُجْ مِن بَيْتِهِ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ثُمَّ يُدْرِكْهُ الْمَوْتُ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Pronunciation

Waman yuhajir fee sabeeli Allahiyajid fee al-ardi muraghaman katheeran wasaAAatanwaman yakhruj min baytihi muhajiran ila Allahiwarasoolihi thumma yudrik-hu almawtu faqad waqaAAa ajruhu AAalaAllahi wakana Allahu ghafooran raheema

Translation

And whoever emigrates for the cause of Allah will find on the earth many [alternative] locations and abundance. And whoever leaves his home as an emigrant to Allah and His Messenger and then death overtakes him – his reward has already become incumbent upon Allah . And Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Whoever emigrates in the way of God will find in the earth many refuges, places of emigration, and abundance, of provision; whoever goes forth from his house as an emigrant to God and His Messenger, and then death overtakes him, along the way, as occurred with Junda‘ [or Jundab] b. Damra al-Laythī, his wage is then incumbent upon, fixed [with], God; surely God is ever Forgiving, Merciful.

4:101

وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقْصُرُوا مِنَ الصَّلَاةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَن يَفْتِنَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ إِنَّ الْكَافِرِينَ كَانُوا لَكُمْ عَدُوًّا مُّبِينًا

Pronunciation

Wa-itha darabtum fee al-ardifalaysa AAalaykum junahun an taqsuroo mina assalatiin khiftum an yaftinakumu allatheena kafaroo inna alkafireenakanoo lakum AAaduwwan mubeena

Translation

And when you travel throughout the land, there is no blame upon you for shortening the prayer, [especially] if you fear that those who disbelieve may disrupt [or attack] you. Indeed, the disbelievers are ever to you a clear enemy.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when you are going forth, travelling, in the land you would not be at fault if you shorten the prayer, by making it two [genuflexions] instead of four, if you fear that you may be afflicted by those who do not believe, that is, [if you fear] that you may be harmed [by them]: this [fear of affliction at the hands of the disbelievers] is [just intended as] an explication of the reality [of the situation] at that time and the point no longer applies. In the Sunna, it is pointed out that ‘travel’ (safar) means long-distance [travel], which is [approximately] 50 miles. God’s words ‘you would not be at fault’ should be understood as [denoting] a dispensation and not a requirement, and this is the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī; the disbelievers are a manifest foe to you, their enmity being evident.

4:102

وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَائِفَةٌ مِّنْهُم مَّعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُوا فَلْيَكُونُوا مِن وَرَائِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَائِفَةٌ أُخْرَىٰ لَمْ يُصَلُّوا فَلْيُصَلُّوا مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْ ۗ وَدَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوْ تَغْفُلُونَ عَنْ أَسْلِحَتِكُمْ وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيْكُم مَّيْلَةً وَاحِدَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِّن مَّطَرٍ أَوْ كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰ أَن تَضَعُوا أَسْلِحَتَكُمْ ۖ وَخُذُوا حِذْرَكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Pronunciation

Wa-itha kunta feehim faaqamta lahumuassalata faltaqum ta-ifatun minhummaAAaka walya/khuthoo aslihatahum fa-ithasajadoo falyakoonoo min wara-ikum walta/ti ta-ifatunokhra lam yusalloo falyusalloo maAAakawalya/khuthoo hithrahum waaslihatahumwadda allatheena kafaroo law taghfuloona AAan aslihatikumwaamtiAAatikum fayameeloona AAalaykum maylatan wahidatanwala junaha AAalaykum in kana bikum athanmin matarin aw kuntum marda an tadaAAoo aslihatakumwakhuthoo hithrakum inna AllahaaAAadda lilkafireena AAathaban muheena

Translation

And when you are among them and lead them in prayer, let a group of them stand [in prayer] with you and let them carry their arms. And when they have prostrated, let them be [in position] behind you and have the other group come forward which has not [yet] prayed and let them pray with you, taking precaution and carrying their arms. Those who disbelieve wish that you would neglect your weapons and your baggage so they could come down upon you in one [single] attack. But there is no blame upon you, if you are troubled by rain or are ill, for putting down your arms, but take precaution. Indeed, Allah has prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When you, O Muhammad (s), are, present, among them, while you [all] fear an enemy, and you stand to lead them in prayer (this type of address is customary in the Qur’ān), let a party of them stand with you, while another party stand back, and let them, the party standing with you, take their weapons, with them. Then when they have performed their prostrations, that is, [when] they have prayed, let them, the other party, be behind you, on guard until you complete the prayers; thereupon, let this party go on guard, and let another party who have not prayed come and pray with you, taking their precautions and their weapons, with them until you have completed the prayers. The Prophet (s) did this once at Batn Nakhla, as reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim]. The disbelievers wish, when you have stood up to pray, that you should be heedless of your weapons and your baggage that they may descend upon you all at once, by making an assault against you and capturing you, and herein is the reasoning behind keeping weapons on oneself. You are not at fault, if rain bothers you, or if you are sick, to lay aside your weapons, and not carry them: this implies that when there is no such excuse, it is compulsory to carry them, and this is one of two opinions held by al-Shāfi‘ī [on this matter]; the other [opinion] is that this [precaution] constitutes a sunna, and this is the more preferable opinion. But take your precautions, against the enemy and be on your guard as best you can; God has prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating chastisement.

4:103

فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُمُ الصَّلَاةَ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ قِيَامًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِكُمْ ۚ فَإِذَا اطْمَأْنَنتُمْ فَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ ۚ إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَابًا مَّوْقُوتًا

Pronunciation

Fa-itha qadaytumu assalatafathkuroo Allaha qiyaman waquAAoodanwaAAala junoobikum fa-itha itma/nantumfaaqeemoo assalata inna assalatakanat AAala almu/mineena kitaban mawqoota

Translation

And when you have completed the prayer, remember Allah standing, sitting, or [lying] on your sides. But when you become secure, re-establish [regular] prayer. Indeed, prayer has been decreed upon the believers a decree of specified times.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When you have performed the prayer, [when] you have completed it, remember God, by [repeating] ‘There is no god but God’ (tahlīl) and ‘Glory be to God’ (tasbīh), standing and sitting and on your sides, lying down, in other words, in all states. Then, when you are reassured, [when] you are secure, observe the prayer, perform it with its proper due, surely the prayer is for believers a prescription, enjoined, that is, an obligation, at specific times, that is, its appointed times are set, and so it should not be postponed from these times.

4:104

وَلَا تَهِنُوا فِي ابْتِغَاءِ الْقَوْمِ ۖ إِن تَكُونُوا تَأْلَمُونَ فَإِنَّهُمْ يَأْلَمُونَ كَمَا تَأْلَمُونَ ۖ وَتَرْجُونَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَرْجُونَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wala tahinoo fee ibtigha-ialqawmi in takoonoo ta/lamoona fa-innahum ya/lamoona kamata/lamoona watarjoona mina Allahi ma layarjoona wakana Allahu AAaleeman hakeema

Translation

And do not weaken in pursuit of the enemy. If you should be suffering – so are they suffering as you are suffering, but you expect from Allah that which they expect not. And Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

After they returned from Uhud, the Prophet (s) dispatched a group to seek out Abū Sufyān and his companions, but they complained about their wounds, and the following was revealed: Be not faint, [be not] weak, in seeking, in pursuing, the enemy, the disbelievers, in order to fight them; if you are suffering, [if] you have pains from a wound, they are also suffering as you are suffering, that is, just like you, yet they do not shrink from fighting you; and you hope from God, in the way of victory and the reward for it, that for which they cannot hope, and since you have this advantage over them, you should be more willing for it than them. God is ever Knower, of all things, Wise, in His actions.

4:105

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِتَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِمَا أَرَاكَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَلَا تَكُن لِّلْخَائِنِينَ خَصِيمًا

Pronunciation

Inna anzalna ilayka alkitababilhaqqi litahkuma bayna annasibima araka Allahu wala takun lilkha-ineenakhaseema

Translation

Indeed, We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], the Book in truth so you may judge between the people by that which Allah has shown you. And do not be for the deceitful an advocate.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Tu‘ma b. Ubayriq stole a coat of mail and hid it with a Jew. When it was discovered with the latter, Tu‘ma accused him of having stolen it, and swore by God that he [Tu‘ma] had not stolen it, and his clan asked the Prophet (s) to advocate on his behalf and absolve him, whereupon the following was revealed: Surely We have revealed to you the Book, the Qur’ān, with the truth (bi’l-haqq is semantically connected to anzalnā, ‘We have revealed’) so that you may judge between people by that which God has shown you, what God has taught you. And do not be a disputant for traitors, like Tu‘ma, disputing on their behalf.

4:106

وَاسْتَغْفِرِ اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wastaghfiri Allaha inna Allahakana ghafooran raheema

Translation

And seek forgiveness of Allah . Indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And pray for forgiveness from God, for that which you considered doing; surely God is ever Forgiving, Merciful.

