Translation of the HOLY QUR’AN – 2.Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – سورة البقرة

Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow) – سورة البقرة

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

[In the Name of ALLAH, the ENTIRELY MERCIFUL, the ESPECIALLY MERCIFUL]

 

2:1

الم

Pronunciation

Alif-lam-meem

Translation

Alif, Lam, Meem.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Alif lām mīm: God knows best what He means by these [letters].

2:2

ذَٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ ۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

Pronunciation

Thalika alkitabu larayba feehi hudan lilmuttaqeen

Translation

This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah -

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

That, meaning, this, Book, which Muhammad (s) recites, in it there is no doubt, no uncertainty, that it is from God (the negation [lĀ rayba fĪhi] is the predicate of dhĀlika; the use of the demonstrative here is intended to glorify [the Book]). A guidance (hudĀ is a second predicate, meaning that it [the Book] ‘guides’), for the God-fearing, namely, those that tend towards piety by adhering to commands and avoiding things prohibited, thereby guarding themselves from the Fire;

2:3

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ

Pronunciation

Allatheena yu/minoona bilghaybiwayuqeemoona assalata wamimma razaqnahumyunfiqoon

Translation

Who believe in the unseen, establish prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

who believe in, that is, who accept the truth of, the Unseen, what is hidden from them of the Resurrection, Paradise and the Fire; and maintain the prayer, that is to say, who perform it giving it its proper due; and of what We have provided them, that is, of what we have bestowed upon them, expend, in obedience to God;

2:4

وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Wallatheena yu/minoona bimaonzila ilayka wama onzila min qablika wabil-akhiratihum yooqinoon

Translation

And who believe in what has been revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you, and of the Hereafter they are certain [in faith].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and who believe in what has been revealed to you, namely, the Qur’ān; and what was revealed before you, that is, the Torah, the Gospel and other [scriptures]; and of the Hereafter, they are certain, that is, they know [it is real].

2:5

أُولَٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ

Pronunciation

Ola-ika AAala hudan minrabbihim waola-ika humu almuflihoon

Translation

Those are upon [right] guidance from their Lord, and it is those who are the successful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those, as described in the way mentioned, are upon guidance from their Lord, those are the ones that will prosper, that is, who will succeed in entering Paradise and be saved from the Fire.

2:6

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنذِرْهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena kafaroo sawaonAAalayhim aanthartahum am lam tunthirhum layu/minoon

Translation

Indeed, those who disbelieve – it is all the same for them whether you warn them or do not warn them – they will not believe.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

As for the disbelievers, the likes of Abū Jahl, Abū Lahab and such; alike it is for them whether you have warned them or have not warned them, they do not believe, as God knows very well, so do not hope that they will believe (read a-andhartahum pronouncing both hamzas, or by not pronouncing the second, making it an alif instead, and inserting an alif between the one not pronounced and the other one, or leaving [this insertion]; al-indhār [‘warning’] is to give knowledge of something, and simultaneously instil an element of fear).

2:7

خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ ۖ وَعَلَىٰ أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Khatama Allahu AAala quloobihimwaAAala samAAihim waAAala absarihim ghishawatunwalahum AAathabun AAatheem

Translation

Allah has set a seal upon their hearts and upon their hearing, and over their vision is a veil. And for them is a great punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God has set a seal on their hearts, impressing on them and making certain that no good enters them; and on their hearing, [in which He has] deposited something so that they cannot profit from the truth they hear; and on their eyes is a covering, that is, a veil so that they do not see the truth; and for them there will be a mighty chastisement, that is, intense and everlasting.

2:8

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Wamina annasi man yaqoolu amannabiAllahi wabilyawmi al-akhiri wamahum bimu/mineen

Translation

And of the people are some who say, “We believe in Allah and the Last Day,” but they are not believers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed concerning the hypocrites: and some people there are who say, ‘We believe in God and the Last Day’, that is, in the Day of Resurrection because it is the very last day; but they are not believers (the [plural] import of man [in man yaqūl, ‘who says’] is taken into account here, as expressed by a pronoun [hum] that expresses this [plural] meaning).

2:9

يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

Pronunciation

YukhadiAAoona Allaha wallatheenaamanoo wama yakhdaAAoona illa anfusahum wamayashAAuroon

Translation

They [think to] deceive Allah and those who believe, but they deceive not except themselves and perceive [it] not.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They would deceive God and the believers, by manifesting the opposite of the unbelief they hide, so that they can avoid His rulings in this world; and only themselves they deceive (yukhādi‘ūn), for the evil consequences of their deception will rebound upon them, as they are disgraced in this world when God makes known to His Prophet what they are hiding, and they will be punished in the Hereafter; and they are not aware, and they do not know that they are actually deceiving themselves (mukhāda‘a [although a third verbal form, from khāda‘a] actually denotes a one-way action, such as [when one says] ‘āqabtu al-lissa, ‘I punished the thief’ [using the third verbal form ‘āqaba]; the mention of ‘God’ in [this statement] is for [rhetorical] effect; a variant reading [for wa-mā yukhādi‘ūna] has wa-mā yakhda‘ūna).

2:10

فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ فَزَادَهُمُ اللَّهُ مَرَضًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْذِبُونَ

Pronunciation

Fee quloobihim maradun fazadahumuAllahu maradan walahum AAathabun aleemun bimakanoo yakthiboon

Translation

In their hearts is disease, so Allah has increased their disease; and for them is a painful punishment because they [habitually] used to lie.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

In their hearts is a sickness: doubt and hypocrisy, which ails their hearts, debilitating them; and God has increased their sickness with what He has revealed in the Qur’ān, since they disbelieve it; and there awaits them a painful chastisement because they used to lie (read yukadhdhibūn to imply [that they used to call] the Prophet of God [a liar], or yakdhibūn to imply their [mendacity when] saying ‘we believe’).

2:11

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ لَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُصْلِحُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha qeela lahum latufsidoo fee al-ardi qaloo innama nahnumuslihoon

Translation

And when it is said to them, “Do not cause corruption on the earth,” they say, “We are but reformers.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When it is said to them, that is, these latter, ‘Do not spread corruption in the land’, through unbelief and hindering [people from] faith, They say, ‘We are only putting things right’, that is, ‘we are not engaging in corruption’. God, exalted be He, refutes them, saying:

2:12

أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ الْمُفْسِدُونَ وَلَٰكِن لَّا يَشْعُرُونَ

Pronunciation

Ala innahum humu almufsidoona walakinla yashAAuroon

Translation

Unquestionably, it is they who are the corrupters, but they perceive [it] not.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Truly (a-lā, ‘truly’, is for alerting), intended emphatically, they are the agents of corruption, but they perceive, this, not.

2:13

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ آمِنُوا كَمَا آمَنَ النَّاسُ قَالُوا أَنُؤْمِنُ كَمَا آمَنَ السُّفَهَاءُ ۗ أَلَا إِنَّهُمْ هُمُ السُّفَهَاءُ وَلَٰكِن لَّا يَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha qeela lahum aminoo kamaamana annasu qaloo anu/minu kamaamana assufahao ala innahum humu assufahaowalakin la yaAAlamoon

Translation

And when it is said to them, “Believe as the people have believed,” they say, “Should we believe as the foolish have believed?” Unquestionably, it is they who are the foolish, but they know [it] not.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When it is said to them, ‘Believe as the people believe’, that is, as the Companions of the Prophet (s), They say, ‘Shall we believe as fools believe?’, that is, as the ignorant do? No we do not follow their way. The exalted One refutes them, saying: Truly, they are the foolish ones, but they know, this, not.

2:14

وَإِذَا لَقُوا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَالُوا آمَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَوْا إِلَىٰ شَيَاطِينِهِمْ قَالُوا إِنَّا مَعَكُمْ إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ مُسْتَهْزِئُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha laqoo allatheena amanooqaloo amanna wa-itha khalaw ilashayateenihim qaloo inna maAAakum innamanahnu mustahzi-oon

Translation

And when they meet those who believe, they say, “We believe”; but when they are alone with their evil ones, they say, “Indeed, we are with you; we were only mockers.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When they meet (laqū is actually laquyū, but the damma has been omitted, being too cumbersome for pronunciation; likewise the yā’ [is omitted], because it is unvocalised and is followed by a wāw); those who believe, they say, ‘We believe’; but when they go apart, away from them and return, to their devils, their leaders, they say, ‘We are with you, in religion; we were only mocking, them [the believers] by feigning belief.

2:15

اللَّهُ يَسْتَهْزِئُ بِهِمْ وَيَمُدُّهُمْ فِي طُغْيَانِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ

Pronunciation

Allahu yastahzi-o bihim wayamudduhumfee tughyanihim yaAAmahoon

Translation

[But] Allah mocks them and prolongs them in their transgression [while] they wander blindly.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God [Himself] mocks them, requiting them for their mockery, leaving them, that is, giving them respite, in their insolence, that is, in their transgressing the limits of unbelief; bewildered, wavering, in perplexity (ya‘mahūn is a circumstantial qualifier).

2:16

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الضَّلَالَةَ بِالْهُدَىٰ فَمَا رَبِحَت تِّجَارَتُهُمْ وَمَا كَانُوا مُهْتَدِينَ

Pronunciation

Ola-ika allatheena ishtarawooaddalalata bilhuda famarabihat tijaratuhum wama kanoomuhtadeen

Translation

Those are the ones who have purchased error [in exchange] for guidance, so their transaction has brought no profit, nor were they guided.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those are they who have bought error for guidance, that is, they have exchanged the latter for the former; so their commerce has not profited them, that is to say, they have gained nothing from it, indeed, they have lost, because their destination is the Fire, made everlasting for them; nor are they guided, in what they did.

2:17

مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي اسْتَوْقَدَ نَارًا فَلَمَّا أَضَاءَتْ مَا حَوْلَهُ ذَهَبَ اللَّهُ بِنُورِهِمْ وَتَرَكَهُمْ فِي ظُلُمَاتٍ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ

Pronunciation

Mathaluhum kamathali allatheeistawqada naran falamma adaat ma hawlahuthahaba Allahu binoorihim watarakahum fee thulumatinla yubsiroon

Translation

Their example is that of one who kindled a fire, but when it illuminated what was around him, Allah took away their light and left them in darkness [so] they could not see.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Their likeness, the way they are in their hypocrisy, is as the likeness of one who kindled, that is, [one who] lit a fire in darkness, and when it illumined all about him, so that he is able to see, and to feel warm and secure from those he feared, God took away their light, extinguishing it (the plural pronoun [in nūrihim] takes into account the [plural] import of alladhī); and left them in darkness, unable to see, what is around them, confused as to the way, in fear; likewise are those who have found [temporary] security by professing faith, but who will meet with terror and punishment upon death; these [last] are:

2:18

صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَرْجِعُونَ

Pronunciation

Summun bukmun AAumyun fahum layarjiAAoon

Translation

Deaf, dumb and blind – so they will not return [to the right path].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

deaf, to the truth, so that they cannot hear it and accept it; dumb, mute as regards goodness, unable to speak of it; and, blind, to the path of guidance, so that they cannot perceive it; they shall not return, from error.

2:19

أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ فِيهِ ظُلُمَاتٌ وَرَعْدٌ وَبَرْقٌ يَجْعَلُونَ أَصَابِعَهُمْ فِي آذَانِهِم مِّنَ الصَّوَاعِقِ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ مُحِيطٌ بِالْكَافِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Aw kasayyibin mina assama-ifeehi thulumatun waraAAdun wabarqunyajAAaloona asabiAAahum fee athanihim mina assawaAAiqihathara almawti wallahu muheetunbilkafireen

Translation

Or [it is] like a rainstorm from the sky within which is darkness, thunder and lightning. They put their fingers in their ears against the thunderclaps in dread of death. But Allah is encompassing of the disbelievers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Or, the likeness of them is as a cloudburst, that is, [the likeness of them is] as people are during rain (ka-sayyib: the term is originally sayyūb, from [the verb] sāba, yasūbu, meaning ‘it came down’); out of the heaven, out of the clouds, in which clouds is darkness, layer upon layer, and thunder, the angel in charge of them [sc. the clouds]; it is also said that this [thunder] is actually the sound of his voice; and lightning, the flash caused by his voice which he uses to drive them — they, the people under the rain, put their fingers, that is, their fingertips, in their ears against, because of, the thunderclaps, the violent sound of thunder, in order not to hear it, cautious of, fearful of, death, if they were to hear it. Similar is the case with these: when the Qur’ān is revealed, in which there is mention of the unbelief that is like darkness, the threat of punishment that is like the sound of thunder, and the clear arguments that are like the clear lightning, they shut their ears in order not to hear it and thereby incline towards [true] faith and abandon their religion, which for them would be death; and God encompasses the disbelievers in both knowledge and power, so they cannot escape Him.

2:20

يَكَادُ الْبَرْقُ يَخْطَفُ أَبْصَارَهُمْ ۖ كُلَّمَا أَضَاءَ لَهُم مَّشَوْا فِيهِ وَإِذَا أَظْلَمَ عَلَيْهِمْ قَامُوا ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَذَهَبَ بِسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَارِهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Yakadu albarqu yakhtafu absarahumkullama adaa lahum mashaw feehi wa-itha athlamaAAalayhim qamoo walaw shaa Allahu lathahababisamAAihim waabsarihim inna Allaha AAalakulli shay-in qadeer

Translation

The lightning almost snatches away their sight. Every time it lights [the way] for them, they walk therein; but when darkness comes over them, they stand [still]. And if Allah had willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The lightning well-nigh, almost, snatches away their sight, that is, takes it away swiftly; whensoever it gives them light, they walk in it, in its light; and when the darkness is over them, they stop, that is, they stand still: a simile of the perturbation that the Qur’ānic arguments cause in their hearts, and of their acknowledging the truths of what they love to hear and recoiling from what they detest; had God willed, He would have taken away their hearing and their sight, that is, the exterior faculty, in the same way that He took away their inner one; Truly, God has power over all things, [that] He wills, as for example, His taking away of the above-mentioned.

2:21

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha annasuoAAbudoo rabbakumu allathee khalaqakum wallatheenamin qablikum laAAallakum tattaqoon

Translation

O mankind, worship your Lord, who created you and those before you, that you may become righteous -

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O people, of Mecca, worship, profess the oneness of, your Lord Who created you, made you when you were nothing, and created those that were before you; so that you may be fearful, of His punishment by worshipping Him (la‘alla, ‘so that’, is essentially an optative, but when spoken by God it denotes an affirmative),

2:22

الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Allathee jaAAala lakumu al-ardafirashan wassamaa binaan waanzalamina assama-i maan faakhraja bihi mina aththamaratirizqan lakum fala tajAAaloo lillahi andadanwaantum taAAlamoon

Translation

[He] who made for you the earth a bed [spread out] and the sky a ceiling and sent down from the sky, rain and brought forth thereby fruits as provision for you. So do not attribute to Allah equals while you know [that there is nothing similar to Him].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He Who assigned to you, created [for you], the earth for a couch, like a carpet that is laid out, neither extremely hard, nor extremely soft so as to make it impossible to stand firm upon it; and heaven for an edifice, like a roof; and sent down from the heaven water, wherewith He brought forth, all types of, fruits for your provision; so set not up compeers to God, that is partners in worship, while you know that He is the Creator, that you create not and that only One that creates can be God.

2:23

وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُوا بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ وَادْعُوا شُهَدَاءَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Pronunciation

Wa-in kuntum fee raybin mimma nazzalnaAAala AAabdina fa/too bisooratin min mithlihi wadAAooshuhadaakum min dooni Allahi in kuntum sadiqeen

Translation

And if you are in doubt about what We have sent down upon Our Servant [Muhammad], then produce a surah the like thereof and call upon your witnesses other than Allah , if you should be truthful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if you are in doubt, in uncertainty, concerning what We have revealed to Our servant, Muhammad (s), of the Qur’ān, that it is from God, then bring a sūra like it, that is also revealed (min mithlihi: min is explicative, that is, a sūra like it in its eloquence, fine arrangement and its bestowal of knowledge of the Unseen; a sūra is a passage with a beginning and end made up of a minimum of three verses); and call your witnesses, those other gods that you worship, besides God, that is, other than Him, so that it can be seen, if you are truthful, in [your claim] that Muhammad (s) speaks it from himself. So do this, for you are also fluent speakers of Arabic like him. When they could not do this, God said:

2:24

فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَلَن تَفْعَلُوا فَاتَّقُوا النَّارَ الَّتِي وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ ۖ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Fa-in lam tafAAaloo walan tafAAaloo fattaqooannara allatee waqooduha annasuwalhijaratu oAAiddat lilkafireen

Translation

But if you do not – and you will never be able to – then fear the Fire, whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if you do not, do what was mentioned because you are incapable, and you will not (a parenthetical statement), that is, never [will you be able to], because of its inimitability, then fear, through belief in God and [belief] that this is not the words of a human, the Fire, whose fuel is men, disbelievers, and stones, like their very idols, indicating that its heat is extreme, since it burns with the [stones] mentioned, unlike the fires of this world that burn with wood and similar materials; prepared, and made ready, for disbelievers, so that they are punished in it (this [phrase, u‘iddat li’l-kāfirīna, ‘prepared for disbelievers’] is either a new sentence or a sustained circumstantial qualifier).