4:107

وَلَا تُجَادِلْ عَنِ الَّذِينَ يَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ خَوَّانًا أَثِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wala tujadil AAani allatheenayakhtanoona anfusahum inna Allaha la yuhibbuman kana khawwanan atheema

Translation

And do not argue on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Indeed, Allah loves not one who is a habitually sinful deceiver.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And do not dispute on behalf of those who betray themselves, through acts of disobedience, for the evil consequences of their betrayal shall fall on them; surely God loves not one who is treacherous, frequently betraying, and sinful, that is to say, He will punish him.

4:108

يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ اللَّهِ وَهُوَ مَعَهُمْ إِذْ يُبَيِّتُونَ مَا لَا يَرْضَىٰ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ مُحِيطًا

Pronunciation

Yastakhfoona mina annasi walayastakhfoona mina Allahi wahuwa maAAahum ithyubayyitoona ma la yarda mina alqawli wakanaAllahu bima yaAAmaloona muheeta

Translation

They conceal [their evil intentions and deeds] from the people, but they cannot conceal [them] from Allah , and He is with them [in His knowledge] when they spend the night in such as He does not accept of speech. And ever is Allah , of what they do, encompassing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They, the likes of Tu‘ma and his clan, hide themselves, in shame, from people, but they do not hide themselves from God; for He is with them, in His knowledge [of them], while they plot, they conspire, at night with discourse displeasing to Him, in their resolve to swear by God and deny the theft and accuse the Jew of it. God is ever Encompassing, in knowledge, of what they do.

4:109

هَا أَنتُمْ هَٰؤُلَاءِ جَادَلْتُمْ عَنْهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فَمَن يُجَادِلُ اللَّهَ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَم مَّن يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكِيلًا

Pronunciation

Haantum haola-i jadaltumAAanhum fee alhayati addunya famanyujadilu Allaha AAanhum yawma alqiyamati amman yakoonu AAalayhim wakeela

Translation

Here you are – those who argue on their behalf in [this] worldly life – but who will argue with Allah for them on the Day of Resurrection, or who will [then] be their representative?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Ah! There you are (addressing Tu‘ma’s clan) you have contested, you have disputed, on their behalf, that is to say, on behalf of Tu‘ma and his men (a variant reading has ‘anhu, ‘on his behalf’) in the life of this world; but who will contest against God on their behalf on the Day of Resurrection, if He were to punish them, or who will be a guardian for them, and take charge of their affair or defend them? In other words, no one will do such a thing.

4:110

وَمَن يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا أَوْ يَظْلِمْ نَفْسَهُ ثُمَّ يَسْتَغْفِرِ اللَّهَ يَجِدِ اللَّهَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Pronunciation

Waman yaAAmal soo-an aw yathlimnafsahu thumma yastaghfiri Allaha yajidi Allahaghafooran raheema

Translation

And whoever does a wrong or wrongs himself but then seeks forgiveness of Allah will find Allah Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Whoever does evil, [commits] a sin by which another is harmed, as when Tu‘ma falsely accused the Jew, or wrongs himself, committing a sin [the consequences of which are] limited to him, and then prays for God’s forgiveness, for it, that is to say, [and then] he repents, he shall find God is Forgiving, Merciful, to him.

4:111

وَمَن يَكْسِبْ إِثْمًا فَإِنَّمَا يَكْسِبُهُ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Waman yaksib ithman fa-innamayaksibuhu AAala nafsihi wakana AllahuAAaleeman hakeema

Translation

And whoever commits a sin only earns it against himself. And Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And whoever commits a sin commits it against himself only, since the evil consequences fall on him, harming no one else; and God is ever Knower, Wise, in His actions.

4:112

وَمَن يَكْسِبْ خَطِيئَةً أَوْ إِثْمًا ثُمَّ يَرْمِ بِهِ بَرِيئًا فَقَدِ احْتَمَلَ بُهْتَانًا وَإِثْمًا مُّبِينًا

Pronunciation

Waman yaksib khatee-atan aw ithmanthumma yarmi bihi baree-an faqadi ihtamala buhtananwa-ithman mubeena

Translation

But whoever earns an offense or a sin and then blames it on an innocent [person] has taken upon himself a slander and manifest sin.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And whoever commits a mistake, a minor sin, or a sin, a grave sin, and then casts it upon the innocent, [one who is innocent] of it, he has thereby burdened himself with calumny, by his false accusation, and a manifest sin, [one which is] evident on account of what he has committed.

4:113

وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَهَمَّت طَّائِفَةٌ مِّنْهُمْ أَن يُضِلُّوكَ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ ۖ وَمَا يَضُرُّونَكَ مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ وَأَنزَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمْ تَكُن تَعْلَمُ ۚ وَكَانَ فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Walawla fadlu AllahiAAalayka warahmatuhu lahammat ta-ifatun minhum anyudillooka wama yudilloona illaanfusahum wama yadurroonaka min shay-in waanzalaAllahu AAalayka alkitaba walhikmatawaAAallamaka ma lam takun taAAlamu wakana fadluAllahi AAalayka AAatheema

Translation

And if it was not for the favor of Allah upon you, [O Muhammad], and His mercy, a group of them would have determined to mislead you. But they do not mislead except themselves, and they will not harm you at all. And Allah has revealed to you the Book and wisdom and has taught you that which you did not know. And ever has the favor of Allah upon you been great.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Were it not for God’s bounty to you, O Muhammad (s), and His mercy, by way of protecting you, a party of them, of Tu‘ma’s clan, would have intended, [would have] conspired, to lead you astray, from judging with truth by deceiving you; but they lead only themselves astray; they will not hurt you at all, since the evil consequence of their leading you astray would have fallen on them. God has revealed to you the Book, the Qur’ān, and wisdom, the rulings contained therein, and He has taught you what you did not know, of rulings and the Unseen; and God’s bounty to you, in this and other respects, is ever great.

4:114

لَّا خَيْرَ فِي كَثِيرٍ مِّن نَّجْوَاهُمْ إِلَّا مَنْ أَمَرَ بِصَدَقَةٍ أَوْ مَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ إِصْلَاحٍ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ ۚ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

La khayra fee katheerin min najwahumilla man amara bisadaqatin aw maAAroofin aw islahinbayna annasi waman yafAAal thalika ibtighaamardati Allahi fasawfa nu/teehi ajran AAatheema

Translation

No good is there in much of their private conversation, except for those who enjoin charity or that which is right or conciliation between people. And whoever does that seeking means to the approval of Allah – then We are going to give him a great reward.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

There is no good in much of their, that is, of people’s, secret conversations, that is, what they converse and talk secretly about, except for, the secret talk of, he who enjoins to voluntary almsgiving, or kindness, a righteous deed, or setting things right between people. And whoever does that, the aforementioned, desiring, seeking, God’s good pleasure, [and] nothing else of the affairs of this world, We shall surely give him (read nu’tīhi or yu’tīhi, ‘He will give him’, that is, ‘God [will give him]’) a great wage.

4:115

وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ الرَّسُولَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ الْهُدَىٰ وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِ مَا تَوَلَّىٰ وَنُصْلِهِ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Waman yushaqiqi arrasoolamin baAAdi ma tabayyana lahu alhuda wayattabiAAghayra sabeeli almu/mineena nuwallihi ma tawallawanuslihi jahannama wasaat maseera

Translation

And whoever opposes the Messenger after guidance has become clear to him and follows other than the way of the believers – We will give him what he has taken and drive him into Hell, and evil it is as a destination.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But whoever makes a breach with, [whoever] opposes, the Messenger, in the truth that he brings, after guidance has become clear to him, [after] the truth has become manifest to him through miracles, and follows, a path, other than the way of the believers, that is to say, [other than] the path they follow in religion, by disbelieving, We shall turn him over to what he has turned to, We shall make him a leader of the misguidance which he has followed, by leaving this as it is between them in this world, and We shall expose him, We shall admit him in the Hereafter, in Hell, where he will burn — an evil journey’s end, an [evil] return it is.

4:116

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا

Pronunciation

Inna Allaha la yaghfiru anyushraka bihi wayaghfiru ma doona thalika limanyashao waman yushrik billahi faqad dalladalalan baAAeeda

Translation

Indeed, Allah does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allah has certainly gone far astray.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God does not forgive that anything should be associated with Him; He forgives all except that, to whomever He will. Whoever associates anything with God, verily he has strayed far away, from the truth.

4:117

إِن يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ إِلَّا إِنَاثًا وَإِن يَدْعُونَ إِلَّا شَيْطَانًا مَّرِيدًا

Pronunciation

In yadAAoona min doonihi illa inathanwa-in yadAAoona illa shaytanan mareeda

Translation

They call upon instead of Him none but female [deities], and they [actually] call upon none but a rebellious Satan.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

What (in, is [to be understand as] mā, ‘only’) they pray to, [what] the idolaters worship, instead of Him, God, that is, other than Him, are but females, idols with feminine names, such as al-Lāt, al-‘Uzza and Manāt; and they (in, is [to be understand as] mā, ‘only’) only pray to, they [only] worship, by worshipping [these female idols], a rebellious satan, one who has rebelled against obedience [to God], for they are obeying him in this [worship of female idols].