2:25

وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أَنَّ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ كُلَّمَا رُزِقُوا مِنْهَا مِن ثَمَرَةٍ رِّزْقًا ۙ قَالُوا هَٰذَا الَّذِي رُزِقْنَا مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَأُتُوا بِهِ مُتَشَابِهًا ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا أَزْوَاجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ ۖ وَهُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Pronunciation

Wabashshiri allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo assalihati anna lahum jannatintajree min tahtiha al-anharu kullamaruziqoo minha min thamaratin rizqan qaloo hathaallathee ruziqna min qablu waotoo bihi mutashabihanwalahum feeha azwajun mutahharatun wahumfeeha khalidoon

Translation

And give good tidings to those who believe and do righteous deeds that they will have gardens [in Paradise] beneath which rivers flow. Whenever they are provided with a provision of fruit therefrom, they will say, “This is what we were provided with before.” And it is given to them in likeness. And they will have therein purified spouses, and they will abide therein eternally.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And give good tidings to, inform, those who believe, who have faith in God, and perform righteous deeds, such as the obligatory and supererogatory [rituals], that theirs shall be Gardens, of trees, and habitations, underneath which, that is, underneath these trees and palaces, rivers run (tajrī min tahtihā’l-anhāru), that is, there are waters in it (al-nahr is the place in which water flows [and is so called] because the water carves [yanhar] its way through it; the reference to it as ‘running’ is figurative); whensoever they are provided with fruits therefrom, that is, whenever they are given to eat from these gardens, they shall say, ‘This is what, that is, the like of what we were provided with before’, that is, before this, in Paradise, since its fruits are similar (and this is evidenced by [the following statement]): they shall be given it, the provision, in perfect semblance, that is, resembling one another in colour, but different in taste; and there for them shall be spouses, of houris and others, purified, from menstruation and impurities; therein they shall abide: dwelling therein forever, neither perishing nor departing therefrom. And when the Jews said, ‘Why does God strike a similitude about flies, where He says, And if a fly should rob them of anything [Q. 22:73] and about a spider, where He says, As the likeness of the spider [Q. 29:41]: what does God want with these vile creatures? God then revealed the following:

2:26

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يَسْتَحْيِي أَن يَضْرِبَ مَثَلًا مَّا بَعُوضَةً فَمَا فَوْقَهَا ۚ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَيَقُولُونَ مَاذَا أَرَادَ اللَّهُ بِهَٰذَا مَثَلًا ۘ يُضِلُّ بِهِ كَثِيرًا وَيَهْدِي بِهِ كَثِيرًا ۚ وَمَا يُضِلُّ بِهِ إِلَّا الْفَاسِقِينَ

Pronunciation

Inna Allaha la yastahyeean yadriba mathalan ma baAAoodatan famafawqaha faamma allatheena amanoofayaAAlamoona annahu alhaqqu min rabbihim waammaallatheena kafaroo fayaqooloona matha aradaAllahu bihatha mathalan yudillu bihikatheeran wayahdee bihi katheeran wama yudillu bihiilla alfasiqeen

Translation

Indeed, Allah is not timid to present an example – that of a mosquito or what is smaller than it. And those who have believed know that it is the truth from their Lord. But as for those who disbelieve, they say, “What did Allah intend by this as an example?” He misleads many thereby and guides many thereby. And He misleads not except the defiantly disobedient,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God is not ashamed to strike, to make, a similitude (mathal: is the first direct object; mā either represents an indefinite noun described by what comes after it and constitutes a second direct object, meaning ‘whatever that similitude may be’; or it [the mā] is extra to emphasise the vileness [involved], so that what follows constitutes the second direct object); even of a gnat, (ba‘ūda is the singular of ba‘ūd), that is, small flies; or anything above it, that is, larger than it, so that this explanation is not affected [by the size of the creature] with regard to the judgement [God is making]; as for the believers, they know it, the similitude, is the truth, established and given in this instance, from their Lord; but as for disbelievers, they say, ‘What did God desire by this for a similitude?’ (mathalan is a specification, meaning, ‘by this similitude’; mā is an interrogative of rejection and is the subject; dhā means alladhī, whose relative clause contains its predicate, in other words, ‘what use is there in it?’). God then responds to them saying: Thereby, that is, by this similitude, He leads many astray, from the truth on account of their disbelieving in it, and thereby He guides many, believers on account of their belief in it; and thereby He leads none astray except the wicked, those that reject obedience to Him.

2:27

الَّذِينَ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَ اللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مِيثَاقِهِ وَيَقْطَعُونَ مَا أَمَرَ اللَّهُ بِهِ أَن يُوصَلَ وَيُفْسِدُونَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

Pronunciation

Allatheena yanqudoona AAahdaAllahi min baAAdi meethaqihi wayaqtaAAoona maamara Allahu bihi an yoosala wayufsidoona fee al-ardiola-ika humu alkhasiroon

Translation

Who break the covenant of Allah after contracting it and sever that which Allah has ordered to be joined and cause corruption on earth. It is those who are the losers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those such as, He has described, break the covenant of God, the contract He made with them in the [revealed] Books to belief in Muhammad (s), after its solemn binding, after it has been confirmed with them, and such as cut what God has commanded should be joined, of belief in the Prophet, of kinship and other matters (an [in the phrase an yūsala, ‘that it be joined’] substitutes for the pronoun [suffixed] in bihi [of the preceding words mā amara Llāhu bihi, ‘that which God has commanded’]); and such as do corruption in the land, by way of their transgressing and impeding faith, they, the ones thus described, shall be the losers, since, they shall end up in the Fire, made everlasting for them.

2:28

كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَاتًا فَأَحْيَاكُمْ ۖ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

Pronunciation

Kayfa takfuroona billahiwakuntum amwatan faahyakum thumma yumeetukumthumma yuhyeekum thumma ilayhi turjaAAoon

Translation

How can you disbelieve in Allah when you were lifeless and He brought you to life; then He will cause you to die, then He will bring you [back] to life, and then to Him you will be returned.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

How do you, people of Mecca, disbelieve in God, when you were dead, semen inside loins, and He gave you life, in the womb and in this world by breathing Spirit into you (the interrogative here is either intended to provoke amazement at their [persistent] unbelief despite the evidence established, or intended as a rebuke); then He shall make you dead, after your terms of life are completed, then He shall give you life, at the Resurrection, then to Him you shall be returned!, after resurrection, whereupon He shall requite you according to your deeds; and He states, as proof of the Resurrection, when they denied it:

2:29

هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ لَكُم مَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَسَوَّاهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَاوَاتٍ ۚ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Huwa allathee khalaqa lakum mafee al-ardi jameeAAan thumma istawa ila assama-ifasawwahunna sabAAa samawatin wahuwa bikullishay-in AAaleem

Translation

It is He who created for you all of that which is on the earth. Then He directed Himself to the heaven, [His being above all creation], and made them seven heavens, and He is Knowing of all things.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth, that is, the earth and all that is in it, so that you may benefit from and learn lessons from it; then, after creating the earth, He turned to, that is, He made His object, heaven and levelled them (fa-sawwāhunna: the pronoun [-hunna] refers to ‘heaven’, since, it [heaven] is implicit in the import of the sentence attributed to it [the pronoun]), that is to say, He made them thus, as [He says] in another verse, [fa-qadāhunna] so He determined them [Q. 41:12]) seven heavens and He has knowledge of all things, in their totality and in their individual detail, so do you not then think that the One who has the power to create this to begin with, which is much greater than what you are, also has the power to bring you back [after death]?

2:30

وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ إِنِّي جَاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَجْعَلُ فِيهَا مَن يُفْسِدُ فِيهَا وَيَسْفِكُ الدِّمَاءَ وَنَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَنُقَدِّسُ لَكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qala rabbuka lilmala-ikatiinnee jaAAilun fee al-ardi khaleefatan qalooatajAAalu feeha man yufsidu feeha wayasfiku addimaawanahnu nusabbihu bihamdika wanuqaddisu lakaqala innee aAAlamu ma la taAAlamoon

Translation

And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, “Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority.” They said, “Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?” Allah said, “Indeed, I know that which you do not know.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, O Muhammad (s), when your Lord said to the angels, ‘I am appointing on earth a vicegerent’, who shall act as My deputy, by implementing My rulings therein — and this [vicegerent] was Adam; They said, ‘What, will You appoint therein one who will do corruption therein, through disobedience, and shed blood, spilling it through killing, just as the progeny of the jinn did, for they used to inhabit it, but when they became corrupted God sent down the angels against them and they were driven away to islands and into the mountains; while we glorify, continuously, You with praise, that is, “We say Glory and Praise be to You”, and sanctify You?’, that is, ‘We exalt You as transcendent above what does not befit You?; the lām [of laka, ‘You’] is extra, and the sentence [wa-nuqaddisu laka, ‘We sanctify You’] is a circumstantial qualifier, the import being, ‘thus, we are more entitled to be Your vicegerents’); He, exalted be He, said, ‘Assuredly, I know what you know not’, of the benefits of making Adam a vicegerent and of the fact that among his progeny will be the obedient and the transgressor, and justice will prevail between them. They said, ‘God will never create anything more noble in His eyes than us nor more knowledgeable, since we have been created before it and have seen what it has not seen. God then created Adam from the surface of the earth (adīm al-ard [adīm literally means ‘skin’]), taking a handful of all its colours and mixing it with different waters, then made him upright and breathed into him the Spirit and he thus became a living being with senses, after having been inanimate.

2:31

وَعَلَّمَ آدَمَ الْأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمْ عَلَى الْمَلَائِكَةِ فَقَالَ أَنبِئُونِي بِأَسْمَاءِ هَٰؤُلَاءِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Pronunciation

WaAAallama adama al-asmaakullaha thumma AAaradahum AAala almala-ikatifaqala anbi-oonee bi-asma-i haola-iin kuntum sadiqeen

Translation

And He taught Adam the names – all of them. Then He showed them to the angels and said, “Inform Me of the names of these, if you are truthful.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And He taught Adam the names, that is, the names of things named, all of them, by placing knowledge of them into his heart; then He presented them, these names, the majority of which concerned intellectual beings, to the angels and said, to them in reproach, ‘Now tell Me, inform Me, the names of these, things named, if you speak truly’, in your claim that I would not create anything more knowledgeable than you, or that you are more deserving of this vicegerency; the response to the conditional sentence is intimated by what precedes it.

2:32

قَالُوا سُبْحَانَكَ لَا عِلْمَ لَنَا إِلَّا مَا عَلَّمْتَنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَلِيمُ الْحَكِيمُ

Pronunciation

Qaloo subhanaka laAAilma lana illa ma AAallamtanainnaka anta alAAaleemu alhakeem

Translation

They said, “Exalted are You; we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Indeed, it is You who is the Knowing, the Wise.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They said, ‘Glory be to You!, exalting You above that any should object to You, We know not except what You have taught us. Surely You are (innaka anta emphasises the [preceding suffixed pronoun] kāf) the Knower, Wise’, from whose knowledge and wisdom nothing escapes.

2:33

قَالَ يَا آدَمُ أَنبِئْهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا أَنبَأَهُم بِأَسْمَائِهِمْ قَالَ أَلَمْ أَقُل لَّكُمْ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ غَيْبَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَأَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

Pronunciation

Qala ya adamu anbi/humbi-asma-ihim falamma anbaahum bi-asma-ihim qalaalam aqul lakum innee aAAlamu ghayba assamawatiwal-ardi waaAAlamu ma tubdoona wamakuntum taktumoon

Translation

He said, “O Adam, inform them of their names.” And when he had informed them of their names, He said, “Did I not tell you that I know the unseen [aspects] of the heavens and the earth? And I know what you reveal and what you have concealed.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He, exalted be He, said, ‘Adam, tell them, the angels, their names’, all of the things named; so, he named each thing by its appellation and mentioned the wisdom behind its creation; And when he had told them their names He, exalted, said, in rebuke, ‘Did I not tell you that I know the Unseen in the heavens and the earth?, what is unseen in them, And I know what you reveal, what you manifested when you said, ‘What, will You appoint therein …’, and what you were hiding, what you were keeping secret when you were saying that God would not create anything more knowledgeable or more noble in His eyes than us.

2:34

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qulna lilmala-ikatiosjudoo li-adama fasajadoo illa ibleesa abawastakbara wakana mina alkafireen

Translation

And [mention] when We said to the angels, “Prostrate before Adam”; so they prostrated, except for Iblees. He refused and was arrogant and became of the disbelievers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, when We said to the angels, ‘Prostrate yourselves to Adam’, a prostration that is a bow of salutation; so they prostrated themselves, except Iblīs, the father of the jinn, who was among the angels, he refused, to prostrate, and disdained, became proud and said, I am better than he [Q. 7:12]; and so he became one of the disbelievers, according to God’s knowledge.

2:35

وَقُلْنَا يَا آدَمُ اسْكُنْ أَنتَ وَزَوْجُكَ الْجَنَّةَ وَكُلَا مِنْهَا رَغَدًا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمَا وَلَا تَقْرَبَا هَٰذِهِ الشَّجَرَةَ فَتَكُونَا مِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Waqulna ya adamu oskunanta wazawjuka aljannata wakula minha raghadan haythushi/tuma wala taqraba hathihi ashshajaratafatakoona mina aththalimeen

Translation

And We said, “O Adam, dwell, you and your wife, in Paradise and eat therefrom in [ease and] abundance from wherever you will. But do not approach this tree, lest you be among the wrongdoers.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We said, ‘Adam, dwell (anta, ‘you’ [of ‘dwell you’] here reiterates the concealed pronoun [of the person of the verb uskun], so that it [wa-zawjuk] may be made a supplement to it); and your wife, Eve (Hawwā’) — who was created from his left rib — in the Garden, and eat thereof, of its food, easefully, of anything without restrictions, where you desire; but do not come near this tree, to eat from it, and this was wheat or a vine or something else, lest you be, become, evildoers’, that is, transgressors.

2:36

فَأَزَلَّهُمَا الشَّيْطَانُ عَنْهَا فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِمَّا كَانَا فِيهِ ۖ وَقُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ ۖ وَلَكُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ مُسْتَقَرٌّ وَمَتَاعٌ إِلَىٰ حِينٍ

Pronunciation

Faazallahuma ashshaytanuAAanha faakhrajahuma mimma kanafeehi waqulna ihbitoo baAAdukum libaAAdinAAaduwwun walakum fee al-ardi mustaqarrun wamataAAunila heen

Translation

But Satan caused them to slip out of it and removed them from that [condition] in which they had been. And We said, “Go down, [all of you], as enemies to one another, and you will have upon the earth a place of settlement and provision for a time.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then Satan, Iblīs, caused them to slip, he caused them to be removed (fa-azallahumā: a variant reading has fa-azālahumā: he caused them to be away from it) therefrom, that is, from the Garden, when he said to them, ‘Shall I point you to the tree of eternity’ [cf. Q. 20:120], and swore to them by God that he was only giving good advice to them, and so they ate of it; and brought them out of what they were in, of bliss; and We said, ‘Go down, to earth, both of you and all those comprised by your seed; some of you, of your progeny, an enemy to the other, through your wronging one another; and in the earth a dwelling, a place of settlement, shall be yours, and enjoyment, of whatever of its vegetation you may enjoy, for a while’, [until] the time your terms [of life] are concluded.

2:37

فَتَلَقَّىٰ آدَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِ كَلِمَاتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

Pronunciation

Fatalaqqa adamu min rabbihikalimatin fataba AAalayhi innahu huwa attawwabuarraheem

Translation

Then Adam received from his Lord [some] words, and He accepted his repentance. Indeed, it is He who is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thereafter Adam received certain words from his Lord, with which He inspired him (a variant reading [of Ādamu] has accusative Ādama and nominative kalimātu), meaning they [the words] came to him, and these were [those of] the verse Lord, we have wronged ourselves [Q. 7:23], with which he supplicated, and He relented to him, that is, He accepted his repentance; truly He is the Relenting, to His servants, the Merciful, to them.

2:38

قُلْنَا اهْبِطُوا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًا ۖ فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّي هُدًى فَمَن تَبِعَ هُدَايَ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Pronunciation

Qulna ihbitoo minhajameeAAan fa-imma ya/tiyannakum minnee hudan faman tabiAAahudaya fala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoon

Translation

We said, “Go down from it, all of you. And when guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance – there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

We said, ‘Go down from it, from the Garden, all together (He has repeated this [phrase qulnā ihbitū] in order to supplement it with), yet (fa-immā: the nūn of the conditional particle in [‘if’] has been assimilated with the extra mā) there shall come to you from Me guidance, a Book and a prophet, and whoever follows My guidance, believing in me and performing deeds in obedience of Me, no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve, in the Hereafter, since they will be admitted into Paradise.

2:39

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِنَا أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Pronunciation

Wallatheena kafaroo wakaththaboobi-ayatina ola-ika as-habuannari hum feeha khalidoon

Translation

And those who disbelieve and deny Our signs – those will be companions of the Fire; they will abide therein eternally.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

As for the disbelievers who deny Our signs, Our Books, those shall be the inhabitants of the Fire, abiding therein’, enduring perpetually, neither perishing nor exiting therefrom.

2:40

يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَوْفُوا بِعَهْدِي أُوفِ بِعَهْدِكُمْ وَإِيَّايَ فَارْهَبُونِ

Pronunciation

Ya banee isra-eela othkurooniAAmatiya allatee anAAamtu AAalaykum waawfoo biAAahdee oofibiAAahdikum wa-iyyaya farhaboon

Translation

O Children of Israel, remember My favor which I have bestowed upon you and fulfill My covenant [upon you] that I will fulfill your covenant [from Me], and be afraid of [only] Me.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O Children of Israel, sons of Jacob, remember My favour wherewith I favoured you, that is, your forefathers, saving them from Pharaoh, parting the sea, sending clouds as shelter and other instances, for which you should show gratitude by being obedient to Me; and fulfil My covenant, that which I took from you, that you believe in Muhammad (s), and I shall fulfil your covenant, that which I gave to you, that you shall be rewarded for this with Paradise; and be in awe of Me, fear Me and not anyone else when you have abandoned belief in him [the Prophet].

2:41

وَآمِنُوا بِمَا أَنزَلْتُ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَكُمْ وَلَا تَكُونُوا أَوَّلَ كَافِرٍ بِهِ ۖ وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا وَإِيَّايَ فَاتَّقُونِ

Pronunciation

Waaminoo bima anzaltu musaddiqanlima maAAakum wala takoonoo awwala kafirinbihi wala tashtaroo bi-ayatee thamananqaleelan wa-iyyaya fattaqoon

Translation

And believe in what I have sent down confirming that which is [already] with you, and be not the first to disbelieve in it. And do not exchange My signs for a small price, and fear [only] Me.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And believe in what I have revealed, of the Qur’ān, confirming that which is with you, of the Torah, by its agreement with it, in respect to [affirmation of] God’s Oneness and prophethood; and be not the first to disbelieve in it, from among the People of the Scripture, for those who will come after you will depend on you and so you will bear their sins. And do not sell, exchange, My signs, those that relate to the description of Muhammad (s) in your Book; for a small price, for a trivial and temporary affair of this world; that is to say, do not suppress this for fear of losing what you hope to earn from lowly individuals among you; and fear Me, and none other in this matter.