4:118

لَّعَنَهُ اللَّهُ ۘ وَقَالَ لَأَتَّخِذَنَّ مِنْ عِبَادِكَ نَصِيبًا مَّفْرُوضًا

Pronunciation

LaAAanahu Allahu waqalalaattakhithanna min AAibadika naseebanmafrooda

Translation

Whom Allah has cursed. For he had said, “I will surely take from among Your servants a specific portion.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God has cursed him, He has removed him from His mercy. And he, namely, Satan, said, ‘Assuredly I will take to myself, I will appoint for myself, an appointed portion, an apportioned share, of Your servants, [whom] I shall call to obey me.

4:119

وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمْ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمْ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ آذَانَ الْأَنْعَامِ وَلَآمُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ الشَّيْطَانَ وَلِيًّا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَانًا مُّبِينًا

Pronunciation

Walaodillannahum walaomanniyannahumwalaamurannahum falayubattikunna athana al-anAAamiwalaamurannahum falayughayyirunna khalqa Allahiwaman yattakhithi ashshaytana waliyyan mindooni Allahi faqad khasira khusranan mubeena

Translation

And I will mislead them, and I will arouse in them [sinful] desires, and I will command them so they will slit the ears of cattle, and I will command them so they will change the creation of Allah .” And whoever takes Satan as an ally instead of Allah has certainly sustained a clear loss.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And I will surely lead them astray, from truth with evil whisperings, and surely I will fill them with desires, I shall cast into their hearts [thoughts] that life will endure, that there will be no resurrection and no reckoning; and surely I will command them and they will cut up the cattle’s ears, and this was done to the [she-camels they called] bahā’ir. And surely I will command them and they will change God’s creation’, [substituting] His religion with unbelief, making lawful what God has made unlawful and making unlawful what God has made lawful. And whoever takes Satan for a patron, following him and obeying him, instead of God, has surely suffered a manifest loss, [one that is] evident, since he will end up in the Fire, made perpetual for him.

4:120

يَعِدُهُمْ وَيُمَنِّيهِمْ ۖ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا

Pronunciation

YaAAiduhum wayumanneehim wamayaAAiduhumu ashshaytanu illa ghuroora

Translation

Satan promises them and arouses desire in them. But Satan does not promise them except delusion.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He promises them, long life, and fills them with desires, of attaining their hopes in this world, and that there will be neither resurrection nor requital; but what Satan promises them, therewith, is only delusion, falsehood.

4:121

أُولَٰئِكَ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ عَنْهَا مَحِيصًا

Pronunciation

Ola-ika ma/wahum jahannamuwala yajidoona AAanha maheesa

Translation

The refuge of those will be Hell, and they will not find from it an escape.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

For such — their abode shall be Hell, and they shall find no refuge from it, no alternative [to it].

4:122

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۖ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقًّا ۚ وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ اللَّهِ قِيلًا

Pronunciation

Wallatheena amanoowaAAamiloo assalihati sanudkhiluhum jannatintajree min tahtiha al-anharu khalideenafeeha abadan waAAda Allahi haqqan waman asdaqumina Allahi qeela

Translation

But the ones who believe and do righteous deeds – We will admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. [It is] the promise of Allah , [which is] truth, and who is more truthful than Allah in statement.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But those who believe and perform righteous deeds, We shall admit them to Gardens underneath which rivers flow, abiding therein for ever; God’s promise in truth, that is, God promised them this and fulfilled it in truth; and who, that is, [and] none, is truer in utterance, that is, in statement, than God?

4:123

لَّيْسَ بِأَمَانِيِّكُمْ وَلَا أَمَانِيِّ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ ۗ مَن يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا يُجْزَ بِهِ وَلَا يَجِدْ لَهُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Laysa bi-amaniyyikum wala amaniyyiahli alkitabi man yaAAmal soo-an yujza bihi walayajid lahu min dooni Allahi waliyyan wala naseera

Translation

Paradise is not [obtained] by your wishful thinking nor by that of the People of the Scripture. Whoever does a wrong will be recompensed for it, and he will not find besides Allah a protector or a helper.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When the Muslims and the People of the Scripture began to pride themselves [upon God’s promise] the following was revealed: It, this matter, is not, dependent upon, your desires nor the desires of the People of the Scripture, but upon righteous deeds. Whoever does evil shall be requited for it, either in the Hereafter or in this life through trials and tribulations, as is stated in hadīth; and he will not find besides God, that is, other than Him, any friend, to protect him, or helper, to defend him against Him.

4:124

وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحَاتِ مِن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ نَقِيرًا

Pronunciation

Waman yaAAmal mina assalihatimin thakarin aw ontha wahuwa mu/minun faola-ikayadkhuloona aljannata wala yuthlamoonanaqeera

Translation

And whoever does righteous deeds, whether male or female, while being a believer – those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged, [even as much as] the speck on a date seed.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And whoever does, any, righteous deeds, whether male or female, and is a believer — such shall be admitted into (read passive yudkhalūna, or active yadkhulūna, ‘they shall enter’) Paradise, and not be wronged, by as much as, the dint in a date-stone.

4:125

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ دِينًا مِّمَّنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ وَاتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۗ وَاتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ خَلِيلًا

Pronunciation

Waman ahsanu deenan mimman aslamawajhahu lillahi wahuwa muhsinun wattabaAAamillata ibraheema haneefan wattakhathaAllahu ibraheema khaleela

Translation

And who is better in religion than one who submits himself to Allah while being a doer of good and follows the religion of Abraham, inclining toward truth? And Allah took Abraham as an intimate friend.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And who, that is, [and] none, is fairer in religion than he who submits his purpose, that is, [than he who] is compliant and offers his deeds sincerely, to God and is virtuous, [and] declares God’s Oneness, and who follows the creed of Abraham, the one that is in accordance with the creed of Islam, as a hanīf? (hanīfan is a circumstantial qualifier), that is to say, [one] inclining away from all religions to the upright religion. And God took Abraham for a close friend, as His elect, one whose love for Him is pure.

4:126

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ مُّحِيطًا

Pronunciation

Walillahi ma fee assamawatiwama fee al-ardi wakana Allahubikulli shay-in muheeta

Translation

And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And ever is Allah , of all things, encompassing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

To God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth, as possessions, creatures and servants; and God is ever the Encompasser of all things, in knowledge and power, that is, He is ever possessed of such attributes.

4:127

وَيَسْتَفْتُونَكَ فِي النِّسَاءِ ۖ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِيهِنَّ وَمَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ فِي يَتَامَى النِّسَاءِ اللَّاتِي لَا تُؤْتُونَهُنَّ مَا كُتِبَ لَهُنَّ وَتَرْغَبُونَ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ وَالْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ الْوِلْدَانِ وَأَن تَقُومُوا لِلْيَتَامَىٰ بِالْقِسْطِ ۚ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِهِ عَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wayastaftoonaka fee annisa-iquli Allahu yufteekum feehinna wama yutlaAAalaykum fee alkitabi fee yatama annisa-iallatee la tu/toonahunna ma kutiba lahunnawatarghaboona an tankihoohunna walmustadAAafeenamina alwildani waan taqoomoo lilyatama bilqistiwama tafAAaloo min khayrin fa-inna Allaha kanabihi Aaaleema

Translation

And they request from you, [O Muhammad], a [legal] ruling concerning women. Say, ” Allah gives you a ruling about them and [about] what has been recited to you in the Book concerning the orphan girls to whom you do not give what is decreed for them – and [yet] you desire to marry them – and concerning the oppressed among children and that you maintain for orphans [their rights] in justice.” And whatever you do of good – indeed, Allah is ever Knowing of it.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They will ask you for a pronouncement concerning, the matter of, women, and their inheritance. Say, to them: ‘God pronounces to you concerning them, and what is recited to you in the Book, the Qur’ān, in the ‘inheritance’ verse [Q. 4:11], and He also pronounces to you, concerning the orphan women to whom you do not give what is prescribed, [what] is obligatory, for them, of inheritance, for you, O guardians, [who] desire, not, to marry them, because of their ugliness, and you prevent them from marrying [others], coveting their inheritance: in other words, God pronounces to you not to do this; and, concerning, the oppressed, young, children, that you give them what is their due, and, He also commands you, that you deal justly, equitably, with orphans, with respect to inheritance and dowry. Whatever good you do, God is ever Knower of it’, and He will requite you for it.

4:128

وَإِنِ امْرَأَةٌ خَافَتْ مِن بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزًا أَوْ إِعْرَاضًا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَن يُصْلِحَا بَيْنَهُمَا صُلْحًا ۚ وَالصُّلْحُ خَيْرٌ ۗ وَأُحْضِرَتِ الْأَنفُسُ الشُّحَّ ۚ وَإِن تُحْسِنُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا

Pronunciation

Wa-ini imraatun khafat min baAAlihanushoozan aw iAAradan fala junaha AAalayhimaan yusliha baynahuma sulhan wassulhukhayrun waohdirati al-anfusu ashshuhhawa-in tuhsinoo watattaqoo fa-inna Allaha kanabima taAAmaloona khabeera

Translation

And if a woman fears from her husband contempt or evasion, there is no sin upon them if they make terms of settlement between them – and settlement is best. And present in [human] souls is stinginess. But if you do good and fear Allah – then indeed Allah is ever, with what you do, Acquainted.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if a woman (wa-in imra’atun is in the nominative because of [it being the subject of] the explicative verb [that follows]) fears, anticipates, from her husband ill-treatment, if he looks down on her by refraining to sleep with her or by not maintaining her adequately, because he is averse to her and aspires to one more beautiful than her, or rejection, turning his face away from her, they are not at fault if they are reconciled through some agreement, in terms of shares and maintenance expenses, so that she concedes something to him in return for continuing companionship; if she agrees to this [then that is fine], but if [she does] not, then the husband must either give her all her due, or part with her (an yassālahā, ‘they reconcile’: the original tā’ [of yatasālahā] has been assimilated with the sād; a variant reading has an yuslihā, from [the fourth form] aslaha); reconciliation is better, than separation, ill-treatment or rejection. God, exalted be He, in explaining the natural disposition of man, says: But greed has been made present in the souls (al-shuhh is extreme niggardliness), meaning that they have a natural propensity for this, as if they [the souls] are ever in its presence, never absent from it. The meaning is: a woman would scarcely allow [another] to share her husband with her, and a man would scarcely allow her [to enjoy] him if he were to fall in love with another. If you are virtuous, in your conjugal life with women, and fear, being unjust to them, surely God is ever aware of what you do, and He will requite you for it.

4:129

وَلَن تَسْتَطِيعُوا أَن تَعْدِلُوا بَيْنَ النِّسَاءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَمِيلُوا كُلَّ الْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوهَا كَالْمُعَلَّقَةِ ۚ وَإِن تُصْلِحُوا وَتَتَّقُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Pronunciation

Walan tastateeAAoo an taAAdiloobayna annisa-i walaw harastum falatameeloo kulla almayli fatatharooha kalmuAAallaqatiwa-in tuslihoo watattaqoo fa-inna Allaha kanaghafooran raheema

Translation

And you will never be able to be equal [in feeling] between wives, even if you should strive [to do so]. So do not incline completely [toward one] and leave another hanging. And if you amend [your affairs] and fear Allah – then indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

You will never be able to be just to, to treat equally, your wives, in terms of love, even if you be eager, for this; yet do not turn altogether away, towards the one you love with respect to the shares and maintenance expenses, so that you leave her, the one from whom you turn away, like one suspended, one that is neither a slavegirl nor a woman with a husband. If you set things right, by being just with the shares, and fear, injustice, surely God is ever Forgiving, regarding the inclination in your hearts, Merciful, to you in this respect.

4:130

وَإِن يَتَفَرَّقَا يُغْنِ اللَّهُ كُلًّا مِّن سَعَتِهِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ وَاسِعًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wa-in yatafarraqa yughni Allahukullan min saAAatihi wakana Allahu wasiAAan hakeema

Translation

But if they separate [by divorce], Allah will enrich each [of them] from His abundance. And ever is Allah Encompassing and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But if they, the married couple, separate, by way of divorce, God will compensate each of them, [from the need] of the other, out of His plenty, that is, out of His bounty, by giving her another as husband, and giving him another as wife. God is ever Embracing, of His creatures in bounty, Wise, in what He has ordained for them.

4:131

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَلَقَدْ وَصَّيْنَا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَإِيَّاكُمْ أَنِ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ وَإِن تَكْفُرُوا فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَنِيًّا حَمِيدًا

Pronunciation

Walillahi ma fee assamawatiwama fee al-ardi walaqad wassaynaallatheena ootoo alkitaba min qablikum wa-iyyakumani ittaqoo Allaha wa-in takfuroo fa-inna lillahi mafee assamawati wama fee al-ardiwakana Allahu ghaniyyan hameeda

Translation

And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And We have instructed those who were given the Scripture before you and yourselves to fear Allah . But if you disbelieve – then to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And ever is Allah Free of need and Praiseworthy.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

To God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. We have charged those who were given the Scripture, meaning the scriptures, before you, namely, the Jews and Christians, and you, O people of the Qur’ān: ‘Fear God’, fear His punishment, by being obedient to Him. And We said to them and to you: ‘If you disbelieve, in what you have been charged with, then to God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth’, as creatures, possessions and servants, and He will not be harmed by your disbelief: God is ever Independent, of the need for His creation or their worship, Praised, praise-worthy for what He does with them.

4:132

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا

Pronunciation

Walillahi ma fee assamawatiwama fee al-ardi wakafa billahiwakeela

Translation

And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And sufficient is Allah as Disposer of affairs.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

To God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth (He has repeated this in order to reaffirm [the reason] why fear of God is necessary); God suffices as a Guardian, witnessing the fact that what is contained in them belongs to Him.

4:133

إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ وَيَأْتِ بِآخَرِينَ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ قَدِيرًا

Pronunciation

In yasha/ yuthhibkum ayyuha annasuwaya/ti bi-akhareena wakana Allahu AAalathalika qadeera

Translation

If He wills, He can do away with you, O people, and bring others [in your place]. And ever is Allah competent to do that.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

If He will, He can remove you, O people, and bring others, instead of you, surely God is ever able to do that.

4:134

مَّن كَانَ يُرِيدُ ثَوَابَ الدُّنْيَا فَعِندَ اللَّهِ ثَوَابُ الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Man kana yureedu thawaba addunyafaAAinda Allahi thawabu addunya wal-akhiratiwakana Allahu sameeAAan baseera

Translation

Whoever desires the reward of this world – then with Allah is the reward of this world and the Hereafter. And ever is Allah Hearing and Seeing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Whoever desires, by his deeds, the reward of this world, then God has the reward of this world and of the Hereafter, for the one who wants it, and no one else has it, so why do any of you demand the lower [reward]? Why do you not seek the higher one, by devoting yourself sincerely to Him, since what [reward] he seeks can only be found with Him; God is ever Hearer, Seer.

4:135

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُونُوا قَوَّامِينَ بِالْقِسْطِ شُهَدَاءَ لِلَّهِ وَلَوْ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوِ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ ۚ إِن يَكُنْ غَنِيًّا أَوْ فَقِيرًا فَاللَّهُ أَوْلَىٰ بِهِمَا ۖ فَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا الْهَوَىٰ أَن تَعْدِلُوا ۚ وَإِن تَلْوُوا أَوْ تُعْرِضُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanookoonoo qawwameena bilqisti shuhadaalillahi walaw AAala anfusikum awi alwalidayniwal-aqrabeena in yakun ghaniyyan aw faqeeran fallahuawla bihima fala tattabiAAoo alhawaan taAAdiloo wa-in talwoo aw tuAAridoo fa-inna Allahakana bima taAAmaloona khabeera

Translation

O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm in justice, witnesses for Allah , even if it be against yourselves or parents and relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, Allah is more worthy of both. So follow not [personal] inclination, lest you not be just. And if you distort [your testimony] or refuse [to give it], then indeed Allah is ever, with what you do, Acquainted.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, be upright in justice; witnesses, of the truth, for God, even though it, the witnessing, be against yourselves, so be witness against them [your selves] by affirming the truth and not concealing it; or, against, parents and kinsmen, whether the person, witnessed against, be rich or poor; God is closer to the two, than you and He has better knowledge of what is good for them. So do not follow any whim, in your testimonies by being partial to the rich one, seeking his pleasure, or [by being partial] to the poor one out of compassion for him, lest you swerve, so that you do not incline away from the truth, for if you twist (a variant reading [for talwūw] has talū) [if] you distort your testimony, or refrain, from giving it, surely God is ever aware of what you do, and will requite you accordingly.

4:136

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا آمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَالْكِتَابِ الَّذِي أَنزَلَ مِن قَبْلُ ۚ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooaminoo billahi warasoolihi walkitabiallathee nazzala AAala rasoolihi walkitabiallathee anzala min qablu waman yakfur billahiwamala-ikatihi wakutubihi warusulihi walyawmi al-akhirifaqad dalla dalalan baAAeeda

Translation

O you who have believed, believe in Allah and His Messenger and the Book that He sent down upon His Messenger and the Scripture which He sent down before. And whoever disbelieves in Allah , His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day has certainly gone far astray.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, believe, with perseverance, in God and His Messenger and the Book which has been revealed to His Messenger, Muhammad (s), and that is the Qur’ān; and the Book which was revealed before, to the messengers, namely, the scriptures (a variant reading [for nuzzila and unzila, ‘was revealed’] has the active form for both verbs [nazzala and anzala, ‘He revealed’]). And whoever disbelieves in God and His angels and His Books, and His messengers, and the Last Day, verily he has strayed far away, from the truth.

4:137

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ آمَنُوا ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا ثُمَّ ازْدَادُوا كُفْرًا لَّمْ يَكُنِ اللَّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلَا لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ سَبِيلًا

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena amanoo thummakafaroo thumma amanoo thumma kafaroo thumma izdadookufran lam yakuni Allahu liyaghfira lahum walaliyahdiyahum sabeela

Translation

Indeed, those who have believed then disbelieved, then believed, then disbelieved, and then increased in disbelief – never will Allah forgive them, nor will He guide them to a way.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Verily, those who believed, in Moses, namely, the Jews, and then disbelieved, by worshipping the calf, and then believed, after that, and then disbelieved, in Jesus, and then increased in disbelief, in Muhammad — it was not for God to forgive them, for what they have persisted in [of disbelief], nor to guide them to a way, to the truth.