2:42

وَلَا تَلْبِسُوا الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُوا الْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wala talbisoo alhaqqa bilbatiliwataktumoo alhaqqa waantum taAAlamoon

Translation

And do not mix the truth with falsehood or conceal the truth while you know [it].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And do not obscure, confuse, the truth, that I have revealed to you, with falsehood, that you fabricate; and do not conceal the truth, the description of Muhammad (s), wittingly, that is, knowing it to be the truth.

2:43

وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَارْكَعُوا مَعَ الرَّاكِعِينَ

Pronunciation

Waaqeemoo assalata waatooazzakata warkaAAoo maAAa arrakiAAeen

Translation

And establish prayer and give zakah and bow with those who bow [in worship and obedience].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And establish prayer, and pay the alms, and bow with those that bow, that is, pray with those who pray, Muhammad (s) and his Companions: this was revealed concerning their religious scholars, who used to say to their kin from among the Muslims, ‘Stay firm upon the religion of Muhammad (s), for it is the truth’.

2:44

أَتَأْمُرُونَ النَّاسَ بِالْبِرِّ وَتَنسَوْنَ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ

Pronunciation

Ata/muroona annasa bilbirriwatansawna anfusakum waantum tatloona alkitaba afalataAAqiloon

Translation

Do you order righteousness of the people and forget yourselves while you recite the Scripture? Then will you not reason?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Will you bid others to piety, to belief in Muhammad (s), and forget yourselves, neglecting yourselves and not bidding them to the same, while you recite the Book?, in which there is the threat of chastisement, if what you do contradicts what you say. Do you not understand? the evil nature of your actions, that you might then repent? (the sentence about ‘forgetting’ constitutes the [syntactical] locus of the interrogative of disavowal).

2:45

وَاسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَاةِ ۚ وَإِنَّهَا لَكَبِيرَةٌ إِلَّا عَلَى الْخَاشِعِينَ

Pronunciation

WastaAAeenoo bissabriwassalati wa-innaha lakabeeratunilla AAala alkhashiAAeen

Translation

And seek help through patience and prayer, and indeed, it is difficult except for the humbly submissive [to Allah ]

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Seek help, ask for assistance in your affairs, in patience, by restraining the soul in the face of that which it dislikes; and prayer. The singling out of this for mention is a way of emphasising its great importance; in one hadīth, [it is stated], ‘When something bothered the Prophet (s), he would immediately resort to prayer’; it is said that the address here is to the Jews: when greed and desire for leadership became impediments to their faith, they were enjoined to forbearance, which constituted fasting and prayer, since, the former stems from lust and the latter yields humility and negates pride. For it, prayer, is grievous, burdensome, except to the humble, those that are at peace in obedience,

2:46

الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلَاقُو رَبِّهِمْ وَأَنَّهُمْ إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ

Pronunciation

Allatheena yathunnoonaannahum mulaqoo rabbihim waannahum ilayhi rajiAAoon

Translation

Who are certain that they will meet their Lord and that they will return to Him.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

who reckon, who are certain, that they shall meet their Lord, at the Resurrection, and that to Him they are returning, in the Hereafter, where He will reward them.

2:47

يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ

Pronunciation

Ya banee isra-eela othkurooniAAmatiya allatee anAAamtu AAalaykum waannee faddaltukumAAala alAAalameen

Translation

O Children of Israel, remember My favor that I have bestowed upon you and that I preferred you over the worlds.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O Children of Israel, remember My favour wherewith I favoured you, by giving thanks through obedience to Me, and that I have preferred you, your forefathers, above all the worlds, of their time;

2:48

وَاتَّقُوا يَوْمًا لَّا تَجْزِي نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَلَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا شَفَاعَةٌ وَلَا يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

Pronunciation

Wattaqoo yawman la tajzeenafsun AAan nafsin shay-an wala yuqbalu minha shafaAAatunwala yu/khathu minha AAadlun wala humyunsaroon

Translation

And fear a Day when no soul will suffice for another soul at all, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will compensation be taken from it, nor will they be aided.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

and fear, be scared of, the day when no soul for another shall give satisfaction, which is the Day of Resurrection, and no intercession shall be accepted (read either tuqbal or yuqbal) from it, that is, it is not the case that it has power to intercede, for it then to be accepted from it [or rejected, as God says], So now we have no intercessors [Q. 26:100]; nor any compensation, ransom, be taken, neither shall they be helped, to avoid God’s chastisement.

2:49

وَإِذْ نَجَّيْنَاكُم مِّنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَسُومُونَكُمْ سُوءَ الْعَذَابِ يُذَبِّحُونَ أَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَيَسْتَحْيُونَ نِسَاءَكُمْ ۚ وَفِي ذَٰلِكُم بَلَاءٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ عَظِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith najjaynakum min alifirAAawna yasoomoonakum soo-a alAAathabi yuthabbihoonaabnaakum wayastahyoona nisaakum wafee thalikumbalaon min rabbikum AAatheem

Translation

And [recall] when We saved your forefathers from the people of Pharaoh, who afflicted you with the worst torment, slaughtering your [newborn] sons and keeping your females alive. And in that was a great trial from your Lord.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, remember, when We delivered you, your forefathers: the address here and henceforth directed to those living at the time of the our Prophet, is about how God blessed their forefathers, and is intended to remind them of God’s grace so that they might believe; from the folk of Pharaoh who were visiting you with, that is, making you taste, evil chastisement, of the worst kind (the sentence here is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person of the pronoun [suffixed] in najjaynākum, ‘We delivered you’); slaughtering your, newly-born, sons: this is explaining what has just been said; and sparing, retaining, your women, [doing so] because of the saying of some of their priests that a child born among the Israelites shall bring about the end of your rule [Pharaoh]; and for you therein, chastisement or deliverance, was a tremendous trial, a test or a grace, from your Lord.

2:50

وَإِذْ فَرَقْنَا بِكُمُ الْبَحْرَ فَأَنجَيْنَاكُمْ وَأَغْرَقْنَا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith faraqna bikumu albahrafaanjaynakum waaghraqna ala firAAawnawaantum tanthuroon

Translation

And [recall] when We parted the sea for you and saved you and drowned the people of Pharaoh while you were looking on.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, remember, when We divided, split in two, for you, on account of you, the sea, such that you were able to cross it and escape from your enemy; and We delivered you, from drowning, and drowned Pharaoh’s folk, his people with him, while you were beholding the sea crashing down on top of them.

2:51

وَإِذْ وَاعَدْنَا مُوسَىٰ أَرْبَعِينَ لَيْلَةً ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَنتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith waAAadna moosaarbaAAeena laylatan thumma ittakhathtumu alAAijla minbaAAdihi waantum thalimoon

Translation

And [recall] when We made an appointment with Moses for forty nights. Then you took [for worship] the calf after him, while you were wrongdoers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when We appointed for (wā‘adnā or wa‘adnā) Moses forty nights, at the end of which We shall give him the Torah for you to implement, then you took to yourselves the calf, the one which the Samaritan fashioned for you as a god, after him, that is, after he departed for Our appointment, and you were evildoers, for taking it [in worship], because you directed your worship to the wrong place.

2:52

ثُمَّ عَفَوْنَا عَنكُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Pronunciation

Thumma AAafawna AAankum min baAAdi thalikalaAAallakum tashkuroon

Translation

Then We forgave you after that so perhaps you would be grateful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then We pardoned you, erasing your sins, after that, act of worship, so that you might be thankful, for Our favour upon you.

2:53

وَإِذْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَالْفُرْقَانَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith atayna moosaalkitaba walfurqana laAAallakum tahtadoon

Translation

And [recall] when We gave Moses the Scripture and criterion that perhaps you would be guided.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when We gave to Moses the Scripture, the Torah, and the Criterion (wa’l-furqān is an explicative supplement [of Torah]), that is, the one that discriminates (faraqa) between truth and falsehood and between what is licit and illicit, so that you might be guided, by it away from error.

2:54

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ يَا قَوْمِ إِنَّكُمْ ظَلَمْتُمْ أَنفُسَكُم بِاتِّخَاذِكُمُ الْعِجْلَ فَتُوبُوا إِلَىٰ بَارِئِكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ عِندَ بَارِئِكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qala moosaliqawmihi ya qawmi innakum thalamtumanfusakum bittikhathikumu alAAijla fatooboo ilabari-ikum faqtuloo anfusakum thalikumkhayrun lakum AAinda bari-ikum fataba AAalaykuminnahu huwa attawwabu arraheem

Translation

And [recall] when Moses said to his people, “O my people, indeed you have wronged yourselves by your taking of the calf [for worship]. So repent to your Creator and kill yourselves. That is best for [all of] you in the sight of your Creator.” Then He accepted your repentance; indeed, He is the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when Moses said to his people, those who worshipped the calf, ‘My people, you have done wrong against yourselves by your taking the [golden] calf, for a god; now turn to your Creator, away from that worship [of the calf] and slay one another, that is, let the innocent of you slay the guilty; That, slaughter, will be better for you in your Creator’s sight’, who made it easier for you to accomplish this and sent down a dark cloud over you, so that none of you was able to see the other and show him mercy, such that almost seventy thousand of you were killed; and He will turn to you [relenting], before your [turning in] repentance; truly He is the Relenting, the Merciful.

2:55

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَىٰ لَن نُّؤْمِنَ لَكَ حَتَّىٰ نَرَى اللَّهَ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْكُمُ الصَّاعِقَةُ وَأَنتُمْ تَنظُرُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qultum ya moosalan nu/mina laka hatta nara Allahajahratan faakhathatkumu assaAAiqatu waantumtanthuroon

Translation

And [recall] when you said, “O Moses, we will never believe you until we see Allah outright”; so the thunderbolt took you while you were looking on.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when you said, having gone out with Moses to apologise before God for your worship of the calf, and having heard what he had said [to you]; ‘O Moses, we will not believe you till we see God openly’, with our own eyes; and the thunderbolt, the shout, took you, and you died, while you were beholding, what was happening to you.

2:56

ثُمَّ بَعَثْنَاكُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَوْتِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Pronunciation

Thumma baAAathnakum min baAAdimawtikum laAAallakum tashkuroon

Translation

Then We revived you after your death that perhaps you would be grateful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then We raised you up, brought you back to life, after you were dead, so that you might be thankful, for this favour of Ours.

2:57

وَظَلَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْغَمَامَ وَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَنَّ وَالسَّلْوَىٰ ۖ كُلُوا مِن طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ ۖ وَمَا ظَلَمُونَا وَلَٰكِن كَانُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wathallalna AAalaykumualghamama waanzalna AAalaykumu almanna wassalwakuloo min tayyibati ma razaqnakum wamathalamoona walakin kanooanfusahum yathlimoon

Translation

And We shaded you with clouds and sent down to you manna and quails, [saying], “Eat from the good things with which We have provided you.” And they wronged Us not – but they were [only] wronging themselves.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We made the cloud overshadow you, that is, We sheltered you with fine clouds from the heat of the sun while you were in the wilderness; and We sent down, in them [the clouds], upon you manna and quails — which are [respectively, a type of citrus known as] turunjabīn and the quail — and We said: ‘Eat of the good things We have provided for you’, and do not store any of it away, but they were not grateful for this favour and stored the food, and so they were deprived of it; And they did not wrong Us, in this, but themselves they wronged, since the evil consequences [of this] befell them.

2:58

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا ادْخُلُوا هَٰذِهِ الْقَرْيَةَ فَكُلُوا مِنْهَا حَيْثُ شِئْتُمْ رَغَدًا وَادْخُلُوا الْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُولُوا حِطَّةٌ نَّغْفِرْ لَكُمْ خَطَايَاكُمْ ۚ وَسَنَزِيدُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qulna odkhuloo hathihialqaryata fakuloo minha haythu shi/tum raghadan wadkhulooalbaba sujjadan waqooloo hittatun naghfirlakum khatayakum wasanazeedu almuhsineen

Translation

And [recall] when We said, “Enter this city and eat from it wherever you will in [ease and] abundance, and enter the gate bowing humbly and say, ‘Relieve us of our burdens.’ We will [then] forgive your sins for you, and We will increase the doers of good [in goodness and reward].”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when We said, to them, after they came out of the wilderness, ‘Enter this city, either the Holy House [of Jerusalem] (Bayt al-Maqdis) or Jericho (Arīhā), and eat freely therein wherever you will, plentifully and without any restrictions, and enter it at the gate, its gate, prostrating, bowing, and say, ‘our request is for [an] exoneration’, that is, ‘That we be exonerated from our transgressions’, and We shall forgive (naghfir: a variant reading has one of the two passive forms yughfar or tughfar, ‘[they] will be forgiven’) you your transgressions and We shall give more to those who are virtuous’ — through obedience — in terms of reward.

2:59

فَبَدَّلَ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا قَوْلًا غَيْرَ الَّذِي قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَأَنزَلْنَا عَلَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا رِجْزًا مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْسُقُونَ

Pronunciation

Fabaddala allatheena thalamooqawlan ghayra allathee qeela lahum faanzalna AAalaallatheena thalamoo rijzan mina assama-ibima kanoo yafsuqoon

Translation

But those who wronged changed [those words] to a statement other than that which had been said to them, so We sent down upon those who wronged a punishment from the sky because they were defiantly disobeying.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then the evildoers, among them, substituted a saying other than that which had been said to them, and said instead, ‘A grain inside a hair’ and entered [the town] dragging themselves on their rears; so We sent down upon the evildoers (the replacement of the second person [of the previous verse] with the overt identification in the third person alladhīna zalamū, ‘the evildoers’, is intended to emphasise the depravity of their action) wrath, a punishment of plague, from the heaven for their wickedness, for deviating from obedience, and within a very short period of time just under seventy thousand of them were dead.

2:60

وَإِذِ اسْتَسْقَىٰ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ فَقُلْنَا اضْرِب بِّعَصَاكَ الْحَجَرَ ۖ فَانفَجَرَتْ مِنْهُ اثْنَتَا عَشْرَةَ عَيْنًا ۖ قَدْ عَلِمَ كُلُّ أُنَاسٍ مَّشْرَبَهُمْ ۖ كُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا مِن رِّزْقِ اللَّهِ وَلَا تَعْثَوْا فِي الْأَرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ithi istasqa moosaliqawmihi faqulna idrib biAAasaka alhajarafanfajarat minhu ithnata AAashrata AAaynan qadAAalima kullu onasin mashrabahum kuloo washraboomin rizqi Allahi wala taAAthaw fee al-ardimufsideen

Translation

And [recall] when Moses prayed for water for his people, so We said, “Strike with your staff the stone.” And there gushed forth from it twelve springs, and every people knew its watering place. “Eat and drink from the provision of Allah , and do not commit abuse on the earth, spreading corruption.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, when Moses sought water for his people, for they suffered thirst in the wilderness, We said, ‘Strike with your staff the rock, (the one that ran off with his robe, a light cube-like [rock] about the size of a man’s head, made of marble) and he struck it, and there exploded, there burst and gushed forth, from it twelve fountains, equal to the number of tribes, each people, [each] tribe among them, came to know their drinking-place, which they did not share with any of the others. And We said to them, ‘Eat and drink of that which God has provided, and do not be degenerate in the earth, seeking corruption’ (mufsidīn is a circumstantial qualifier emphasising its operator, the subject of the verb [lā ta‘thaw, ‘do not be degenerate’] derived from ‘athiya, meaning afsada, ‘to corrupt’).

2:61

وَإِذْ قُلْتُمْ يَا مُوسَىٰ لَن نَّصْبِرَ عَلَىٰ طَعَامٍ وَاحِدٍ فَادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُخْرِجْ لَنَا مِمَّا تُنبِتُ الْأَرْضُ مِن بَقْلِهَا وَقِثَّائِهَا وَفُومِهَا وَعَدَسِهَا وَبَصَلِهَا ۖ قَالَ أَتَسْتَبْدِلُونَ الَّذِي هُوَ أَدْنَىٰ بِالَّذِي هُوَ خَيْرٌ ۚ اهْبِطُوا مِصْرًا فَإِنَّ لَكُم مَّا سَأَلْتُمْ ۗ وَضُرِبَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ الذِّلَّةُ وَالْمَسْكَنَةُ وَبَاءُوا بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا يَكْفُرُونَ بِآيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَيَقْتُلُونَ النَّبِيِّينَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ بِمَا عَصَوا وَّكَانُوا يَعْتَدُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qultum ya moosalan nasbira AAala taAAamin wahidinfadAAu lana rabbaka yukhrij lana mimmatunbitu al-ardu min baqliha waqiththa-ihawafoomiha waAAadasiha wabasaliha qalaatastabdiloona allathee huwa adna billatheehuwa khayrun ihbitoo misran fa-inna lakum masaaltum waduribat AAalayhimu aththillatu walmaskanatuwabaoo bighadabin mina Allahi thalikabi-annahum kanoo yakfuroona bi-ayati Allahiwayaqtuloona annabiyyeena bighayri alhaqqi thalikabima AAasaw wakanoo yaAAtadoon

Translation

And [recall] when you said, “O Moses, we can never endure one [kind of] food. So call upon your Lord to bring forth for us from the earth its green herbs and its cucumbers and its garlic and its lentils and its onions.” [Moses] said, “Would you exchange what is better for what is less? Go into [any] settlement and indeed, you will have what you have asked.” And they were covered with humiliation and poverty and returned with anger from Allah [upon them]. That was because they [repeatedly] disbelieved in the signs of Allah and killed the prophets without right. That was because they disobeyed and were [habitually] transgressing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when you said, ‘Moses, we will not endure one sort of food, that is to say, manna and quails; pray to your Lord for us, that He may bring forth for us, something, of (min here is explicative) what the earth produces — green herbs, cucumbers, garlic, lentils, onions’, he, Moses, said, to them, ‘Would you exchange what is better, more noble, that is, do you substitute this, with what is lowlier?’ (the hamza of a-tastabdilūna is for rebuke); they thus refused to change their mind and he [Moses] supplicated to God, and He, exalted be He, said, ‘Go down to a city, whichever city it may be; you shall have, there, what you demanded’ of vegetable produce; And abasement, submissiveness, and wretchedness, that is, the signs of poverty on account of their submissiveness and debasement that always accompany them, even if they be rich, in the same way that a coin never changes its mint; were cast upon them, and they incurred, ended up with God’s wrath; that, that is, that affliction and wrath, was because they used to disbelieve the signs of God and slay prophets, such as Zachariah and John, without right, that is, unjustly; that was because they disobeyed, and they were transgressors, overstepping the bounds in disobedience (here the repetition [dhālik bi-mā ‘asaw wa-kānū ya‘tadūn] is for emphasis).