4:138

بَشِّرِ الْمُنَافِقِينَ بِأَنَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Bashshiri almunafiqeena bi-annalahum AAathaban aleema

Translation

Give tidings to the hypocrites that there is for them a painful punishment –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Give tidings to, inform, O Muhammad (s), the hypocrites that for them there is a painful chastisement, namely, the chastisement of the Fire.

4:139

الَّذِينَ يَتَّخِذُونَ الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَيَبْتَغُونَ عِندَهُمُ الْعِزَّةَ فَإِنَّ الْعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا

Pronunciation

Allatheena yattakhithoona alkafireenaawliyaa min dooni almu/mineena ayabtaghoona AAindahumualAAizzata fa-inna alAAizzata lillahi jameeAAa

Translation

Those who take disbelievers as allies instead of the believers. Do they seek with them honor [through power]? But indeed, honor belongs to Allah entirely.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those who (alladhīna, is either a substitution for, or an adjectival qualification of, al-munāfiqīna, ‘the hypocrites’) take disbelievers for friends instead of believers, because they mistakenly believe them to be strong — do they desire, [do] they seek, power with them? (an interrogative of disavowal), that is to say, they shall not find such [power] with them. Truly, power belongs altogether to God, in this world and the Hereafter, and none but His friends shall attain it.

4:140

وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتَابِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ آيَاتِ اللَّهِ يُكْفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلَا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ ۚ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِّثْلُهُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ جَامِعُ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْكَافِرِينَ فِي جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعًا

Pronunciation

Waqad nazzala AAalaykum fee alkitabian itha samiAAtum ayati Allahiyukfaru biha wayustahzao biha fala taqAAudoomaAAahum hatta yakhoodoo fee hadeethinghayrihi innakum ithan mithluhum inna Allaha jamiAAualmunafiqeena walkafireena fee jahannamajameeAAa

Translation

And it has already come down to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah [recited], they are denied [by them] and ridiculed; so do not sit with them until they enter into another conversation. Indeed, you would then be like them. Indeed Allah will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers in Hell all together –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

It has been revealed (read active nazzala, ‘He has revealed’, or passive nuzzila, ‘It has been revealed’) to you in the Book, in the Qur’ān, in sūrat al-An‘ām [Q. 6:68], that: (an has been softened and its subject omitted, in other words, [read it as] annahu) ‘When you hear God’s signs, the Qur’ān, being disbelieved in and mocked, do not sit with them, that is, the disbelievers and the mockers, until they engage in some other talk, for otherwise you, if you were to sit with them, would surely be like them’, in sinfulness. God will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers, all together, into Hell, just as they were gathered together in this world in unbelief and mockery.

4:141

الَّذِينَ يَتَرَبَّصُونَ بِكُمْ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ فَتْحٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ قَالُوا أَلَمْ نَكُن مَّعَكُمْ وَإِن كَانَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ نَصِيبٌ قَالُوا أَلَمْ نَسْتَحْوِذْ عَلَيْكُمْ وَنَمْنَعْكُم مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ فَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ وَلَن يَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ سَبِيلًا

Pronunciation

Allatheena yatarabbasoonabikum fa-in kana lakum fathun mina Allahi qalooalam nakun maAAakum wa-in kana lilkafireena naseebunqaloo alam nastahwith AAalaykum wanamnaAAkummina almu/mineena fallahu yahkumu baynakumyawma alqiyamati walan yajAAala Allahu lilkafireenaAAala almu/mineena sabeela

Translation

Those who wait [and watch] you. Then if you gain a victory from Allah , they say, “Were we not with you?” But if the disbelievers have a success, they say [to them], “Did we not gain the advantage over you, but we protected you from the believers?” Allah will judge between [all of] you on the Day of Resurrection, and never will Allah give the disbelievers over the believers a way [to overcome them].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those who (alladhīna, substitutes for the previous alladhīna [of verse 139]) wait in watch for you, [hoping] for misfortunes [to befall you], and, if a victory, such as a conquest or booty, comes to you from God, say, to you: ‘Were we not with you?’, in religion and in the struggle? So give us from the booty; but if the disbelievers have some luck, by gaining a victory over you, they say, to them: ‘Did we not gain mastery, authority, over you, capable of capturing you and slaying you, but we spared you, and did we not defend you against the believers?’, lest they be victorious over you, by forsaking them and apprising you of their plans, and thus have we not done you a favour? God, exalted be He, says: God will judge between you, and them, on the Day of Resurrection, admitting you into Paradise and them into the Fire; and God will never grant the disbelievers a way, a means [to success], over the believers, by annihilating them.

4:142

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُوا إِلَى الصَّلَاةِ قَامُوا كُسَالَىٰ يُرَاءُونَ النَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ اللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Pronunciation

Inna almunafiqeena yukhadiAAoonaAllaha wahuwa khadiAAuhum wa-itha qamooila assalati qamoo kusalayuraoona annasa wala yathkuroonaAllaha illa qaleela

Translation

Indeed, the hypocrites [think to] deceive Allah , but He is deceiving them. And when they stand for prayer, they stand lazily, showing [themselves to] the people and not remembering Allah except a little,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The hypocrites seek to trick God, by manifesting the opposite of what they hide in themselves of unbelief, in order to escape His rulings in this world; but He is tricking them, He will requite them for their trickery, and so they will be disgraced in this world through God apprising His Prophet of what they hide, and punished in the Hereafter. When they stand up to pray, with the believers, they stand up lazily, reluctantly, and, for their prayers, to be seen by people, and they do not remember, pray [to], God save a little, for ostentation.

4:143

مُّذَبْذَبِينَ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ لَا إِلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ وَلَا إِلَىٰ هَٰؤُلَاءِ ۚ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُ سَبِيلًا

Pronunciation

Muthabthabeena bayna thalikala ila haola-i wala ilahaola-i waman yudlili Allahu falantajida lahu sabeela

Translation

Wavering between them, [belonging] neither to the believers nor to the disbelievers. And whoever Allah leaves astray – never will you find for him a way.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Wavering, hesitant, all the time, between that unbelief and belief — not, belonging, to these, disbelievers, neither to those, believers; and he whom God sends astray, you will never find for him a way, a path [back] to guidance.

4:144

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا الْكَافِرِينَ أَوْلِيَاءَ مِن دُونِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tattakhithoo alkafireena awliyaamin dooni almu/mineena atureedoona an tajAAaloo lillahiAAalaykum sultanan mubeena

Translation

O you who have believed, do not take the disbelievers as allies instead of the believers. Do you wish to give Allah against yourselves a clear case?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, take not the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers: do you desire to give God over you, by your taking them as friends, a clear warrant?, a manifest proof of your hypocrisy?

4:145

إِنَّ الْمُنَافِقِينَ فِي الدَّرْكِ الْأَسْفَلِ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Inna almunafiqeena fee addarkial-asfali mina annari walan tajida lahum naseera

Translation

Indeed, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire – and never will you find for them a helper –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest level, place, of the Fire, that is, its bottom; and you will never find a helper for them, anyone to guard them from the Fire.

4:146

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِاللَّهِ وَأَخْلَصُوا دِينَهُمْ لِلَّهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ مَعَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ وَسَوْفَ يُؤْتِ اللَّهُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Illa allatheena taboowaaslahoo waAAtasamoo billahiwaakhlasoo deenahum lillahi faola-ika maAAaalmu/mineena wasawfa yu/ti Allahu almu/mineena ajran AAatheema

Translation

Except for those who repent, correct themselves, hold fast to Allah , and are sincere in their religion for Allah , for those will be with the believers. And Allah is going to give the believers a great reward.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Save those who repent, of hypocrisy, and make amends, in their deeds, and hold fast to, put their trust [in], God and make their religion purely God’s, free from any pretence; those are with the believers, in terms of what they shall be given; and God will certainly give the believers a great wage, in the Hereafter, and that is Paradise.

4:147

مَّا يَفْعَلُ اللَّهُ بِعَذَابِكُمْ إِن شَكَرْتُمْ وَآمَنتُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ شَاكِرًا عَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Ma yafAAalu Allahu biAAathabikumin shakartum waamantum wakana Allahu shakiranAAaleema

Translation

What would Allah do with your punishment if you are grateful and believe? And ever is Allah Appreciative and Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Why would God chastise you if you are thankful, of His favours, and believe, in Him? (the interrogative is meant as a denial, in other words: He would not punish you). God is ever Thankful, of the deeds of believers, rewarding them, Knowing, of His creation.

4:148

لَّا يُحِبُّ اللَّهُ الْجَهْرَ بِالسُّوءِ مِنَ الْقَوْلِ إِلَّا مَن ظُلِمَ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ سَمِيعًا عَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

La yuhibbu Allahualjahra bissoo-i mina alqawli illa man thulimawakana Allahu sameeAAan Aaaleema

Translation

Allah does not like the public mention of evil except by one who has been wronged. And ever is Allah Hearing and Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God does not like the utterance of evil words out loud, by any person, that is to say, He will punish him for it, unless a person has been wronged, in which case He would not punish him for uttering it out loud, when he is informing [others] of the wrong done to him by the wrong-doer or summoning [them] against him. God is ever Hearer, of what is said, Knower, of what is done.

4:149

إِن تُبْدُوا خَيْرًا أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ أَوْ تَعْفُوا عَن سُوءٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا قَدِيرًا

Pronunciation

In tubdoo khayran aw tukhfoohu aw taAAfooAAan soo-in fa-inna Allaha kana AAafuwwan qadeera

Translation

If [instead] you show [some] good or conceal it or pardon an offense – indeed, Allah is ever Pardoning and Competent.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

If you show, manifest, good, in the way of pious deeds, or conceal it, [if] you do it in secret, or pardon evil, injustice, then surely God is ever Pardoning, Powerful.

4:150

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ اللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena yakfuroona billahiwarusulihi wayureedoona an yufarriqoo bayna Allahiwarusulihi wayaqooloona nu/minu bibaAAdin wanakfuru bibaAAdinwayureedoona an yattakhithoo bayna thalika sabeela

Translation

Indeed, those who disbelieve in Allah and His messengers and wish to discriminate between Allah and His messengers and say, “We believe in some and disbelieve in others,” and wish to adopt a way in between –

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those who disbelieve in God and His messengers and seek to divide between God and His messengers, by believing in Him but not in them, and say, ‘We believe in some, of the messengers, and disbelieve in some’, of the others, and seek to adopt a way, a path, to follow, between them, [between] unbelief and belief.

4:151

أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Pronunciation

Ola-ika humu alkafiroona haqqanwaaAAtadna lilkafireena AAathaban muheena

Translation

Those are the disbelievers, truly. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those are the disbelievers truly (haqqan is the verbal noun, emphasising the content of what precedes it in the sentence); and We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating chastisement, namely, the chastisement of the Fire.

4:152

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلَمْ يُفَرِّقُوا بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ أُولَٰئِكَ سَوْفَ يُؤْتِيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wallatheena amanoo billahiwarusulihi walam yufarriqoo bayna ahadin minhum ola-ikasawfa yu/teehim ojoorahum wakana Allahu ghafooranraheema

Translation

But they who believe in Allah and His messengers and do not discriminate between any of them – to those He is going to give their rewards. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those who believe in God and, all of, His messengers and do not seek to divide between any of them, those — We shall surely give them (nu’tīhim, also read yu’tīhim, ‘He shall surely give them’) their wages, the reward for their deeds. God is ever Forgiving, to His friends, Merciful, to those who obey Him.

4:153

يَسْأَلُكَ أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ أَن تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ كِتَابًا مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ ۚ فَقَدْ سَأَلُوا مُوسَىٰ أَكْبَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ فَقَالُوا أَرِنَا اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ بِظُلْمِهِمْ ۚ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ فَعَفَوْنَا عَن ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ سُلْطَانًا مُّبِينًا

Pronunciation

Yas-aluka ahlu alkitabi an tunazzilaAAalayhim kitaban mina assama-i faqadsaaloo moosa akbara min thalika faqaloo arinaAllaha jahratan faakhathat-humu assaAAiqatubithulmihim thumma ittakhathoo alAAijla minbaAAdi ma jaat-humu albayyinatu faAAafawnaAAan thalika waatayna moosa sultananmubeena

Translation

The People of the Scripture ask you to bring down to them a book from the heaven. But they had asked of Moses [even] greater than that and said, “Show us Allah outright,” so the thunderbolt struck them for their wrongdoing. Then they took the calf [for worship] after clear evidences had come to them, and We pardoned that. And We gave Moses a clear authority.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The People of the Scripture, the Jews, will ask of you, O Muhammad (s), to cause a Book to be revealed to them from the heaven, all at once, as was revealed to Moses, merely to harass [you]. If you consider this shocking, then [know that], they, their forefathers, asked Moses for something greater than that, for they said, ‘Show us God openly’, before our eyes; so the thunderbolt, death, seized them, as punishment for them, for their evildoing, when they harassed him [Moses] with this demand. They then took to themselves the [golden] calf, for a god, after clear proofs, the miracles testifying to God’s Oneness, had come to them; yet We pardoned that, and did not annihilate them; and We bestowed upon Moses clear authority, evident and manifest sway over them, for when he commanded them to slay themselves in repentance, they obeyed him.

4:154

وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَهُمُ الطُّورَ بِمِيثَاقِهِمْ وَقُلْنَا لَهُمُ ادْخُلُوا الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ لَا تَعْدُوا فِي السَّبْتِ وَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُم مِّيثَاقًا غَلِيظًا

Pronunciation

WarafaAAna fawqahumu attoorabimeethaqihim waqulna lahumu odkhuloo albabasujjadan waqulna lahum la taAAdoo fee assabtiwaakhathna minhum meethaqan ghaleetha

Translation

And We raised over them the mount for [refusal of] their covenant; and We said to them, “Enter the gate bowing humbly”, and We said to them, “Do not transgress on the sabbath”, and We took from them a solemn covenant.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We raised above them the Mount, by the covenant with them, that is, on account of the covenant made with them, that they might fear, and so they accepted it; and We said to them, while it cast a shadow [hovering] above them: ‘Enter the gate, the gate of the town, bowing’; and We said to them, ‘Transgress not (a variant reading [of lā ta‘dū] is lā ta‘addū, where the original tā’ [of lā tata‘addū] is assimilated with the dāl, in other words [it is similar in meaning to] lā ta‘tadū, ‘do not act unjustly [in]’) the Sabbath’, by fishing during it, and We took from them a firm covenant, over this, but they broke it.

4:155

فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِم مِّيثَاقَهُمْ وَكُفْرِهِم بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَقَتْلِهِمُ الْأَنبِيَاءَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ وَقَوْلِهِمْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ ۚ بَلْ طَبَعَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهَا بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Pronunciation

Fabima naqdihim meethaqahumwakufrihim bi-ayati Allahi waqatlihimual-anbiyaa bighayri haqqin waqawlihim quloobunaghulfun bal tabaAAa Allahu AAalayhabikufrihim fala yu/minoona illa qaleela

Translation

And [We cursed them] for their breaking of the covenant and their disbelief in the signs of Allah and their killing of the prophets without right and their saying, “Our hearts are wrapped”. Rather, Allah has sealed them because of their disbelief, so they believe not, except for a few.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So, for their breaking (fa-bi-mā naqdihim: the mā is extra; the bā’ is causative and connected to a missing element [such as sabab, ‘reason’], in other words [it should be understood as] la‘annāhum bi-sabab naqdihim, ‘We cursed them for the reason of their breaking’) their covenant and disbelieving in the signs of God, and slaying the prophets wrongfully, and for their saying, to the Prophet (s): ‘Our hearts are covered up’, and cannot grasp what you say — nay, but God sealed them for their disbelief, and so they cannot heed any admonition; so they do not believe, except for a few, among them, like ‘Abd Allāh b. Salām and his companions.

4:156

وَبِكُفْرِهِمْ وَقَوْلِهِمْ عَلَىٰ مَرْيَمَ بُهْتَانًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Wabikufrihim waqawlihim AAalamaryama buhtanan AAatheema

Translation

And [We cursed them] for their disbelief and their saying against Mary a great slander,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And for their disbelief, a second time, in Jesus (the bā’ [of bi-kufrihim, ‘for their disbelief’] is repeated in order to separate it [‘their disbelief’ in Jesus] from what is supplemented to it [‘their utterance against Mary’]) and their uttering against Mary a tremendous calumny, when they accused her of fornication.

4:157

وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا الْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَٰكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ لَفِي شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ ۚ مَا لَهُم بِهِ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا اتِّبَاعَ الظَّنِّ ۚ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًا

Pronunciation

Waqawlihim inna qatalnaalmaseeha AAeesa ibna maryama rasoola Allahiwama qataloohu wama salaboohu walakinshubbiha lahum wa-inna allatheena ikhtalafoo feehi lafeeshakkin minhu ma lahum bihi min AAilmin illa ittibaAAaaththanni wama qataloohu yaqeena

Translation

And [for] their saying, “Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah .” And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And indeed, those who differ over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And for their saying, boastfully, ‘We slew the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, the Messenger of God’, as they claim: in other words, for all of these [reasons] We have punished them. God, exalted be He, says, in repudiating their claim to have killed him: And yet they did not slay him nor did they crucify him, but he, the one slain and crucified, who was an associate of theirs [the Jews], was given the resemblance, of Jesus. In other words, God cast his [Jesus’s] likeness to him and so they thought it was him [Jesus]. And those who disagree concerning him, that is, concerning Jesus, are surely in doubt regarding, the slaying of, him, for some of them said, when they saw the slain man: the face is that of Jesus, but the body is not his, and so it is not he; and others said: no, it is he. They do not have any knowledge of, the slaying of, him, only the pursuit of conjecture (illā ittibā‘a l-zann, is a discontinuous exception) in other words: ‘instead, they follow conjecture regarding him, that which they imagined [they saw]’; and they did not slay him for certain (yaqīnan, a circumstantial qualifier emphasising the denial of the slaying).