2:62

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَادُوا وَالنَّصَارَىٰ وَالصَّابِئِينَ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena amanoo wallatheenahadoo wannasara wassabi-eenaman amana biAllahi walyawmi al-akhiriwaAAamila salihan falahum ajruhum AAinda rabbihimwala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoon

Translation

Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans [before Prophet Muhammad] – those [among them] who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness – will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Surely those who believe, [who believed] before, in the prophets, and those of Jewry, the Jews, and the Christians, and the Sabaeans, a Christian or Jewish sect, whoever, from among them, believes in God and the Last Day, in the time of our Prophet, and performs righteous deeds, according to the Law given to him — their wage, that is, the reward for their deeds, is with their Lord, and no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve (the [singular] person of the verbs āmana, ‘believes’, and ‘amila, ‘performs’, takes account of the [singular] form of man, ‘whoever’, but in what comes afterwards [of the plural pronouns] its [plural] meaning [is taken into account]).

2:63

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُوا مَا آتَيْنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَاذْكُرُوا مَا فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith akhathna meethaqakumwarafaAAna fawqakumu attoora khuthooma ataynakum biquwwatin wathkurooma feehi laAAallakum tattaqoon

Translation

And [recall] when We took your covenant, [O Children of Israel, to abide by the Torah] and We raised over you the mount, [saying], “Take what We have given you with determination and remember what is in it that perhaps you may become righteous.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, when We made a covenant with you, your pledge to act according to what is in the Torah, and We, had, raised above you the Mount, which We uprooted from the earth [and placed] above you when you refused to accept it [sc. the Torah], and We said, ‘Take forcefully, seriously and with effort, what We have given you, and remember what is in it, acting in accordance with it, so that you might preserve yourselves’, from the Fire or acts of disobedience.

2:64

ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ ۖ فَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَكُنتُم مِّنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Thumma tawallaytum min baAAdi thalikafalawla fadlu Allahi AAalaykum warahmatuhulakuntum mina alkhasireen

Translation

Then you turned away after that. And if not for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy, you would have been among the losers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then you turned away thereafter, and but for God’s bounty and His mercy towards you, you would have been among the losers [there is no commentary on this verse].

2:65

وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ الَّذِينَ اعْتَدَوْا مِنكُمْ فِي السَّبْتِ فَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ كُونُوا قِرَدَةً خَاسِئِينَ

Pronunciation

Walaqad AAalimtumu allatheenaiAAtadaw minkum fee assabti faqulna lahum koonooqiradatan khasi-een

Translation

And you had already known about those who transgressed among you concerning the sabbath, and We said to them, “Be apes, despised.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And verily (wa-la-qad: the lām is for oaths) you know that there were those among you who transgressed, violated, the Sabbath, by fishing, when We had forbidden you to do so — these were the inhabitants of Eilat — and We said to them, ‘Be apes, despised!’, rejected, and they became so: they died three days later.

2:66

فَجَعَلْنَاهَا نَكَالًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا وَمَا خَلْفَهَا وَمَوْعِظَةً لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

Pronunciation

FajaAAalnaha nakalanlima bayna yadayha wama khalfahawamawAAithatan lilmuttaqeen

Translation

And We made it a deterrent punishment for those who were present and those who succeeded [them] and a lesson for those who fear Allah .

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We made it, this punishment, an exemplary punishment, a lesson to dissuade others from doing what they did; for all the former times and for the latter, that is, for the people of that time or those that came later; and an admonition to such as who fear, God: these are singled out for mention here because they, in contrast to others, are the ones who benefit thereby.

2:67

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَىٰ لِقَوْمِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تَذْبَحُوا بَقَرَةً ۖ قَالُوا أَتَتَّخِذُنَا هُزُوًا ۖ قَالَ أَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْجَاهِلِينَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qala moosaliqawmihi inna Allaha ya/murukum an tathbahoobaqaratan qaloo atattakhithuna huzuwan qalaaAAoothu biAllahi an akoona mina aljahileen

Translation

And [recall] when Moses said to his people, “Indeed, Allah commands you to slaughter a cow.” They said, “Do you take us in ridicule?” He said, “I seek refuge in Allah from being among the ignorant.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, when Moses said to his people, when one among them was killed and the killer was not known, and so they asked Moses to pray to God to reveal the killer, which he did; ‘God commands you to sacrifice a cow’. They said, ‘Do you take us in mockery?’, that is, making fun of us when you answer us like this? He said, ‘I take refuge with, I seek defence with, God lest I should be one of the ignorant’, one of those who indulge in mockery.

2:68

قَالُوا ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِيَ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لَّا فَارِضٌ وَلَا بِكْرٌ عَوَانٌ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ ۖ فَافْعَلُوا مَا تُؤْمَرُونَ

Pronunciation

Qaloo odAAu lana rabbakayubayyin lana ma hiya qala innahu yaqooluinnaha baqaratun la faridun walabikrun AAawanun bayna thalika fafAAaloo matu/maroon

Translation

They said, “Call upon your Lord to make clear to us what it is.” [Moses] said, “[ Allah ] says, ‘It is a cow which is neither old nor virgin, but median between that,’ so do what you are commanded.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But when they realised that he was being serious, They said, ‘Pray to your Lord for us, that He may make clear to us what she may be’, its true nature, He, Moses, said, ‘He, God, says she is a cow neither old, nor virgin, that is, young, middling between the two, in terms of age; so do what you have been commanded’, by way of sacrificing it.

2:69

قَالُوا ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا لَوْنُهَا ۚ قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ صَفْرَاءُ فَاقِعٌ لَّوْنُهَا تَسُرُّ النَّاظِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Qaloo odAAu lana rabbakayubayyin lana ma lawnuha qala innahuyaqoolu innaha baqaratun safrao faqiAAunlawnuha tasurru annathireen

Translation

They said, “Call upon your Lord to show us what is her color.” He said, “He says, ‘It is a yellow cow, bright in color – pleasing to the observers.’ “

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They said, ‘Pray to your Lord for us, that He make clear to us what her colour may be’ He said, ‘He says she shall be a golden cow, bright in colour, that is, of a very intense yellow, gladdening to beholders: its beauty will please those that look at it.

2:70

قَالُوا ادْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ يُبَيِّن لَّنَا مَا هِيَ إِنَّ الْبَقَرَ تَشَابَهَ عَلَيْنَا وَإِنَّا إِن شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَمُهْتَدُونَ

Pronunciation

Qaloo odAAu lana rabbakayubayyin lana ma hiya inna albaqara tashabahaAAalayna wa-inna in shaa Allahulamuhtadoon

Translation

They said, “Call upon your Lord to make clear to us what it is. Indeed, [all] cows look alike to us. And indeed we, if Allah wills, will be guided.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They said, ‘Pray to your Lord for us, that He make clear to us what she may be: does it graze freely or is it used in labour?; the cows (that is, the species described in the way mentioned), are all alike to us, because there are many of them and we have not been able to find the one sought after; and if God wills, we shall then be guided’ to it. In one hadīth [it is reported]: ‘Had they not uttered the proviso [inshā’a Llāh], it would never have been made clear to them’.

2:71

قَالَ إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ إِنَّهَا بَقَرَةٌ لَّا ذَلُولٌ تُثِيرُ الْأَرْضَ وَلَا تَسْقِي الْحَرْثَ مُسَلَّمَةٌ لَّا شِيَةَ فِيهَا ۚ قَالُوا الْآنَ جِئْتَ بِالْحَقِّ ۚ فَذَبَحُوهَا وَمَا كَادُوا يَفْعَلُونَ

Pronunciation

Qala innahu yaqoolu innahabaqaratun la thaloolun tutheeru al-arda walatasqee alhartha musallamatun la shiyata feehaqaloo al-ana ji/ta bilhaqqi fathabahoohawama kadoo yafAAaloon

Translation

He said, “He says, ‘It is a cow neither trained to plow the earth nor to irrigate the field, one free from fault with no spot upon her.’ ” They said, “Now you have come with the truth.” So they slaughtered her, but they could hardly do it.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He said, ‘He says she shall be a cow not broken, not subdued for labour, that is, to plough the earth, churning its soil for sowing (tuthīr al-ard: the clause describes the word dhalūl, and constitutes part of the negation); or to water the tillage, that is, the land prepared for sowing; one safe, from faults and the effects of toil; with no blemish, of a colour other than her own, on her’. They said, ‘Now you have brought the truth’, that is, [now] you have explained it clearly; they thus sought it out and found it with a boy very dutiful towards his mother, and they eventually purchased it for the equivalent of its weight in gold; and so they sacrificed her, even though they very nearly did not, on account of its excessive cost. In a hadīth [it is stated that], ‘Had they sacrificed any cow, it would have sufficed them, but they made it difficult for themselves and so God made it difficult for them’.

2:72

وَإِذْ قَتَلْتُمْ نَفْسًا فَادَّارَأْتُمْ فِيهَا ۖ وَاللَّهُ مُخْرِجٌ مَّا كُنتُمْ تَكْتُمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qataltum nafsan faddara/tumfeeha wallahu mukhrijun ma kuntumtaktumoon

Translation

And [recall] when you slew a man and disputed over it, but Allah was to bring out that which you were concealing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when you killed a living soul, and disputed thereon (iddāra’tum: the tā’ [of the root-form itdāra’tum] has been assimilated with the dāl) — and God disclosed what you were hiding (this is a parenthetical statement; the story begins here [with wa-idh qataltum nafsan, ‘and when you killed a soul’… and continues in the following]):

2:73

فَقُلْنَا اضْرِبُوهُ بِبَعْضِهَا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُحْيِي اللَّهُ الْمَوْتَىٰ وَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

Pronunciation

Faqulna idriboohu bibaAAdihakathalika yuhyee Allahu almawtawayureekum ayatihi laAAallakum taAAqiloon

Translation

So, We said, “Strike the slain man with part of it.” Thus does Allah bring the dead to life, and He shows you His signs that you might reason.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

so We said, ‘Smite him, the slain man, with part of it’, and so when he was struck with its tongue or its tail, he came back to life and said, ‘So-and-so killed me’, and after pointing out two of his cousins, he died; the two [killers] were denied the inheritance and were later killed. God says: even so, is the revival, for, God brings to life the dead, and He shows you His signs, the proofs of His power, so that you might understand, [that you might] reflect and realise that the One capable of reviving a single soul is also capable of reviving a multitude of souls, and then believe.

2:74

ثُمَّ قَسَتْ قُلُوبُكُم مِّن بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ فَهِيَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً ۚ وَإِنَّ مِنَ الْحِجَارَةِ لَمَا يَتَفَجَّرُ مِنْهُ الْأَنْهَارُ ۚ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَشَّقَّقُ فَيَخْرُجُ مِنْهُ الْمَاءُ ۚ وَإِنَّ مِنْهَا لَمَا يَهْبِطُ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

Pronunciation

Thumma qasat quloobukum min baAAdi thalikafahiya kalhijarati aw ashaddu qaswatanwa-inna mina alhijarati lama yatafajjaruminhu al-anharu wa-inna minha lamayashshaqqaqu fayakhruju minhu almao wa-inna minhalama yahbitu min khashyati Allahi wamaAllahu bighafilin AAamma taAAmaloon

Translation

Then your hearts became hardened after that, being like stones or even harder. For indeed, there are stones from which rivers burst forth, and there are some of them that split open and water comes out, and there are some of them that fall down for fear of Allah . And Allah is not unaware of what you do.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then your hearts became hardened, O you Jews, they [your hearts] became stiffened against acceptance of the truth, thereafter, that is, after what is mentioned of the bringing back to life of the slain man and the other signs before this; and they are like stones, in their hardness, or even yet harder, than these; for there are stones from which rivers come gushing, and others split (yashshaqqaq: the initial tā’ [of the root-form yatashaqqaq] has been assimilated with the shīn), so that water issues from them; and others come down, from on high, in fear of God, while your hearts are unmoved, unstirred and not humbled; And God is not heedless of what you do, but instead, He gives you respite until your time comes (ta‘malūna, ‘you do’: a variant reading has ya‘malūna, ‘they do’, indicating a shift to the third person address).

2:75

أَفَتَطْمَعُونَ أَن يُؤْمِنُوا لَكُمْ وَقَدْ كَانَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ كَلَامَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُحَرِّفُونَهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا عَقَلُوهُ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

AfatatmaAAoona an yu/minoo lakumwaqad kana fareequn minhum yasmaAAoona kalama Allahithumma yuharrifoonahu min baAAdi ma AAaqaloohuwahum yaAAlamoon

Translation

Do you covet [the hope, O believers], that they would believe for you while a party of them used to hear the words of Allah and then distort the Torah after they had understood it while they were knowing?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Are you then so eager, O believers, that they, the Jews, should believe you, seeing there is a party of them, a group of their rabbis, that heard God’s word, in the Torah, and then tampered with it, changing it, and that, after they had comprehended it, [after] they had understood it, knowingly?, [knowing full well] that they were indulging in mendacity (the hamza [at the beginning of the verb a-fa-tatma‘ūn] is [an interrogative] for rejection, in other words, ‘Do not be so eager, for they have disbelieved before’).

2:76

وَإِذَا لَقُوا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا قَالُوا آمَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلَا بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ قَالُوا أَتُحَدِّثُونَهُم بِمَا فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لِيُحَاجُّوكُم بِهِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ ۚ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha laqoo allatheena amanooqaloo amanna wa-itha khalabaAAduhum ila baAAdin qaloo atuhaddithoonahumbima fataha Allahu AAalaykum liyuhajjookumbihi AAinda rabbikum afala taAAqiloon

Translation

And when they meet those who believe, they say, “We have believed”; but when they are alone with one another, they say, “Do you talk to them about what Allah has revealed to you so they can argue with you about it before your Lord?” Then will you not reason?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when they, the hypocrites from among the Jews, meet those who believe, they say, ‘We believe’, that Muhammad (s) is a prophet and that he is the one of whom we have been given good tidings in our Book; but when they go in private one to another, they, their leaders the ones not involved in the hypocrisy, say, to those hypocrites: ‘Do you speak to them, the believers, of what God has disclosed to you, that is, what He has made known to you of Muhammad’s (s) description in the Torah, so that they may thereby dispute (the lām of li-yuhājjūkum, ‘that they may dispute with you’, is the lām of ‘becoming’) with you before your Lord?, in the Hereafter and hold the proof against you for not following him [Muhammad (s)], despite your knowledge of his sincerity? Have you no understanding?’ of the fact that they will contend with you if you speak to them in this way? So beware.

2:77

أَوَلَا يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Awa la yaAAlamoona anna AllahayaAAlamu ma yusirroona wama yuAAlinoon

Translation

But do they not know that Allah knows what they conceal and what they declare?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God says: Know they not (the interrogative is affirmative, the inserted wāw [of a-wa-lā] is to indicate the supplement) that God knows what they keep secret and what they proclaim?, that is, what they hide and what they reveal in this matter and all other matters, so that they may desist from these things.

2:78

وَمِنْهُمْ أُمِّيُّونَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا أَمَانِيَّ وَإِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ

Pronunciation

Waminhum ommiyyoona la yaAAlamoonaalkitaba illa amaniyya wa-in hum illayathunnoon

Translation

And among them are unlettered ones who do not know the Scripture except in wishful thinking, but they are only assuming.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And there are some of them, the Jews, that are illiterate, unlettered, not knowing the Scripture, the Torah, but only desires, lies which were handed down to them by their leaders and which they relied upon; and, in their rejection of the prophethood of the Prophet and fabrications of other matters, they have, mere conjectures, and no firm knowledge.

2:79

فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ يَكْتُبُونَ الْكِتَابَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ يَقُولُونَ هَٰذَا مِنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ لِيَشْتَرُوا بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۖ فَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا كَتَبَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَوَيْلٌ لَّهُم مِّمَّا يَكْسِبُونَ

Pronunciation

Fawaylun lillatheena yaktuboona alkitababi-aydeehim thumma yaqooloona hatha min AAindi Allahiliyashtaroo bihi thamanan qaleelan fawaylun lahum mimmakatabat aydeehim wawaylun lahum mimma yaksiboon

Translation

So woe to those who write the “scripture” with their own hands, then say, “This is from Allah ,” in order to exchange it for a small price. Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for what they earn.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So woe, a severe chastisement, to those who write the Scripture with their hands, that is, fabricating it themselves, then say, ‘This is from God’ that they may sell it for a small price, of this world: these are the Jews, the ones that altered the description of the Prophet in the Torah, as well as the ‘stoning’ verse, and other details, and rewrote them in a way different from that in which they were revealed. So woe to them for what their hands have written, of fabrications, and woe to them for their earnings, by way of bribery (rishan, plural of rishwa).

2:80

وَقَالُوا لَن تَمَسَّنَا النَّارُ إِلَّا أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَةً ۚ قُلْ أَتَّخَذْتُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَهْدًا فَلَن يُخْلِفَ اللَّهُ عَهْدَهُ ۖ أَمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Waqaloo lan tamassana annaruilla ayyaman maAAdoodatan qul attakhathtumAAinda Allahi AAahdan falan yukhlifa AllahuAAahdahu am taqooloona AAala Allahi ma lataAAlamoon

Translation

And they say, “Never will the Fire touch us, except for a few days.” Say, “Have you taken a covenant with Allah ? For Allah will never break His covenant. Or do you say about Allah that which you do not know?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they say, when the Prophet promised them the Fire, ‘the Fire shall not touch us, that is, afflict us, save a number of days’, only a short time of forty days: the same length of time their forefathers worshipped the calf, after which time it [the Fire] will cease. Say, to them Muhammad (s): ‘Have you taken with God a covenant?, a pledge from Him to this? God will not fail in His covenant, in this matter, or — nay — say you against God what you do not know? (a’ttakhadhtum: the conjunctive hamza has been omitted on account of the interrogative hamza sufficing).

2:81

بَلَىٰ مَن كَسَبَ سَيِّئَةً وَأَحَاطَتْ بِهِ خَطِيئَتُهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Pronunciation

Bala man kasaba sayyi-atan waahatatbihi khatee-atuhu faola-ika as-habu annarihum feeha khalidoon

Translation

Yes, whoever earns evil and his sin has encompassed him – those are the companions of the Fire; they will abide therein eternally.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Not so, it will touch you and you will abide therein; whoever earns evil, through associating another with God, and is encompassed by his transgression, in the singular and the plural, that is to say, it overcomes him and encircles him totally, for, he has died an idolater — those are the inhabitants of the Fire, therein abiding (khālidūn: this [plural noun] takes account of the [plural] import of man, ‘whoever’).

2:82

وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Pronunciation

Wallatheena amanoowaAAamiloo assalihati ola-ika as-habualjannati hum feeha khalidoon

Translation

But they who believe and do righteous deeds – those are the companions of Paradise; they will abide therein eternally.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those who believe and perform righteous deeds — those are the inhabitants of Paradise, therein abiding.

2:83

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ لَا تَعْبُدُونَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَقُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْنًا وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ثُمَّ تَوَلَّيْتُمْ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنكُمْ وَأَنتُم مُّعْرِضُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith akhathna meethaqabanee isra-eela la taAAbudoona illa Allahawabilwalidayni ihsanan watheealqurba walyatama walmasakeeniwaqooloo linnasi husnan waaqeemoo assalatawaatoo azzakata thumma tawallaytum illaqaleelan minkum waantum muAAridoon

Translation

And [recall] when We took the covenant from the Children of Israel, [enjoining upon them], “Do not worship except Allah ; and to parents do good and to relatives, orphans, and the needy. And speak to people good [words] and establish prayer and give zakah.” Then you turned away, except a few of you, and you were refusing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, when We made a covenant with the Children of Israel, in the Torah, where We said: ‘You shall not worship (a variant reading [for lā ta‘budūna] has [third person plural] lā ya‘budūn [‘they shall not worship’]) any other than God (lā ta‘budūna illā Llāha is a predicate denoting a prohibition; one may also read lā ta‘budū [Worship you not]); and to be good, and righteous, to parents, and the near of kin: here kinship is adjoined to parents; and to orphans, and to the needy; and speak well, [good] words, to men, commanding good and forbidding evil, being truthful with regard to the status of Muhammad (s), and being kind to them [sc. orphans and the needy] (a variant reading [for hasanan] has husnan, the verbal noun, used as a hyperbolic description); and observe prayer and pay the alms’, which you actually accepted, but, then you turned away, refusing to fulfil these [obligations] (here the second person address is used, but their forefathers are [still] meant); all but a few of you, rejecting it, like your forefathers.

2:84

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ لَا تَسْفِكُونَ دِمَاءَكُمْ وَلَا تُخْرِجُونَ أَنفُسَكُم مِّن دِيَارِكُمْ ثُمَّ أَقْرَرْتُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَشْهَدُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith akhathna meethaqakumla tasfikoona dimaakum wala tukhrijoonaanfusakum min diyarikum thumma aqrartum waantum tashhadoon

Translation

And [recall] when We took your covenant, [saying], “Do not shed each other’s blood or evict one another from your homes.” Then you acknowledged [this] while you were witnessing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when We made a covenant with you, and We said: ‘You shall not shed your own blood, spilling it by slaying one another; neither expel your own from your habitations’: let no one of you expel the other from his house; then you confirmed it, that is, you accepted this covenant, and you bore witness, upon your own souls.

2:85

ثُمَّ أَنتُمْ هَٰؤُلَاءِ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَتُخْرِجُونَ فَرِيقًا مِّنكُم مِّن دِيَارِهِمْ تَظَاهَرُونَ عَلَيْهِم بِالْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ وَإِن يَأْتُوكُمْ أُسَارَىٰ تُفَادُوهُمْ وَهُوَ مُحَرَّمٌ عَلَيْكُمْ إِخْرَاجُهُمْ ۚ أَفَتُؤْمِنُونَ بِبَعْضِ الْكِتَابِ وَتَكْفُرُونَ بِبَعْضٍ ۚ فَمَا جَزَاءُ مَن يَفْعَلُ ذَٰلِكَ مِنكُمْ إِلَّا خِزْيٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَيَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَىٰ أَشَدِّ الْعَذَابِ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

Pronunciation

Thumma antum haola-itaqtuloona anfusakum watukhrijoona fareeqan minkum min diyarihimtathaharoona AAalayhim bil-ithmi walAAudwaniwa-in ya/tookum osara tufadoohum wahuwa muharramunAAalaykum ikhrajuhum afatu/minoona bibaAAdi alkitabiwatakfuroona bibaAAdin fama jazao manyafAAalu thalika minkum illa khizyun fee alhayatiaddunya wayawma alqiyamati yuraddoona ilaashaddi alAAathabi wama Allahu bighafilinAAamma taAAmaloon

Translation

Then, you are those [same ones who are] killing one another and evicting a party of your people from their homes, cooperating against them in sin and aggression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their eviction was forbidden to you. So do you believe in part of the Scripture and disbelieve in part? Then what is the recompense for those who do that among you except disgrace in worldly life; and on the Day of Resurrection they will be sent back to the severest of punishment. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then there you are killing one another, and expelling a party of you from their habitations, conspiring (tazzāharūna: the original ta’ has been assimilated with the zā’; a variant reading has it without [the assimilation, that is, tazāharūna]), assisting one another, against them in sin, in disobedience, and enmity, injustice, and if they come to you as captives (a variant reading [for usārā] has asrā), you ransom them (a variant reading [for tafdūhum] has tufādūhum), that is to say, you deliver them from captivity with money etc., and this [ransoming] was one of the things to which they were pledged; yet their expulsion was forbidden you (muharramun ‘alaykum ikhrājuhum is semantically connected to wa-tukhrijūna, ‘and expelling’, and the statement that comes in between is parenthetical, that is, [expulsion was forbidden you] in the same way that non-ransoming was forbidden you). Qurayza had allied themselves with the Aws, and the Nadīr with the Khazraj, but every member of an alliance would fight against a fellow ally, thus destroying each other’s homes and expelling one another, taking prisoners and then ransoming them. When they were asked: ‘Why do you fight them and then pay their ransom?’, they would reply, ‘Because we have been commanded to ransom’; and they would be asked, ‘So, why do you fight them then?’, to which they would say, ‘For fear that our allies be humiliated’; God, exalted, says: What, do you believe in part of the Book, that is, the part about ransom, and disbelieve in part?, namely, the part about renouncing fighting, expulsion and assistance [against one another]; What shall be the requital of those of you who do that, but degradation, disgrace and ignominy, in the life of this world: they were disgraced when Qurayza were slewn and the Nadīr were expelled to Syria, and ordered to pay the jizya; and on the Day of Resurrection to be returned to the most terrible of chastisement? And God is not heedless of what you do (ta‘malūna, or read ya‘malūna, ‘they do’).

2:86

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا بِالْآخِرَةِ ۖ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

Pronunciation

Ola-ika allatheena ishtarawooalhayata addunya bil-akhiratifala yukhaffafu AAanhumu alAAathabu wala humyunsaroon

Translation

Those are the ones who have bought the life of this world [in exchange] for the Hereafter, so the punishment will not be lightened for them, nor will they be aided.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those are the ones who have purchased the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter, by preferring the former to the latter — for them the punishment shall not be lightened, neither shall they be helped, [neither shall they be] protected against it.

2:87

وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْكِتَابَ وَقَفَّيْنَا مِن بَعْدِهِ بِالرُّسُلِ ۖ وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ ۗ أَفَكُلَّمَا جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ بِمَا لَا تَهْوَىٰ أَنفُسُكُمُ اسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ فَفَرِيقًا كَذَّبْتُمْ وَفَرِيقًا تَقْتُلُونَ

Pronunciation

Walaqad atayna moosaalkitaba waqaffayna min baAAdihi birrusuliwaatayna AAeesa ibna maryama albayyinatiwaayyadnahu biroohi alqudusi afakullama jaakumrasoolun bima la tahwa anfusukumuistakbartum fafareeqan kaththabtum wafareeqan taqtuloon

Translation

And We did certainly give Moses the Torah and followed up after him with messengers. And We gave Jesus, the son of Mary, clear proofs and supported him with the Pure Spirit. But is it [not] that every time a messenger came to you, [O Children of Israel], with what your souls did not desire, you were arrogant? And a party [of messengers] you denied and another party you killed.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We gave Moses the Scripture, the Torah, and after him We sent successive messengers, that is, We sent them one after another, and We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear proofs, that is, the miracles of bringing the dead back to life and healing the blind and the leper, and We confirmed him, We strengthened him, with the Holy Spirit (the expression rūh al-qudus is an example of annexing [in a genitive construction] the noun described to the adjective [qualifying it], in other words, al-rūh al-muqaddasa), that is, Gabriel, [so described] on account of his [Jesus’s] sanctity; he would accompany him [Jesus] wherever he went; still you refuse to be upright, and whenever there came to you a messenger, with what your souls did not desire, [did not] like, in the way of truth, you became arrogant, you disdained to follow him (istakbartum, ‘you became arrogant’, is the response to the particle kullamā, ‘whenever’, and constitutes the interrogative, and is meant as a rebuke); and some, of them, you called liars, such as Jesus, and some you slay?, such as Zachariah and John (the present tenses [of these verbs] are used to narrate the past events [as though they were events in the present], in other words, ‘[and some] you slew’).

2:88

وَقَالُوا قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌ ۚ بَل لَّعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَقَلِيلًا مَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Waqaloo quloobuna ghulfun ballaAAanahumu Allahu bikufrihim faqaleelan mayu/minoon

Translation

And they said, “Our hearts are wrapped.” But, [in fact], Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, so little is it that they believe.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they say, to the Prophet mockingly: ‘Our hearts are encased’ (ghulf is the plural of aghlaf), that is to say, wrapped up in covers and cannot comprehend what you say; God, exalted be He, says: Nay (bal introduces the rebuttal), but God has cursed them, removed them far from His mercy and degraded them when they rejected [the messengers], for their unbelief, which is not the result of anything defective in their hearts; and little will they believe (fa-qalīlan mā yu’minūn: the mā here is extra, emphasising the ‘littleness’ involved): that is, their belief is minimal.

2:89

وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ كِتَابٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ وَكَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ يَسْتَفْتِحُونَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَلَمَّا جَاءَهُم مَّا عَرَفُوا كَفَرُوا بِهِ ۚ فَلَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَى الْكَافِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Walamma jaahum kitabunmin AAindi Allahi musaddiqun lima maAAahumwakanoo min qablu yastaftihoona AAala allatheenakafaroo falamma jaahum ma AAarafoo kafaroobihi falaAAnatu Allahi AAala alkafireen

Translation

And when there came to them a Book from Allah confirming that which was with them – although before they used to pray for victory against those who disbelieved – but [then] when there came to them that which they recognized, they disbelieved in it; so the curse of Allah will be upon the disbelievers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When there came to them a Book from God, confirming what was with them, in the Torah, that is the Qur’ān — and they formerly, before it came, prayed for victory, for assistance, over the disbelievers, saying: ‘God, give us assistance against them through the Prophet that shall be sent at the end of time’; but when there came to them what they recognised, as the truth, that is, the mission of the Prophet, they disbelieved in it, out of envy and for fear of losing leadership (the response to the first lammā particle is indicated by the response to the second one); and the curse of God is on the disbelievers.

2:90

بِئْسَمَا اشْتَرَوْا بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ أَن يَكْفُرُوا بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ بَغْيًا أَن يُنَزِّلَ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ۖ فَبَاءُوا بِغَضَبٍ عَلَىٰ غَضَبٍ ۚ وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ

Pronunciation

Bi/sama ishtaraw bihi anfusahum anyakfuroo bima anzala Allahu baghyan an yunazzilaAllahu min fadlihi AAala man yashaomin AAibadihi fabaoo bighadabin AAalaghadabin walilkafireena AAathabun muheen

Translation

How wretched is that for which they sold themselves – that they would disbelieve in what Allah has revealed through [their] outrage that Allah would send down His favor upon whom He wills from among His servants. So they returned having [earned] wrath upon wrath. And for the disbelievers is a humiliating punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Evil is that for which they sell their souls, that is, their share of the reward [in the Hereafter] (bi’samā, ‘evil is that [for] which’: mā here is an indefinite particle, representing ‘a thing’, and constitutes a specification qualifying the subject of [the verb] bi’s, ‘evil is’, the very thing being singled out for criticism); that they disbelieve in that, Qur’ān, which God has revealed, grudging (baghyan here is an object denoting reason for yakfurū, ‘they disbelieve’), that is, out of envy, that God should reveal (read either yunzil or yunazzil) of His bounty, the Inspiration, to whomever He will of His servants, to deliver the Message; and they were laden, they returned, with anger, from God for their disbelief in what He has revealed (the indefinite form, bi-ghadabin, ‘with anger’, is used to emphasise the awesomeness [of the ‘anger’]), upon anger, which they deserved formerly, when they neglected the Torah and disbelieved in Jesus; and for the disbelievers there shall be a humiliating chastisement.

2:91

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ آمِنُوا بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُوا نُؤْمِنُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَيْنَا وَيَكْفُرُونَ بِمَا وَرَاءَهُ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ ۗ قُلْ فَلِمَ تَقْتُلُونَ أَنبِيَاءَ اللَّهِ مِن قَبْلُ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha qeela lahum aminoo bimaanzala Allahu qaloo nu/minu bima onzilaAAalayna wayakfuroona bima waraahu wahuwa alhaqqumusaddiqan lima maAAahum qul falima taqtuloonaanbiyaa Allahi min qablu in kuntum mu/mineen

Translation

And when it is said to them, “Believe in what Allah has revealed,” they say, “We believe [only] in what was revealed to us.” And they disbelieve in what came after it, while it is the truth confirming that which is with them. Say, “Then why did you kill the prophets of Allah before, if you are [indeed] believers?”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when it was said to them, ‘Believe in what God has revealed, that is, the Qur’ān and other [Books], they said, ‘We believe in what was revealed to us’, that is, the Torah; and (wā, here indicates a circumstantial qualifier) they disbelieve in what is beyond that, what is other than that or what came afterwards, such as the Qur’ān; yet it is the truth (wa-huwa’l-haqqu is a circumstantial qualifier) confirming (musaddiqan, a second circumstantial qualifier for emphasis) what is with them. Say, to them: ‘Why then were you slaying the prophets of God formerly, if you were believers?’ in the Torah and in it you were forbidden to kill them: this address, concerning what their forefathers did, is directed towards those present at the time of our Prophet, on account of their approval of it [that is, of what the forefathers had done].

2:92

وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكُم مُّوسَىٰ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ اتَّخَذْتُمُ الْعِجْلَ مِن بَعْدِهِ وَأَنتُمْ ظَالِمُونَ

Pronunciation

Walaqad jaakum moosa bilbayyinatithumma ittakhathtumu alAAijla min baAAdihi waantum thalimoon

Translation

And Moses had certainly brought you clear proofs. Then you took the calf [in worship] after that, while you were wrongdoers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And Moses came to you with clear proofs, miracles, such as the staff, his hand, and the parting of the sea; then you took to yourselves the calf, as a god, after him, after he had gone to the appointment, and you were evildoers, for taking it [in worship].

2:93

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِيثَاقَكُمْ وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَكُمُ الطُّورَ خُذُوا مَا آتَيْنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَاسْمَعُوا ۖ قَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَأُشْرِبُوا فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْعِجْلَ بِكُفْرِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ بِئْسَمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِهِ إِيمَانُكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith akhathna meethaqakumwarafaAAna fawqakumu attoora khuthooma ataynakum biquwwatin wasmaAAoo qaloosamiAAna waAAasayna waoshriboo feequloobihimu alAAijla bikufrihim qul bi/sama ya/murukumbihi eemanukum in kuntum mu/mineen

Translation

And [recall] when We took your covenant and raised over you the mount, [saying], “Take what We have given you with determination and listen.” They said [instead], “We hear and disobey.” And their hearts absorbed [the worship of] the calf because of their disbelief. Say, “How wretched is that which your faith enjoins upon you, if you should be believers.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when We made a covenant with you, to act according to what is in the Torah, and raised over you the Mount, to drop it on you, when you had refused to accept it; We said, ‘Take forcefully, seriously and with effort, what We have given you, and listen’, to what you have been commanded, and be prepared to accept it, They said, ‘We hear, your words, and disobey’, your command; and they were made to drink the calf in their hearts, that is to say, the love of it [the golden calf] intoxicated their hearts in the way that wine does, on account of their unbelief. Say, to them: ‘Evil is that, thing, which your belief, in the Torah, enjoins on you, [in the way of] the worship of the [golden] calf, if you are believers’, in it, as you claim; meaning, you are not believers, for faith does not command that you worship the calf — their forefathers are meant here. Likewise, you do not believe in the Torah, because you have denied [the prophethood of] Muhammad (s), whereas faith in it does not command you to reject him.

2:94

قُلْ إِن كَانَتْ لَكُمُ الدَّارُ الْآخِرَةُ عِندَ اللَّهِ خَالِصَةً مِّن دُونِ النَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُا الْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Pronunciation

Qul in kanat lakumu addarual-akhiratu AAinda Allahi khalisatanmin dooni annasi fatamannawoo almawta in kuntum sadiqeen

Translation

Say, [O Muhammad], “If the home of the Hereafter with Allah is for you alone and not the [other] people, then wish for death, if you should be truthful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say, to them: ‘If the Abode of the Hereafter, that is, Paradise, with God is purely yours, that is, exclusively, and not for other people, as you allege, then long for death — if you speak truly’ (here both conditionals are connected to the verb tamannū, ‘long for’, so that the first is dependent upon the second, in other words, ‘If you speak truly when you claim that it is yours, then you will naturally incline to what is yours, and since the path to it is death, long for it [death]’).

2:95

وَلَن يَتَمَنَّوْهُ أَبَدًا بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Walan yatamannawhu abadan bimaqaddamat aydeehim wallahu AAaleemun biaththalimeen

Translation

But they will never wish for it, ever, because of what their hands have put forth. And Allah is Knowing of the wrongdoers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But they will never long for it, because of that which their own hands have sent before them, as a result of their rejection of the Prophet (s), the consequence of their mendacity. God knows the evildoers, the disbelievers and He will requite them.