4:158

بَل رَّفَعَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Bal rafaAAahu Allahu ilayhi wakanaAllahu AAazeezan hakeema

Translation

Rather, Allah raised him to Himself. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Nay, God raised him up to Him. God is ever Mighty, in His kingdom, Wise, in His actions.

4:159

وَإِن مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ إِلَّا لَيُؤْمِنَنَّ بِهِ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهِ ۖ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيدًا

Pronunciation

Wa-in min ahli alkitabi illalayu/minanna bihi qabla mawtihi wayawma alqiyamati yakoonuAAalayhim shaheeda

Translation

And there is none from the People of the Scripture but that he will surely believe in Jesus before his death. And on the Day of Resurrection he will be against them a witness.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And there is not one of the People of the Scripture but will assuredly believe in him, in Jesus, before his death, that is, [before the death] of one belonging to the People of the Scripture upon seeing the angels of death with his very eyes, at which point his faith will not profit him; or [it means] before the death of Jesus, after he descends at the approach of the Hour, as is stated in hadīth; and on the Day of Resurrection he, Jesus, will be a witness against them, of what they did when he was sent to them.

4:160

فَبِظُلْمٍ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ هَادُوا حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ طَيِّبَاتٍ أُحِلَّتْ لَهُمْ وَبِصَدِّهِمْ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ كَثِيرًا

Pronunciation

Fabithulmin mina allatheenahadoo harramna AAalayhim tayyibatinohillat lahum wabisaddihim AAan sabeeli Allahikatheera

Translation

For wrongdoing on the part of the Jews, We made unlawful for them [certain] good foods which had been lawful to them, and for their averting from the way of Allah many [people],

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And because of the evildoing (fa-bi-zulmin is [to be understood as] fa-bi-sababi zulmin, ‘and for the reason of the evildoing’) of some of those of Jewry, the Jews, We have forbidden them certain good things that were lawful for them, those things [mentioned] where God says [And to those of Jewry] We have forbidden every beast with claws [Q. 6:146]; and because of their barring, of people, from God’s way, [from] His religion, many, a time.

4:161

وَأَخْذِهِمُ الرِّبَا وَقَدْ نُهُوا عَنْهُ وَأَكْلِهِمْ أَمْوَالَ النَّاسِ بِالْبَاطِلِ ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Waakhthihimu arribawaqad nuhoo AAanhu waaklihim amwala annasibilbatili waaAAtadna lilkafireenaminhum AAathaban aleema

Translation

And [for] their taking of usury while they had been forbidden from it, and their consuming of the people’s wealth unjustly. And we have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And because of their taking usury when they had been forbidden it, in the Torah, and their consuming people’s wealth through falsehood, through bribes in adjudications, and We have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful chastisement.

4:162

لَّٰكِنِ الرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ مِنْهُمْ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ ۚ وَالْمُقِيمِينَ الصَّلَاةَ ۚ وَالْمُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ أُولَٰئِكَ سَنُؤْتِيهِمْ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Pronunciation

Lakini arrasikhoonafee alAAilmi minhum walmu/minoona yu/minoona bimaonzila ilayka wama onzila min qablika walmuqeemeenaassalata walmu/toona azzakatawalmu/minoona billahi walyawmi al-akhiriola-ika sanu/teehim ajran AAatheema

Translation

But those firm in knowledge among them and the believers believe in what has been revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you. And the establishers of prayer [especially] and the givers of zakah and the believers in Allah and the Last Day – those We will give a great reward.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But those of them who are firmly rooted, established, in knowledge, like ‘Abd Allāh b. Salām, and the believers, the Emigrants and the Helpers, believing in what has revealed to you, and what was revealed before you, of scriptures, and those who observe the prayer (wa’l-muqīmīna l-salāta is in the accusative because it is a laudative; it is also read in the nominative [wa’l-muqīmūna l-salāta]); and pay the alms, and those who believe in God and the Last Day — to them We shall surely give (nu’tīhim, is also read yu’tīhim, ‘He shall surely give’) a great wage, namely, Paradise.

4:163

إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ كَمَا أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِن بَعْدِهِ ۚ وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَىٰ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَارُونَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا دَاوُودَ زَبُورًا

Pronunciation

Inna awhayna ilaykakama awhayna ila noohin wannabiyyeenamin baAAdihi waawhayna ila ibraheemawa-ismaAAeela wa-ishaqa wayaAAqooba wal-asbatiwaAAeesa waayyooba wayoonusa waharoona wasulaymanawaatayna dawooda zaboora

Translation

Indeed, We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], as We revealed to Noah and the prophets after him. And we revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, the Descendants, Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the book [of Psalms].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

We have revealed to you as We revealed to Noah, and the prophets after him, and, as, We revealed to Abraham and, his two sons, Ishmael and Isaac, and Jacob, the son of Isaac, and the Tribes, his [Jacob’s] children, and Jesus and Job and Jonah and Aaron, and Solomon, and We gave to, his father, David the Inscribed Book (read zabūran, it would denote the name of the revealed Book [cf. the Psalms]; read zubūran would make it a verbal noun, meaning mazbūran, that is to say, maktūban, ‘inscribed’).

4:164

وَرُسُلًا قَدْ قَصَصْنَاهُمْ عَلَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَرُسُلًا لَّمْ نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ ۚ وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَىٰ تَكْلِيمًا

Pronunciation

Warusulan qad qasasnahumAAalayka min qablu warusulan lam naqsushum AAalaykawakallama Allahu moosa takleema

Translation

And [We sent] messengers about whom We have related [their stories] to you before and messengers about whom We have not related to you. And Allah spoke to Moses with [direct] speech.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, We sent, messengers We have told you of before, and messengers We have not told you of: it is related that God sent eight thousand prophets [in total], four thousand [of them] from [the Children of] Israel, and [the remaining] four thousand from other peoples, as stated by the Shaykh [Jalāl al-Dīn al-Mahallī] in [his commentary on] sūrat Ghāfir [Q. 40:78]; and God spoke directly, without mediation, to Moses,

4:165

رُّسُلًا مُّبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى اللَّهِ حُجَّةٌ بَعْدَ الرُّسُلِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Rusulan mubashshireena wamunthireenali-alla yakoona linnasi AAala Allahihujjatun baAAda arrusuli wakana AllahuAAazeezan hakeema

Translation

[We sent] messengers as bringers of good tidings and warners so that mankind will have no argument against Allah after the messengers. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

messengers (rusulan, substitutes for the previous rusulan, ‘messengers’) bearing good tidings, of reward for those that believe, and warning, of punishment for those that disbelieve; We sent them, so that people might have no argument, to make, against God after, the sending of, the messengers, to them, and say: Our Lord, why did you not send a messenger to us so that we might follow Your signs and be among the believers [Q. 28:47]; thus We sent them to pre-empt such excuses. God is ever Mighty, in His kingdom, Wise, in His actions.

4:166

لَّٰكِنِ اللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ بِمَا أَنزَلَ إِلَيْكَ ۖ أَنزَلَهُ بِعِلْمِهِ ۖ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ يَشْهَدُونَ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا

Pronunciation

Lakini Allahu yashhadu bimaanzala ilayka anzalahu biAAilmihi walmala-ikatuyashhadoona wakafa billahi shaheeda

Translation

But Allah bears witness to that which He has revealed to you. He has sent it down with His knowledge, and the angels bear witness [as well]. And sufficient is Allah as Witness.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When the Jews were asked about his [Muhammad’s] prophethood (s) and they denied him, the following was revealed: But God bears witness, He makes clear [the truth of] your prophethood, with what He has revealed to you, of the miraculous Qur’ān; He has revealed it, enveloped, through His knowledge, that is, [He has revealed it] knowing it fully, or [He has revealed it] with His knowledge therein; and the angels also bear witness, to you; and God suffices as a Witness, to this.

4:167

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوا عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ قَدْ ضَلُّوا ضَلَالًا بَعِيدًا

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena kafaroo wasaddooAAan sabeeli Allahi qad dalloo dalalanbaAAeeda

Translation

Indeed, those who disbelieve and avert [people] from the way of Allah have certainly gone far astray.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Surely those who disbelieve, in God, and bar, people, from the way of God, [from] the religion of Islam, by concealing the descriptions of Muhammad (s), and these are the Jews, they have indeed gone far astray, from the truth.

4:168

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَظَلَمُوا لَمْ يَكُنِ اللَّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلَا لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ طَرِيقًا

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena kafaroo wathalamoolam yakuni Allahu liyaghfira lahum walaliyahdiyahum tareeqa

Translation

Indeed, those who disbelieve and commit wrong [or injustice] – never will Allah forgive them, nor will He guide them to a path.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Surely those who disbelieve, in God, and who have done wrong, to the Prophet, by concealing his descriptions, it is not for God to forgive them, neither to guide them to any path, whatever,

4:169

إِلَّا طَرِيقَ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا أَبَدًا ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا

Pronunciation

Illa tareeqa jahannama khalideenafeeha abadan wakana thalika AAala Allahiyaseera

Translation

Except the path of Hell; they will abide therein forever. And that, for Allah , is [always] easy.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

except for the path of Hell, that is, [to] the path that leads to it, abiding, it is decreed for them to abide, therein, once they enter it, forever; and for God that is an easy matter.