2:96

وَلَتَجِدَنَّهُمْ أَحْرَصَ النَّاسِ عَلَىٰ حَيَاةٍ وَمِنَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا ۚ يَوَدُّ أَحَدُهُمْ لَوْ يُعَمَّرُ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ وَمَا هُوَ بِمُزَحْزِحِهِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ أَن يُعَمَّرَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بَصِيرٌ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ

Pronunciation

Walatajidannahum ahrasa annasiAAala hayatin wamina allatheenaashrakoo yawaddu ahaduhum law yuAAammaru alfa sanatin wamahuwa bimuzahzihihi mina alAAathabi anyuAAammara wallahu baseerun bimayaAAmaloon

Translation

And you will surely find them the most greedy of people for life – [even] more than those who associate others with Allah . One of them wishes that he could be granted life a thousand years, but it would not remove him in the least from the [coming] punishment that he should be granted life. And Allah is Seeing of what they do.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And you shall find them (the lām of la-tajidannahum is for oaths) the people most covetous of life, and, more covetous of it than, the idolaters, who reject the [idea of the] Resurrection, for the former know that their journey’s end will be the Fire, while the idolaters do not believe even in this; any one of them would love, wishes, that he might be given life for a thousand years (law yu‘ammar, ‘[if only] he might be given life’: the particle law, ‘if only’, relates to the verbal noun and functions with the sense of an, ‘that’, and together with its relative clause explains the [implicit] verbal noun in the object of the verb yawaddu, ‘he would love’); yet, any one of them, his being given life (an yu‘ammara, ‘that he should be given life’, constitutes the subject of the verb muzahzihihi, ‘that it should budge him’ [this verb comes later], as though it were ta‘mīruhu, ‘the giving of life to him’) shall not budge, remove, him from the chastisement, of the Fire. God sees what they do (ya‘malūna may be alternatively read ta‘malūna, ‘you do’), and will requite them. [‘Abd Allāh] Ibn Sūryā asked the Prophet (s), or ‘Umar [b. al-Khattāb], about which angel brings down the revelation, and he replied that it was Gabriel; he [Ibn Sūryā] then said, ‘He is our enemy, because he brings chastisement with him; had it been Michael, we would have believed in him, because he brings fertility and security.’ Then, the following was revealed:

2:97

قُلْ مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّجِبْرِيلَ فَإِنَّهُ نَزَّلَهُ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَهُدًى وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Qul man kana AAaduwwan lijibreelafa-innahu nazzalahu AAala qalbika bi-ithni Allahimusaddiqan lima bayna yadayhi wahudan wabushralilmu/mineen

Translation

Say, “Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel – it is [none but] he who has brought the Qur’an down upon your heart, [O Muhammad], by permission of Allah , confirming that which was before it and as guidance and good tidings for the believers.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say, to them: ‘Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel, let him die in exasperation — he it was that brought it, the Qur’ān, down upon your heart by the leave, by the command, of God, confirming what was before it, of scriptures, a guidance, from error, and good tidings, of Paradise, for the believers.

2:98

مَن كَانَ عَدُوًّا لِّلَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَجِبْرِيلَ وَمِيكَالَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَدُوٌّ لِّلْكَافِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Man kana AAaduwwan lillahiwamala-ikatihi warusulihi wajibreela wameekalafa-inna Allaha AAaduwwun lilkafireen

Translation

Whoever is an enemy to Allah and His angels and His messengers and Gabriel and Michael – then indeed, Allah is an enemy to the disbelievers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Whoever is an enemy to God and His angels and His messengers, and Gabriel (read Jibrīl or Jabrīl, Jibra’il or Jabra’il, Jibra’īl or Jabra’īl), and Michael (Mīkāl, also read Mīkā’īl, or Mīkā’il; a supplement to malā’ikatihi, ‘His angels’, an example of the specific being supplemented to the collective) — then surely God is an enemy to the disbelievers’ (He says ‘to the disbelievers’ instead of ‘to them’ in order to point out their status).

2:99

وَلَقَدْ أَنزَلْنَا إِلَيْكَ آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ ۖ وَمَا يَكْفُرُ بِهَا إِلَّا الْفَاسِقُونَ

Pronunciation

Walaqad anzalna ilayka ayatinbayyinatin wama yakfuru biha illa alfasiqoon

Translation

And We have certainly revealed to you verses [which are] clear proofs, and no one would deny them except the defiantly disobedient.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And We have revealed to you, O Muhammad (s), clear proofs, lucid [ones] (bayyinātin, ‘clear proofs’, is a circumstantial qualifier; this was in response to Ibn Sūryā saying to the Prophet (s), ‘You have not brought us anything’); and none disbelieves in them except the wicked, these have disbelieved in them.

2:100

أَوَكُلَّمَا عَاهَدُوا عَهْدًا نَّبَذَهُ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُم ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Awa kullama AAahadoo AAahdannabathahu fareequn minhum bal aktharuhum layu/minoon

Translation

Is it not [true] that every time they took a covenant a party of them threw it away? But, [in fact], most of them do not believe.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Why, whenever they make a covenant, with God that they will believe in the Prophet (s) when he appears, or that they will not give assistance to the idolaters against the Prophet (s), does a party of them reject it?, cast it away repudiating it (this is the response to the clause beginning with kullamā, the interrogative of rebuke). Nay (bal indicates a transition), but most of them are disbelievers.

2:101

وَلَمَّا جَاءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ مُصَدِّقٌ لِّمَا مَعَهُمْ نَبَذَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ كِتَابَ اللَّهِ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Walamma jaahum rasoolun minAAindi Allahi musaddiqun lima maAAahum nabathafareequn mina allatheena ootoo alkitaba kitabaAllahi waraa thuhoorihim kaannahum layaAAlamoon

Translation

And when a messenger from Allah came to them confirming that which was with them, a party of those who had been given the Scripture threw the Scripture of Allah behind their backs as if they did not know [what it contained].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When there came to them a messenger from God, namely, Muhammad (s), confirming what was with them, a party of them who were given the Scripture have cast away the Scripture of God, that is, the Torah, behind their backs, that is to say, they have not acted according to what it said about belief in the Messenger and otherwise; as though they did not know, what is contained in it, to the effect that he is a true Prophet, or that it is the Book of God.

2:102

وَاتَّبَعُوا مَا تَتْلُو الشَّيَاطِينُ عَلَىٰ مُلْكِ سُلَيْمَانَ ۖ وَمَا كَفَرَ سُلَيْمَانُ وَلَٰكِنَّ الشَّيَاطِينَ كَفَرُوا يُعَلِّمُونَ النَّاسَ السِّحْرَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ عَلَى الْمَلَكَيْنِ بِبَابِلَ هَارُوتَ وَمَارُوتَ ۚ وَمَا يُعَلِّمَانِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَا إِنَّمَا نَحْنُ فِتْنَةٌ فَلَا تَكْفُرْ ۖ فَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مِنْهُمَا مَا يُفَرِّقُونَ بِهِ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ ۚ وَمَا هُم بِضَارِّينَ بِهِ مِنْ أَحَدٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَيَتَعَلَّمُونَ مَا يَضُرُّهُمْ وَلَا يَنفَعُهُمْ ۚ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمُوا لَمَنِ اشْتَرَاهُ مَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ مَا شَرَوْا بِهِ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

WattabaAAoo ma tatloo ashshayateenuAAala mulki sulaymana wama kafara sulaymanuwalakinna ashshayateena kafarooyuAAallimoona annasa assihra wamaonzila AAala almalakayni bibabila harootawamaroota wama yuAAallimani min ahadinhatta yaqoola innama nahnufitnatun fala takfur fayataAAallamoona minhuma mayufarriqoona bihi bayna almar-i wazawjihi wama hum bidarreenabihi min ahadin illa bi-ithni AllahiwayataAAallamoona ma yadurruhum walayanfaAAuhum walaqad AAalimoo lamani ishtarahu malahu fee al-akhirati min khalaqin walabi/sa masharaw bihi anfusahum law kanoo yaAAlamoon

Translation

And they followed [instead] what the devils had recited during the reign of Solomon. It was not Solomon who disbelieved, but the devils disbelieved, teaching people magic and that which was revealed to the two angels at Babylon, Harut and Marut. But the two angels do not teach anyone unless they say, “We are a trial, so do not disbelieve [by practicing magic].” And [yet] they learn from them that by which they cause separation between a man and his wife. But they do not harm anyone through it except by permission of Allah . And the people learn what harms them and does not benefit them. But the Children of Israel certainly knew that whoever purchased the magic would not have in the Hereafter any share. And wretched is that for which they sold themselves, if they only knew.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they follow (wa’ttaba‘ū is a supplement to nabadha, ‘[it] cast away’) what the devils used to relate, during the time of, Solomon’s kingdom, in the way of sorcery: it is said that they [the devils] buried these [books of sorcery] underneath his throne when his kingdom was taken from him; it is also said that they used to listen stealthily and add fabrications to what they heard, and then pass it on to the priests, who would compile it in books; this would be disseminated and rumours spread that the jinn had knowledge of the Unseen. Solomon gathered these books and buried them. When he died, the devils showed people where these books were, and the latter brought them out and found that they contained sorcery, and said, ‘Your kingdom was only thanks to what is in here’; they then took to learning them and rejected the Scriptures of their prophets. In order to demonstrate Solomon’s innocence and in repudiation of the Jews when they said, ‘Look at this Muhammad, he mentions Solomon as one of the prophets, when he was only a sorcerer’, God, exalted, says: Solomon disbelieved not, that is, he did not work magic because he disbelieved, but the devils disbelieved, teaching the people sorcery (this sentence is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person governing the verb kafarū); and, teaching them, that which was revealed to the two angels, that is, the sorcery that they were inspired to [perform] (al-malakayn, ‘the two angels’: a variant reading has al-malikayn, ‘the two kings’) who were, in Babylon — a town in lower Iraq — Hārūt and Mārūt (here the names are standing in for ‘the two angels’, or an explication of the latter). Ibn ‘Abbās said, ‘They were two sorcerers who used to teach [people] magic’; it is also said that they were two angels that had been sent to teach [sorcery] to people as a trial from God. They taught not any man, without them saying, by way of counsel, ‘We are but a temptation, a trial from God for people, so that He may test them when they are taught it: whoever learns it is a disbeliever, but whoever renounces it, he is a believer; do not disbelieve’, by learning it; if this person refused and insisted on learning it, they would teach him.

2:103

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا وَاتَّقَوْا لَمَثُوبَةٌ مِّنْ عِندِ اللَّهِ خَيْرٌ ۖ لَّوْ كَانُوا يَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Walaw annahum amanoo wattaqawlamathoobatun min AAindi Allahi khayrun law kanooyaAAlamoon

Translation

And if they had believed and feared Allah , then the reward from Allah would have been [far] better, if they only knew.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Yet if only they, the Jews, had believed, in the Prophet and the Qur’ān, and been fearful, of God’s chastisement, by abandoning acts of disobedience towards Him, such as sorcery (the response to the [conditional clause beginning with] law, ‘if’, has been omitted, [but it is intimated to be] ‘they would have been rewarded’, and this is indicated by [His following words]) verily, a reward from God would have been better, than that for which they sold themselves, if they had but known, that this is better they would not have preferred that over this (la-mathūbatun, ‘verily the reward’, is the subject; the lām is that of oaths; and min ‘indi’Llāhi khayrun, ‘from God, would have been better’, is the predicate).

2:104

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَقُولُوا رَاعِنَا وَقُولُوا انظُرْنَا وَاسْمَعُوا ۗ وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola taqooloo raAAina waqooloo onthurnawasmaAAoo walilkafireena AAathabun aleem

Translation

O you who have believed, say not [to Allah 's Messenger], “Ra’ina” but say, “Unthurna” and listen. And for the disbelievers is a painful punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, do not say, to the Prophet (s), ‘Observe us’, (rā‘inā is an imperative form from murā‘āt) which they used to say to him, and this was a derogatory term in Hebrew, derived from the noun al-ru‘ūna [‘thoughtlessness’]. They found this very amusing and used to address the Prophet (s) in this way, and so the believers were forbidden to use it; but say, instead, ‘Regard us’, that is, look at us, and give ear, to what you are commanded and be prepared to accept it; and for disbelievers awaits a painful chastisement, that is, the Fire.

2:105

مَّا يَوَدُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَلَا الْمُشْرِكِينَ أَن يُنَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَخْتَصُّ بِرَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ ذُو الْفَضْلِ الْعَظِيمِ

Pronunciation

Ma yawaddu allatheena kafaroomin ahli alkitabi wala almushrikeena an yunazzalaAAalaykum min khayrin min rabbikum wallahu yakhtassubirahmatihi man yashao wallahu thooalfadli alAAatheem

Translation

Neither those who disbelieve from the People of the Scripture nor the polytheists wish that any good should be sent down to you from your Lord. But Allah selects for His mercy whom He wills, and Allah is the possessor of great bounty.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those disbelievers of the People of the Scripture and the idolaters, from among the Arabs (al-mushrikīna, ‘idolaters’, is a supplement to ahl al-kitābi, ‘People of the Scripture’, and the min, ‘of’, is explicative), do not wish that any good, any Inspiration, should be revealed to you from your Lord, out of envy of you, but God singles out for His mercy, [for] the office of His Prophet, whom He will; God is of bounty abounding.

2:106

مَا نَنسَخْ مِنْ آيَةٍ أَوْ نُنسِهَا نَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ مِّنْهَا أَوْ مِثْلِهَا ۗ أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Ma nansakh min ayatin awnunsiha na/ti bikhayrin minha aw mithlihaalam taAAlam anna Allaha AAala kulli shay-in qadeer

Translation

We do not abrogate a verse or cause it to be forgotten except that We bring forth [one] better than it or similar to it. Do you not know that Allah is over all things competent?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When the disbelievers began to deride the matter of abrogation, saying that one day Muhammad enjoins his Companions to one thing and then the next day he forbids it, God revealed: And whatever verse (mā is the conditional particle), that has been revealed containing a judgement, We abrogate, either together with its recital or not [that is only its judgement, but its recital continues]; there is a variant reading, nunsikh, meaning ‘[Whatever verse] We command you or Gabriel to abrogate’, or postpone, so that We do not reveal the judgement contained in it, and We withhold its recital or retain it in the Preserved Tablet; a variant reading [of nunsi’hā] is nunsihā, from ‘to forget’: so ‘[Whatever verse We abrogate] or We make you forget, that is, We erase from your heart’; the response to the conditional sentence [begun with mā] is: We bring [in place] a better, one that is more beneficial for [Our] servants, either because it is easier [to implement] or contains much reward; or the like of it, in terms of religious obligation and reward; do you not know that God has power over all things?, including abrogating and substituting [verses]? (the interrogative here is meant as an affirmative).

2:107

أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ لَهُ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ

Pronunciation

Alam taAAlam anna Allaha lahu mulkuassamawati wal-ardi wamalakum min dooni Allahi min waliyyin wala naseer

Translation

Do you not know that to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and [that] you have not besides Allah any protector or any helper?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Do you not know that to God belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, doing what He pleases, and that you have none, besides God, other than God, neither protector, to safeguard you, nor helper?, to keep away His chastisement when it comes.

2:108

أَمْ تُرِيدُونَ أَن تَسْأَلُوا رَسُولَكُمْ كَمَا سُئِلَ مُوسَىٰ مِن قَبْلُ ۗ وَمَن يَتَبَدَّلِ الْكُفْرَ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ

Pronunciation

Am tureedoona an tas-aloo rasoolakum kamasu-ila moosa min qablu waman yatabaddali alkufra bil-eemanifaqad dalla sawaa assabeel

Translation

Or do you intend to ask your Messenger as Moses was asked before? And whoever exchanges faith for disbelief has certainly strayed from the soundness of the way.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When the Meccans asked [the Prophet] to enlarge the size of Mecca and make Safā full of gold, the following was revealed: Or do you desire to question your Messenger as Moses was questioned, by his people, aforetime?, when they asked him to show them God openly among other things; whoever exchanges belief for unbelief, taking the latter in place of the former by refraining from contemplating the clear proofs and by requesting others instead, has surely strayed from the even way, meaning, he has mistaken the proper path (al-sawā‘ essentially means al-wasat, ‘middle way’).

2:109

وَدَّ كَثِيرٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُم مِّن بَعْدِ إِيمَانِكُمْ كُفَّارًا حَسَدًا مِّنْ عِندِ أَنفُسِهِم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ ۖ فَاعْفُوا وَاصْفَحُوا حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Wadda katheerun min ahli alkitabilaw yaruddoonakum min baAAdi eemanikum kuffaran hasadanmin AAindi anfusihim min baAAdi ma tabayyana lahumu alhaqqufaAAfoo wasfahoo hattaya/tiya Allahu bi-amrihi inna Allaha AAalakulli shay-in qadeer

Translation

Many of the People of the Scripture wish they could turn you back to disbelief after you have believed, out of envy from themselves [even] after the truth has become clear to them. So pardon and overlook until Allah delivers His command. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Many of the People of the Scripture long that (law, ‘[if only] that’, represents [the import of] the verbal noun) they might make you disbelievers, after you have believed, from the envy (hasadan is the object denoting reason), being, of their own souls, that is to say, their wicked souls have prompted them to this [attitude]; after the truth, with regard to the Prophet (s), has become clear to them, in the Torah; yet pardon, leave them be, and be forgiving, stay away, and make no encroachments against them, till God brings His command, concerning fighting them; truly God has power over all things.

2:110

وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ ۚ وَمَا تُقَدِّمُوا لِأَنفُسِكُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ تَجِدُوهُ عِندَ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Waaqeemoo assalata waatooazzakata wama tuqaddimoo li-anfusikum minkhayrin tajidoohu AAinda Allahi inna Allaha bimataAAmaloona baseer

Translation

And establish prayer and give zakah, and whatever good you put forward for yourselves – you will find it with Allah. Indeed, Allah of what you do, is Seeing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And perform the prayer, and pay the alms; whatever good, in the way of obedience, such as [observing] kinship and charity, you shall offer for your own souls, you shall find it, that is, its reward, with God; assuredly God sees what you do, and will requite you for it.

2:111

وَقَالُوا لَن يَدْخُلَ الْجَنَّةَ إِلَّا مَن كَانَ هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَىٰ ۗ تِلْكَ أَمَانِيُّهُمْ ۗ قُلْ هَاتُوا بُرْهَانَكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ

Pronunciation

Waqaloo lan yadkhula aljannata illaman kana hoodan aw nasara tilka amaniyyuhumqul hatoo burhanakum in kuntum sadiqeen

Translation

And they say, “None will enter Paradise except one who is a Jew or a Christian.” That is [merely] their wishful thinking, Say, “Produce your proof, if you should be truthful.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they say, ‘None shall enter Paradise except those who are Jews (hūd is the plural of hā’id) or Christians’: this is what the Jews of Medina and the Christians of Najrān said when they disputed with the Prophet (s), each party separately claiming Paradise for its members exclusively. Such, sayings, are their desires, their false passions. Say, to them: ‘Produce your proof, your evidence for this, if you speak truly’, in this matter.

2:112

بَلَىٰ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِندَ رَبِّهِ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Pronunciation

Bala man aslama wajhahu lillahiwahuwa muhsinun falahu ajruhu AAinda rabbihi walakhawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoon

Translation

Yes [on the contrary], whoever submits his face in Islam to Allah while being a doer of good will have his reward with his Lord. And no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Nay, but, others will also enter Paradise, namely, whoever submits his purpose to God, that is, adheres to His commands (wajh, ‘face’ [sc. ‘purpose’], is here mentioned because it is the most noble part of the body, so that [when it has submitted] there is all the more reason for the other parts [to follow]), being virtuous, affirming God’s Oneness, his reward is with his Lord, the reward of his deeds being Paradise, and no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve, in the Hereafter.

2:113

وَقَالَتِ الْيَهُودُ لَيْسَتِ النَّصَارَىٰ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ وَقَالَتِ النَّصَارَىٰ لَيْسَتِ الْيَهُودُ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ وَهُمْ يَتْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ مِثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ ۚ فَاللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ

Pronunciation

Waqalati alyahoodu laysati annasaraAAala shay-in waqalati annasaralaysati alyahoodu AAala shay-in wahum yatloona alkitabakathalika qala allatheena layaAAlamoona mithla qawlihim fallahu yahkumubaynahum yawma alqiyamati feema kanoo feehiyakhtalifoon

Translation

The Jews say “The Christians have nothing [true] to stand on,” and the Christians say, “The Jews have nothing to stand on,” although they [both] recite the Scripture. Thus the polytheists speak the same as their words. But Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which they used to differ.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The Jews say, ‘The Christians stand on nothing’, that can be used as support [for their claims], and they rejected Jesus; and the Christians say, ‘The Jews stand on nothing’, that can be used as support [for their claims], and they rejected Moses; yet they, both groups, recite the Scripture, revealed to them: in the Scripture of the Jews there is the confirmation of Jesus, and in that of the Christians there is the confirmation of Moses (yatlūna’l-kitāba, ‘they recite the Scripture’: the sentence is a circumstantial qualifier). Thus, in the way that these have said, the ignorant, from among the Arabs and others, say the like of what these say (this last phrase [mithla qawlihim, ‘the like of what they say’] is the explication of dhālika, ‘that [way]’): that is to say, to every person of religion they would say, ‘You have no basis’; God shall decide between them on the Day of Resurrection regarding their differences, in religion and will admit the confirmer into Paradise and the falsifier into the Fire.

2:114

وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن مَّنَعَ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ أَن يُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ وَسَعَىٰ فِي خَرَابِهَا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ مَا كَانَ لَهُمْ أَن يَدْخُلُوهَا إِلَّا خَائِفِينَ ۚ لَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا خِزْيٌ وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Waman athlamu mimman manaAAamasajida Allahi an yuthkara feehaismuhu wasaAAa fee kharabiha ola-ikama kana lahum an yadkhulooha illa kha-ifeenalahum fee addunya khizyun walahum fee al-akhiratiAAathabun AAatheem

Translation

And who are more unjust than those who prevent the name of Allah from being mentioned in His mosques and strive toward their destruction. It is not for them to enter them except in fear. For them in this world is disgrace, and they will have in the Hereafter a great punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And who does greater evil — that is, none does more evil — than he who bars God’s places of worship, so that His Name be not invoked in them, in prayer and praise, and strives to ruin them?, through destruction and impeding people from them: this was revealed to inform of the Byzantines’ destruction of the Holy House [sc. Jerusalem], or [it was revealed] when the idolaters barred the Prophet (s) from entering Mecca in the year of the battle of Hudaybiyya; such men might never enter them, save in fear (illā khā’ifīna is a predicate, also functioning as a command, that is to say, ‘Frighten them by threats of waging war against them, so that not one of them shall enter it feeling secure’); for them in this world is degradation, debasement through being killed, taken captive and forced to pay the jizya; and in the Hereafter a mighty chastisement, namely, the Fire.

2:115

وَلِلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ ۚ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Walillahi almashriqu walmaghribufaaynama tuwalloo fathamma wajhu Allahi inna AllahawasiAAun AAaleem

Translation

And to Allah belongs the east and the west. So wherever you [might] turn, there is the Face of Allah . Indeed, Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed either when the Jews criticised the change of the direction of prayer [qibla], or concerning the supererogatory prayers on animal-back during journeys, which one may pray in any direction: To God belong the East and the West, that is, the entire earth, because these two [directions] represent both sides of it [the earth]; whithersoever you turn, your faces in prayer by His command, there is the Face of God, the direction of prayer with which He is pleased. Lo! God is Embracing, His bounty embracing all things, Knowing, how to manage His creation.

2:116

وَقَالُوا اتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ وَلَدًا ۗ سُبْحَانَهُ ۖ بَل لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ كُلٌّ لَّهُ قَانِتُونَ

Pronunciation

Waqaloo itakhatha Allahuwaladan subhanahu bal lahu ma fee assamawatiwal-ardi kullun lahu qanitoon

Translation

They say, ” Allah has taken a son.” Exalted is He! Rather, to Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. All are devoutly obedient to Him,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they, the Jews and the Christians, and those that claim that the angels are God’s daughters, say (read wa-qālū or [simply] qālū) ‘God has taken to Himself a son’; God says: Glory be to Him!, as a way of exalting Himself above this; Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth, as possessions, creatures and servants, and this sovereignty contradicts having a child, and is expressed by [the particle] mā, ‘all that’, in order to include all [creation] that is not rational; all obey His will, submitting to that which is required from each one of them: here the emphasis is on rational beings.

2:117

بَدِيعُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَإِذَا قَضَىٰ أَمْرًا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ

Pronunciation

BadeeAAu assamawatiwal-ardi wa-itha qada amran fa-innamayaqoolu lahu kun fayakoon

Translation

Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it, “Be,” and it is.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Creator of the heavens and the earth, making them exist without any exemplary precedent; and when He decrees, wills, a thing, to exist, He but says to it ‘Be’ and it is, that is to say, it becomes (fa-yakūnu: a variant reading has fa-yakūna, on account of it being the response [in the subjunctive mood] to the jussive statement).

2:118

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ لَوْلَا يُكَلِّمُنَا اللَّهُ أَوْ تَأْتِينَا آيَةٌ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ قَالَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّثْلَ قَوْلِهِمْ ۘ تَشَابَهَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ ۗ قَدْ بَيَّنَّا الْآيَاتِ لِقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Waqala allatheena layaAAlamoona lawla yukallimuna Allahu awta/teena ayatun kathalika qala allatheenamin qablihim mithla qawlihim tashabahat quloobuhum qadbayyanna al-ayati liqawmin yooqinoon

Translation

Those who do not know say, “Why does Allah not speak to us or there come to us a sign?” Thus spoke those before them like their words. Their hearts resemble each other. We have shown clearly the signs to a people who are certain [in faith].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they, that is the disbelievers of Mecca, who do not know, say, to the Prophet (s): ‘Why does God not speak to us?, [to say] that you are His Messenger; Why does a sign not come to us?’, of the sort we have requested in order to show your sincerity. So, in the same way that these [disbelievers] have spoken, spoke those before them, from among past communities, to their prophets, the like of what they say, in [their] obstinacy and demand for signs; their hearts are much alike, in terms of unbelief and stubbornness: this is meant as consolation for the Prophet (s). Yet We have made clear the signs to a people who are certain, [a people] who know that these are [God’s] signs and so they believe in them, for to request other signs would be obduracy.

2:119

إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ بَشِيرًا وَنَذِيرًا ۖ وَلَا تُسْأَلُ عَنْ أَصْحَابِ الْجَحِيمِ

Pronunciation

Inna arsalnaka bilhaqqibasheeran wanatheeran wala tus-alu Aaan as-habialjaheem

Translation

Indeed, We have sent you, [O Muhammad], with the truth as a bringer of good tidings and a warner, and you will not be asked about the companions of Hellfire.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

We have sent you, Muhammad (s), with the truth, the guidance, a bearer of good tidings, of Paradise, for those who respond to this [guidance], and warner, of the Fire, to those who do not respond to it. You shall not be asked about the inhabitants of Hell-fire, that is, about why the disbelievers did not believe, for your responsibility is only to deliver the Message (a variant reading of lā tus’al is lā tas’al, ‘do not ask’, with the final apocopation of the vowel on account of it being an imperative).

2:120

وَلَن تَرْضَىٰ عَنكَ الْيَهُودُ وَلَا النَّصَارَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَتَّبِعَ مِلَّتَهُمْ ۗ قُلْ إِنَّ هُدَى اللَّهِ هُوَ الْهُدَىٰ ۗ وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءَهُم بَعْدَ الَّذِي جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ ۙ مَا لَكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ

Pronunciation

Walan tarda AAanka alyahoodu walaannasara hatta tattabiAAamillatahum qul inna huda Allahi huwa alhudawala-ini ittabaAAta ahwaahum baAAda allathee jaakamina alAAilmi ma laka mina Allahi min waliyyin walanaseer

Translation

And never will the Jews or the Christians approve of you until you follow their religion. Say, “Indeed, the guidance of Allah is the [only] guidance.” If you were to follow their desires after what has come to you of knowledge, you would have against Allah no protector or helper.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Never will the Jews be pleased with you, neither the Christians, not until you follow their creed, their religion, Say: ‘God’s guidance, that is, Islam, is the true guidance’, besides which there is only error. And if you were (wa-la-in: the lām is for oaths) to follow their whims, hypothetically speaking, [whims] to which they are calling you, after the knowledge, the Divine revelation, that has come to you, you shall have against God neither friend, to protect you, nor helper, to defend you against Him.

2:121

الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَتْلُونَهُ حَقَّ تِلَاوَتِهِ أُولَٰئِكَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ ۗ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْخَاسِرُونَ

Pronunciation

Allatheena ataynahumualkitaba yatloonahu haqqa tilawatihi ola-ikayu/minoona bihi waman yakfur bihi faola-ika humu alkhasiroon

Translation

Those to whom We have given the Book recite it with its true recital. They [are the ones who] believe in it. And whoever disbelieves in it – it is they who are the losers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those to whom We have given the Scripture (this is the subject of the sentence), and who recite it with true recitation, that is, who recite it as it was revealed (haqqa tilāwatihi, ‘its true recitation’, is a circumstantial qualifier; haqqa is in the accusative because it is the object of the verbal noun), they believe in it (this is the predicate): this was revealed concerning a group of Ethiopians that presented themselves [to the Prophet] and accepted Islam; and whoever disbelieves in it, that is, in the revealed Book, by distorting it, they shall be the losers, because they will be destined for the Fire, made everlasting for them.

2:122

يَا بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتِيَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَأَنِّي فَضَّلْتُكُمْ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ

Pronunciation

Ya banee isra-eela othkurooniAAmatiya allatee anAAamtu AAalaykum waannee faddaltukumAAala alAAalameen

Translation

O Children of Israel, remember My favor which I have bestowed upon you and that I preferred you over the worlds.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O Children of Israel, remember My favour wherewith I favoured you, and that I have preferred you over all the worlds: a similar verse has already been mentioned.

2:123

وَاتَّقُوا يَوْمًا لَّا تَجْزِي نَفْسٌ عَن نَّفْسٍ شَيْئًا وَلَا يُقْبَلُ مِنْهَا عَدْلٌ وَلَا تَنفَعُهَا شَفَاعَةٌ وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

Pronunciation

Wattaqoo yawman la tajzeenafsun AAan nafsin shay-an wala yuqbalu minhaAAadlun wala tanfaAAuha shafaAAatun walahum yunsaroon

Translation

And fear a Day when no soul will suffice for another soul at all, and no compensation will be accepted from it, nor will any intercession benefit it, nor will they be aided.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And beware of, fear, a day when no soul shall for another, on this [Day] be requited, that is, [when no soul for another] shall be of any avail, and no compensation, no ransom, shall be accepted from it, nor any intercession shall benefit it, neither shall they be helped, against God’s chastisement.

2:124

وَإِذِ ابْتَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ بِكَلِمَاتٍ فَأَتَمَّهُنَّ ۖ قَالَ إِنِّي جَاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِمَامًا ۖ قَالَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي ۖ قَالَ لَا يَنَالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Wa-ithi ibtala ibraheemarabbuhu bikalimatin faatammahunna qala innee jaAAilukalinnasi imaman qala wamin thurriyyateeqala la yanalu AAahdee aththalimeen

Translation

And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham was tried by his Lord with commands and he fulfilled them. [ Allah ] said, “Indeed, I will make you a leader for the people.” [Abraham] said, “And of my descendants?” [ Allah ] said, “My covenant does not include the wrongdoers.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, when his Lord tested, tried, Abraham (Ibrāhīm: also read Ibrāhām) with certain words, with certain commands and prohibitions with which He charged him: it is said that these included the rituals of the Pilgrimage, the rinsing of the mouth, snuffing up water into the nostrils [to clean them], cleaning of the teeth, trimming facial hair, combing of the hair, trimming the fingernails, shaving armpit and pubic hair, circumcision and washing one’s private parts after elimination; and he fulfilled them, he performed them thoroughly; He, God, exalted, said, to him: ‘I make you a leader, an exemplar in religion, for the people.’ Said he, ‘And of my seed?’, my progeny, make leaders [from among them]; He said, ‘My covenant, of leadership, shall not reach the evildoers’, the disbelievers from among them: this indicates that [the covenant] will reach only those who are not evildoers.

2:125

وَإِذْ جَعَلْنَا الْبَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِّلنَّاسِ وَأَمْنًا وَاتَّخِذُوا مِن مَّقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ مُصَلًّى ۖ وَعَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ أَن طَهِّرَا بَيْتِيَ لِلطَّائِفِينَ وَالْعَاكِفِينَ وَالرُّكَّعِ السُّجُودِ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith jaAAalna albayta mathabatanlinnasi waamnan wattakhithoo minmaqami ibraheema musallan waAAahidnaila ibraheema wa-ismaAAeela an tahhirabaytiya litta-ifeena walAAakifeenawarrukkaAAi assujood

Translation

And [mention] when We made the House a place of return for the people and [a place of] security. And take, [O believers], from the standing place of Abraham a place of prayer. And We charged Abraham and Ishmael, [saying], “Purify My House for those who perform Tawaf and those who are staying [there] for worship and those who bow and prostrate [in prayer].”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when We appointed the House, the Ka‘ba, to be a place of visitation, to which they flock from every direction, for the people, and a sanctuary, of safety for them from the injustice and attacks that befall other places: a person could come across his father’s killer there, and yet not act violently against him; and: ‘Take (ittakhidhū is also read ittakhadhū, making it a predicate), O people, to yourselves Abraham’s station, the founding stone he used when building the House, for a place of prayer’, so that you perform two units of prayer for the circumambulation; And We made a covenant with Abraham and Ishmael, We commanded them: ‘Purify My House, of graven images, for those that shall go round it and those that cleave to it, in ritual residence, to those who bow and prostrate themselves’, that is, those who pray: (al-rukka‘ and al-sujūd are the plurals of rāki‘, ‘one bowing’, and sājid, ‘one prostrated’, respectively).

2:126

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ اجْعَلْ هَٰذَا بَلَدًا آمِنًا وَارْزُقْ أَهْلَهُ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ مَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُم بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۖ قَالَ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَأُمَتِّعُهُ قَلِيلًا ثُمَّ أَضْطَرُّهُ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ النَّارِ ۖ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qala ibraheemurabbi ijAAal hatha baladan aminan warzuqahlahu mina aththamarati man amana minhumbillahi walyawmi al-akhiri qalawaman kafara faomattiAAuhu qaleelan thumma adtarruhu ilaAAathabi annari wabi/sa almaseer

Translation

And [mention] when Abraham said, “My Lord, make this a secure city and provide its people with fruits – whoever of them believes in Allah and the Last Day.” [ Allah ] said. “And whoever disbelieves – I will grant him enjoyment for a little; then I will force him to the punishment of the Fire, and wretched is the destination.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when Abraham said, ‘My Lord, make this, place, a land secure, in which there is safety: God granted him his request, making it a sanctuary in which no human blood is shed, no injustice is committed towards anyone, no prey is hunted and which is never deserted in any of its parts; and provide its people with fruits: something which actually happened when there came itinerants from as far as Syria, whereas before, it had been devoid of any vegetation or water; such of them as believe in God and the Last Day’ (this phrase stands in place of its people, and they are here singled out for mention in the request in accordance with God’s saying My covenant shall not reach the evildoers); He, exalted, said, ‘And whoever disbelieves, I will also provide with fruits, to him I shall give enjoyment (read either umti‘uhu or umatti‘uhu), by granting him sustenance in this life, a little, the length of his life, but then I shall compel him, I shall drive him in the Hereafter to the chastisement of the Fire, so that he cannot find an escape — how evil a journey’s end!’, a place to which to return.

2:127

وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَاعِيلُ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith yarfaAAu ibraheemualqawaAAida mina albayti wa-ismaAAeelu rabbanataqabbal minna innaka anta assameeAAu alAAaleem

Translation

And [mention] when Abraham was raising the foundations of the House and [with him] Ishmael, [saying], “Our Lord, accept [this] from us. Indeed You are the Hearing, the Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, when Abraham raised up the foundations, the supports or the walls, of the House, building it (min al-bayt, ‘of the House’, is semantically connected to yarfa‘u, ‘raises up’), and Ishmael with him (wa-Ismā‘īlu is a supplement to Ibrāhīmu), both of them saying: ‘Our Lord! Receive this, building, from us. Truly You are the Hearing, of words, the Knowing, of deeds.