4:170

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُمُ الرَّسُولُ بِالْحَقِّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ فَآمِنُوا خَيْرًا لَّكُمْ ۚ وَإِن تَكْفُرُوا فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha annasuqad jaakumu arrasoolu bilhaqqi minrabbikum faaminoo khayran lakum wa-in takfuroo fa-innalillahi ma fee assamawati wal-ardiwakana Allahu AAaleeman hakeema

Translation

O Mankind, the Messenger has come to you with the truth from your Lord, so believe; it is better for you. But if you disbelieve – then indeed, to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and earth. And ever is Allah Knowing and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O people, of Mecca, the Messenger, Muhammad (s), has now come to you with the truth from your Lord; so believe, in him and seek what, it is better for you, than that which you are presently seeking. And if you disbelieve, in him, then surely to God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth, as possessions, creatures and servants, and your disbelief will not harm Him; and God is ever Knowing, of His creation, Wise, in what He does with them.

4:171

يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا تَغْلُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ وَلَا تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْحَقَّ ۚ إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَىٰ مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِّنْهُ ۖ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ ۖ وَلَا تَقُولُوا ثَلَاثَةٌ ۚ انتَهُوا خَيْرًا لَّكُمْ ۚ إِنَّمَا اللَّهُ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ سُبْحَانَهُ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ ۘ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا

Pronunciation

Ya ahla alkitabi lataghloo fee deenikum wala taqooloo AAala Allahiilla alhaqqa innama almaseehu AAeesaibnu maryama rasoolu Allahi wakalimatuhu alqahaila maryama waroohun minhu faaminoo billahiwarusulihi wala taqooloo thalathatun intahookhayran lakum innama Allahu ilahun wahidunsubhanahu an yakoona lahu waladun lahu ma fee assamawatiwama fee al-ardi wakafa billahiwakeela

Translation

O People of the Scripture, do not commit excess in your religion or say about Allah except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was but a messenger of Allah and His word which He directed to Mary and a soul [created at a command] from Him. So believe in Allah and His messengers. And do not say, “Three”; desist – it is better for you. Indeed, Allah is but one God. Exalted is He above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And sufficient is Allah as Disposer of affairs.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O People of the Scripture, the Gospel, do not go to extremes, do not go beyond the bounds, in your religion and do not say about God except, the saying of, the truth, such as exalting Him above any associations with a partner or a child: the Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary, was only the Messenger of God, and His Word which He cast to, [which] He conveyed to, Mary, and a spirit, that is, one whose spirit is, from Him: he [Jesus] is here attached to God, exalted be He, as an honouring for him, and not as you claim, that he is the son of God, or a god alongside Him, or one of three, because one that possesses a spirit is compound, while God transcends being compound and the attribution of compounds to Him. So believe in God and His messengers, and do not say, that the gods are, ‘Three’, God, Jesus and his mother. Refrain, from this and say what, it is better for you, [to say], which is the profession of His Oneness. Verily, God is but One God. Glory be to Him, transcending [the possibility], that He should have a son! To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth, as possessions, creatures and servants, and such sovereignty is not compatible with [that] prophethood [of Jesus]. God suffices as a Guardian, a Witness to this.

4:172

لَّن يَسْتَنكِفَ الْمَسِيحُ أَن يَكُونَ عَبْدًا لِّلَّهِ وَلَا الْمَلَائِكَةُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ ۚ وَمَن يَسْتَنكِفْ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَيَسْتَكْبِرْ فَسَيَحْشُرُهُمْ إِلَيْهِ جَمِيعًا

Pronunciation

Lan yastankifa almaseehu an yakoonaAAabdan lillahi wala almala-ikatualmuqarraboona waman yastankif AAan AAibadatihiwayastakbir fasayahshuruhum ilayhi jameeAAa

Translation

Never would the Messiah disdain to be a servant of Allah , nor would the angels near [to Him]. And whoever disdains His worship and is arrogant – He will gather them to Himself all together.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The Messiah, whom you claim is a god, would never disdain, [would never] scorn or reject haughtily, to be a servant of God, neither would the angels who are nigh, to God, disdain to be servants: this is a splendid digression [to the matter of the angels], and it is mentioned as a refutation of those who claim that they [the angels] are gods or the daughters of God, just as He refuted, with what was stated before, the Christians who claim that which is the subject of the address to them [above]. Whoever disdains to worship Him, and waxes proud, He will assuredly muster them to Him, all of them, in the Hereafter.

4:173

فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فَيُوَفِّيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ وَيَزِيدُهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِ ۖ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ اسْتَنكَفُوا وَاسْتَكْبَرُوا فَيُعَذِّبُهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا وَلَا يَجِدُونَ لَهُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا

Pronunciation

Faamma allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo assalihati fayuwaffeehimojoorahum wayazeeduhum min fadlihi waamma allatheenaistankafoo wastakbaroo fayuAAaththibuhum AAathabanaleeman wala yajidoona lahum min dooni Allahiwaliyyan wala naseera

Translation

And as for those who believed and did righteous deeds, He will give them in full their rewards and grant them extra from His bounty. But as for those who disdained and were arrogant, He will punish them with a painful punishment, and they will not find for themselves besides Allah any protector or helper.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

As for those who believed, who did righteous deeds, He will pay them in full their wages, the reward for their deeds, and He will give them more of His bounty, what no eye has seen, no ear has heard and no man’s heart has ever wished for; and as for them who disdain and are too proud, to worship Him, He will chastise them with a painful chastisement, which is the chastisement of the Fire, and they shall not find for themselves, besides God, that is, other than Him, any friend, to ward it off them, or helper, to protect them from it.

4:174

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ قَدْ جَاءَكُم بُرْهَانٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَأَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ نُورًا مُّبِينًا

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha annasuqad jaakum burhanun min rabbikum waanzalnailaykum nooran mubeena

Translation

O mankind, there has come to you a conclusive proof from your Lord, and We have sent down to you a clear light.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O people, a proof, a definitive argument, has now come to you from your Lord, against you, namely, the Prophet (s), and We have revealed to you a manifest, a clear, light, namely, the Qur’ān.

4:175

فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَاعْتَصَمُوا بِهِ فَسَيُدْخِلُهُمْ فِي رَحْمَةٍ مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلٍ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَيْهِ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا

Pronunciation

Faamma allatheena amanoobillahi waAAtasamoo bihifasayudkhiluhum fee rahmatin minhu wafadlinwayahdeehim ilayhi siratan mustaqeema

Translation

So those who believe in Allah and hold fast to Him – He will admit them to mercy from Himself and bounty and guide them to Himself on a straight path.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

As for those who believe in God, and hold fast to Him, He will surely admit them to mercy from Him, and bounty, and He will guide them to Him by a straight path, namely, the religion of Islam.

4:176

يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِي الْكَلَالَةِ ۚ إِنِ امْرُؤٌ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُ أُخْتٌ فَلَهَا نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ ۚ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَا إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهَا وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَتَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا الثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَ ۚ وَإِن كَانُوا إِخْوَةً رِّجَالًا وَنِسَاءً فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۗ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ أَن تَضِلُّوا ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Yastaftoonaka quli Allahu yufteekumfee alkalalati ini imruon halaka laysa lahu waladun walahuokhtun falaha nisfu ma taraka wahuwayarithuha in lam yakun laha waladun fa-in kanataithnatayni falahuma aththuluthani mimmataraka wa-in kanoo ikhwatan rijalan wanisaanfaliththakari mithlu haththialonthayayni yubayyinu Allahu lakum an tadilloo wallahubikulli shay-in AAaleem

Translation

They request from you a [legal] ruling. Say, “Allah gives you a ruling concerning one having neither descendants nor ascendants [as heirs].” If a man dies, leaving no child but [only] a sister, she will have half of what he left. And he inherits from her if she [dies and] has no child. But if there are two sisters [or more], they will have two-thirds of what he left. If there are both brothers and sisters, the male will have the share of two females. Allah makes clear to you [His law], lest you go astray. And Allah is Knowing of all things.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They will ask you for a pronouncement, concerning indirect heirs. Say: ‘God pronounces to you concerning indirect heirs. If a man (in imru’un is in the nominative because of the verb [halaka, ‘perishes’] that explains it) perishes, dies, having no children, and no parent, and this is the one referred to as an indirect heir (kalāla), but he has a sister, from both parents or from one, hers is half of what he leaves, and he, a brother, similarly, is her heir, in all that she leaves, if she has no children: but if she has a son, then he [the maternal uncle] receives nothing, and if a daughter, then whatever is left after her share; if the brother and sister be from the same mother, then the one receives a sixth, as was stipulated at the beginning of the sūra [Q. 4:11]. If there be two sisters, or more — for this was revealed regarding Jābir [b. ‘Abd Allāh], who died and was survived by sisters —, theirs are two-thirds of what he, the brother, leaves; if there be, among the inheritors, siblings, men and women, then the male, among them, shall receive the equivalent of the portion of two females. God makes clear to you, the stipulations of your religion, lest you go astray; and God has knowledge of all things’, including [matters of] inheritance: it is reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim] that al-Barā’ [b. ‘Āzib] said that this was the last of the ‘duty’ verses to be revealed.

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