2:128

رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً مُّسْلِمَةً لَّكَ وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا وَتُبْ عَلَيْنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

Pronunciation

Rabbana wajAAalnamuslimayni laka wamin thurriyyatina ommatanmuslimatan laka waarina manasikana watubAAalayna innaka anta attawwabu arraheem

Translation

Our Lord, and make us Muslims [in submission] to You and from our descendants a Muslim nation [in submission] to You. And show us our rites and accept our repentance. Indeed, You are the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Our Lord! And make us submissive, compliant, to You and, make, of our seed, our progeny, a community, a people, submissive to You (min [in the phrase min dhurriyyatinā, ‘of our seed’] here is partitive, and is used here in accordance with God’s above-mentioned saying My covenant shall not reach the evildoers); and show us, teach us, our holy rites, our ceremonies for worship or for the pilgrimage, and relent to us. Surely You are the Relenting, the Merciful: they asked Him to turn towards them, despite their [moral] impeccability, out of humbleness and in order to teach their progeny.

2:129

رَبَّنَا وَابْعَثْ فِيهِمْ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِكَ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

Pronunciation

Rabbana wabAAath feehimrasoolan minhum yatloo AAalayhim ayatikawayuAAallimuhumu alkitaba walhikmatawayuzakkeehim innaka anta alAAazeezu alhakeem

Translation

Our Lord, and send among them a messenger from themselves who will recite to them Your verses and teach them the Book and wisdom and purify them. Indeed, You are the Exalted in Might, the Wise.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Our Lord! And send among them, the people of this House, a messenger, one of them and God granted him this petition with [the sending of] Muhammad (s), who shall recite to them Your signs, the Qur’ān, and teach them the Book, the Qur’ān, and Wisdom, that is, what the former contains of judgements, and purify them, cleanse them of idolatry; You are the Mighty, the Victor, the Wise, in His creation.

2:130

وَمَن يَرْغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ إِلَّا مَن سَفِهَ نَفْسَهُ ۚ وَلَقَدِ اصْطَفَيْنَاهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَإِنَّهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ

Pronunciation

Waman yarghabu AAan millati ibraheemailla man safiha nafsahu walaqadi istafaynahufee addunya wa-innahu fee al-akhiratilamina assaliheen

Translation

And who would be averse to the religion of Abraham except one who makes a fool of himself. And We had chosen him in this world, and indeed he, in the Hereafter, will be among the righteous.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Who therefore, meaning ‘none’, shrinks from the religion of Abraham, abandoning it, except he who fools himself?, that is to say, either the one who ignores that his soul has been created for God, and that it is obliged to worship Him, or the one who treats it with frivolity and degrades it. Indeed We chose him, We elected him, in this world, for prophethood and friendship, and in the Hereafter he shall be among the righteous, those of the high stations [al-darajāt al-‘ulā, cf. Q. 20:75].

2:131

إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ ۖ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Pronunciation

Ith qala lahu rabbuhu aslim qalaaslamtu lirabbi alAAalameen

Translation

When his Lord said to him, “Submit”, he said “I have submitted [in Islam] to the Lord of the worlds.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And mention: When his Lord said to him, ‘Submit’, obey God and devote your religion purely to Him, he said, ‘I have submitted to the Lord of the Worlds’.

2:132

وَوَصَّىٰ بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعْقُوبُ يَا بَنِيَّ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَىٰ لَكُمُ الدِّينَ فَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wawassa biha ibraheemubaneehi wayaAAqoobu ya baniyya inna Allaha istafalakumu addeena fala tamootunna illa waantummuslimoon

Translation

And Abraham instructed his sons [to do the same] and [so did] Jacob, [saying], “O my sons, indeed Allah has chosen for you this religion, so do not die except while you are Muslims.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And Abraham enjoined (wassā; may also be read awsā) upon his sons this, creed, and [so did] Jacob, upon his sons, saying: ‘My sons, God has chosen for you the [true] religion, the religion of submission [to God] (islām), see that you die not save in submission: he forbade them from abandoning this submission [to God], and enjoined them to adhere firmly to it until death overtook them.

2:133

أَمْ كُنتُمْ شُهَدَاءَ إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْقُوبَ الْمَوْتُ إِذْ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِن بَعْدِي قَالُوا نَعْبُدُ إِلَٰهَكَ وَإِلَٰهَ آبَائِكَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ

Pronunciation

Am kuntum shuhadaa ith hadarayaAAqooba almawtu ith qala libaneehi mataAAbudoona min baAAdee qaloo naAAbudu ilahakawa-ilaha aba-ika ibraheema wa-ismaAAeelawa-ishaqa ilahan wahidan wanahnu lahumuslimoon

Translation

Or were you witnesses when death approached Jacob, when he said to his sons, “What will you worship after me?” They said, “We will worship your God and the God of your fathers, Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac – one God. And we are Muslims [in submission] to Him.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When the Jews said to the Prophet (s), ‘Do you not know that on the day of his death Jacob charged his sons with Judaism?’, the following was revealed: Or, were you witnesses, present, when death came to Jacob? When (idh, ‘when’, substitutes for the preceding idh) he said to his sons, ‘What will you worship after me?’, after I die?; They said, ‘We will worship your God and the God of your fathers Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac (in recognition of the predominant [mention of the father figures] Ishmael is also counted as a father, and also because the status of an uncle is akin to that of a father), One God (ilāhan wāhidan, ‘One God’, substitutes for ilāhaka, ‘your God’), to Him we submit’ (the initial am [of the phrase am kuntum, ‘Or, were you …’] is similar to the hamza of denial [sc. a-kuntum], the sense being, ‘You were not present at his death, so how do you ascribe to him what does not befit him?’).

2:134

تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ ۖ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ ۖ وَلَا تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

Pronunciation

Tilka ommatun qad khalat laha makasabat walakum ma kasabtum wala tus-aloona AAammakano yaAAmaloon

Translation

That was a nation which has passed on. It will have [the consequence of] what it earned, and you will have what you have earned. And you will not be asked about what they used to do.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

That (tilka, is the subject of this sentence and denotes Abraham, Jacob and his sons, and is feminine because it agrees with the gender of its predicate) is a community that has passed away, has gone before; theirs is what they have earned, the reward for their deeds (lahā mā kasabat, theirs is what they have earned’, constitutes the commencement of a new sentence) and yours (the Jews are being addressed here) is what you have earned; you shall not be asked about what they did, in the same way that they will not be asked about what you did, this latter statement being an affirmation of the former.

2:135

وَقَالُوا كُونُوا هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَىٰ تَهْتَدُوا ۗ قُلْ بَلْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۖ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ

Pronunciation

Waqaloo koonoo hoodan aw nasaratahtadoo qul bal millata ibraheema haneefan wamakana mina almushrikeen

Translation

They say, “Be Jews or Christians [so] you will be guided.” Say, “Rather, [we follow] the religion of Abraham, inclining toward truth, and he was not of the polytheists.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they say, ‘Be Jews or Christians (the particle aw is for detail; the first of these is the saying of the Medinan Jews, while the second is that of the Christians of Najrān), and you shall be guided’. Say, to them: ‘Nay, we follow, rather the creed of Abraham, a hanīf (hanīfan is a circumstantial qualifier referring to Ibrāhīma, that is to say, one that inclines away from all other religions to the upright religion); and he was not of the idolaters’.

2:136

قُولُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ

Pronunciation

Qooloo amanna billahiwama onzila ilayna wama onzila ilaibraheema wa-ismaAAeela wa-ishaqawayaAAqooba wal-asbati wama ootiya moosawaAAeesa wama ootiya annabiyyoona minrabbihim la nufarriqu bayna ahadin minhum wanahnulahu muslimoon

Translation

Say, [O believers], “We have believed in Allah and what has been revealed to us and what has been revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Descendants and what was given to Moses and Jesus and what was given to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims [in submission] to Him.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say: (this address is to the believers) ‘We believe in God, and in that which has been revealed to us, the Qur’ān, and revealed to Abraham, the ten scrolls, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, his sons, and that which was given to Moses, the Torah, and Jesus, the Gospel, and the prophets, from their Lord, of Books and signs, we make no division between any of them, believing in some and disbelieving in others in the manner of Jews and Christians, and to Him we submit’.

2:137

فَإِنْ آمَنُوا بِمِثْلِ مَا آمَنتُم بِهِ فَقَدِ اهْتَدَوا ۖ وَّإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا هُمْ فِي شِقَاقٍ ۖ فَسَيَكْفِيكَهُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ وَهُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

Pronunciation

Fa-in amanoo bimithli ma amantumbihi faqadi ihtadaw wa-in tawallaw fa-innama hum fee shiqaqinfasayakfeekahumu Allahu wahuwa assameeAAualAAaleem

Translation

So if they believe in the same as you believe in, then they have been [rightly] guided; but if they turn away, they are only in dissension, and Allah will be sufficient for you against them. And He is the Hearing, the Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if they, the Jews and the Christians, believe in the like (mithl, ‘the like’ is extra) of what you believe in, then they are truly guided; but if they turn away, from belief in it, then they are clearly in schism, in opposition to you; God will suffice you, O Muhammad (s), against them, and their schisms; He is the Hearer, of their sayings, the Knower, of their circumstances: God sufficed him [with regard to them] by killing Qurayza, expelling Nadīr and exacting the jizya from them.

2:138

صِبْغَةَ اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللَّهِ صِبْغَةً ۖ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ عَابِدُونَ

Pronunciation

Sibghata Allahi waman ahsanumina Allahi sibghatan wanahnu lahu AAabidoon

Translation

[And say, "Ours is] the religion of Allah . And who is better than Allah in [ordaining] religion? And we are worshippers of Him.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The mark of God (sibghata’Llāhi: a verbal noun reaffirming the earlier āmannā, and it is in the accusative, because of the verbal construction implied, that is to say, sabaghanā’Llāhu, ‘God has marked us’): this denotes His religion, the one towards which He made human beings naturally inclined, as it leaves its mark on a person, in the same way that a dye leaves its mark on a garment; and who has, that is, none [has], a better mark (sibghatan, ‘marking’, is for specification) than God? And Him we worship: the Jews said to the Muslims, ‘We are the people of the first Book and our direction of prayer (qibla) is more ancient, and prophets were never sent from among the Arabs; if Muhammad were a prophet, he would have been one of us’. Thus, the following was revealed:

2:139

قُلْ أَتُحَاجُّونَنَا فِي اللَّهِ وَهُوَ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّكُمْ وَلَنَا أَعْمَالُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُخْلِصُونَ

Pronunciation

Qul atuhajjoonana fee Allahiwahuwa rabbuna warabbukum walana aAAmalunawalakum aAAmalukum wanahnu lahu mukhlisoon

Translation

Say, [O Muhammad], “Do you argue with us about Allah while He is our Lord and your Lord? For us are our deeds, and for you are your deeds. And we are sincere [in deed and intention] to Him.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Say, to them: ‘Would you then dispute with us concerning God, that He chose a prophet from among the Arabs, and He is our Lord and your Lord?, and so it is for Him to choose whom He will, Our deeds belong to us, for which we will be requited, and to you belong your deeds, for which you will be requited, so that it is not improbable that among our deeds there will be those for which we will deserve to be honoured; and to Him we are sincerely devoted, in religion and in deed, unlike you, hence, we are more worthy to be chosen (the hamza [of a-tuhājjūnanā, ‘would you then dispute’] is for rejection, and the three clauses that follow it are all circumstantial qualifiers).

2:140

أَمْ تَقُولُونَ إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطَ كَانُوا هُودًا أَوْ نَصَارَىٰ ۗ قُلْ أَأَنتُمْ أَعْلَمُ أَمِ اللَّهُ ۗ وَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّن كَتَمَ شَهَادَةً عِندَهُ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

Pronunciation

Am taqooloona inna ibraheema wa-ismaAAeelawa-ishaqa wayaAAqooba wal-asbata kanoohoodan aw nasara qul aantum aAAlamu ami Allahuwaman athlamu mimman katama shahadatanAAindahu mina Allahi wama Allahu bighafilinAAamma taAAmaloon

Translation

Or do you say that Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Descendants were Jews or Christians? Say, “Are you more knowing or is Allah ?” And who is more unjust than one who conceals a testimony he has from Allah ? And Allah is not unaware of what you do.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Or, nay, do you say (taqūlūna, also read yaqūlūna, ‘do they say?’): ‘Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob, and the Tribes — they were Jews, or they were Christians?’ Say, to them: ‘Have you then greater knowledge, or has God?, that is, God has greater knowledge; He dissociated Abraham from both [groups], when He said, Abraham was not a Jew, nor a Christian [Q. 3:67]; and those mentioned with him [Abraham] are his followers [in not belonging to either group]. And who does greater injustice than he who conceals, hides from people, a testimony, he has, received from God?, that is, there is none more unjust than him: these are the Jews, for they concealed God’s testimony about Abraham’s pure faith in the Torah; And God is not heedless of what you do’: [this is] a threat for them.

2:141

تِلْكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ ۖ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبْتُمْ ۖ وَلَا تُسْأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

Pronunciation

Tilka ommatun qad khalat laha makasabat walakum ma kasabtum wala tus-aloona AAammakanoo yaAAmaloon

Translation

That is a nation which has passed on. It will have [the consequence of] what it earned, and you will have what you have earned. And you will not be asked about what they used to do.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

That is a community that has passed away; theirs is what they have earned, and yours is what you have earned; you shall not be asked about what they did: a similar [verse] has already been mentioned above.

2:142

سَيَقُولُ السُّفَهَاءُ مِنَ النَّاسِ مَا وَلَّاهُمْ عَن قِبْلَتِهِمُ الَّتِي كَانُوا عَلَيْهَا ۚ قُل لِّلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ ۚ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

Pronunciation

Sayaqoolu assufahao mina annasima wallahum AAan qiblatihimu allatee kanooAAalayha qul lillahi almashriqu walmaghribuyahdee man yashao ila siratinmustaqeem

Translation

The foolish among the people will say, “What has turned them away from their qiblah, which they used to face?” Say, “To Allah belongs the east and the west. He guides whom He wills to a straight path.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The fools, the ignorant, among the people, that is, the Jews and the idolaters, will say, ‘What, matter, has turned them, the Prophet (s) and the believers, from the direction they were facing in their prayers formerly?’, this being the Holy House (bayt al-maqdis, sc. Jerusalem); the sīn [of sa-yaqūlu, ‘they will say’] denotes the future tense and informs of the Unseen. Say: ‘To God belong the East and the West, that is, all directions. Thus He commands that they face whichever direction He wills, and there can be no objection. He guides whomever He will, His guidance being, to a straight path’, that is, the religion of Islam, and you are among these [guided ones].

2:143

وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِّتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا ۗ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِي كُنتَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ مَن يَتَّبِعُ الرَّسُولَ مِمَّن يَنقَلِبُ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ ۚ وَإِن كَانَتْ لَكَبِيرَةً إِلَّا عَلَى الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ ۗ وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَانَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Wakathalika jaAAalnakumommatan wasatan litakoonoo shuhadaa AAala annasiwayakoona arrasoolu AAalaykum shaheedan wamajaAAalna alqiblata allatee kunta AAalayha illalinaAAlama man yattabiAAu arrasoola mimman yanqalibu AAalaAAaqibayhi wa-in kanat lakabeeratan illa AAalaallatheena hada Allahu wama kanaAllahu liyudeeAAa eemanakum inna Allahabinnasi laraoofun raheem

Translation

And thus we have made you a just community that you will be witnesses over the people and the Messenger will be a witness over you. And We did not make the qiblah which you used to face except that We might make evident who would follow the Messenger from who would turn back on his heels. And indeed, it is difficult except for those whom Allah has guided. And never would Allah have caused you to lose your faith. Indeed Allah is, to the people, Kind and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thus, in the same way that We guided you to it, We appointed you, O community of Muhammad (s), a midmost community, excellent and upright, that you might be witnesses to the people, on the Day of Resurrection, that their messengers delivered [the Message] to them; and that the Messenger might be a witness to you, that he delivered [the Message] to you, and We did not appoint, make, the direction, for you now, the direction, you were facing, that is the Ka‘ba: the Prophet (s) used to face it in prayer, but when he emigrated he was commanded to face the Holy House [of Jerusalem], in order to win the hearts of the Jews. He prayed in this direction for sixteen or seventeen months before he changed direction; except that We might know, [that it become] manifest knowledge, who followed the Messenger, and believed in him, from him who turned on his heels, and returned to unbelief doubting the religion and thinking that the Prophet (s) was confused about this issue; and a number of them apostatised as a result of this— though it, the change of direction, were (wa-in, ‘though’, is softened, and its noun apocopated, originally being: wa-innahā) a grave thing, troublesome for people, save for those, of them, whom God has guided; but God would never cause your faith, that is, your prayers towards the Holy House [of Jerusalem], to be wasted, but He will reward you for them (the reason that this [verse] was revealed was that some had asked about the status of those that had died before the change of direction [of prayer]); truly, God is Gentle with, believing, people, Merciful, when He does not let their deeds go to waste (al-ra’fa means ‘intensity of mercy’, and is mentioned first to allow for the end rhyme of the verse [with the preceding one]).

2:144

قَدْ نَرَىٰ تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ ۖ فَلَنُوَلِّيَنَّكَ قِبْلَةً تَرْضَاهَا ۚ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۚ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ ۗ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا يَعْمَلُونَ

Pronunciation

Qad nara taqalluba wajhika fee assama-ifalanuwalliyannaka qiblatan tardaha fawalli wajhakashatra almasjidi alharami wahaythu makuntum fawalloo wujoohakum shatrahu wa-inna allatheenaootoo alkitaba layaAAlamoona annahu alhaqqu minrabbihim wama Allahu bighafilin AAammayaAAmaloon

Translation

We have certainly seen the turning of your face, [O Muhammad], toward the heaven, and We will surely turn you to a qiblah with which you will be pleased. So turn your face toward al-Masjid al-Haram. And wherever you [believers] are, turn your faces toward it [in prayer]. Indeed, those who have been given the Scripture well know that it is the truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what they do.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

We have indeed (qad, ‘indeed’, is for affirmation) seen you turning your face about in the, direction of the, heaven, looking around for the Revelation and longing for the command to face the Ka‘ba: he [the Prophet] wished for this because it was the prayer-direction of Abraham and would be more conducive to the submission of the Arabs [to Islam]; now We will surely turn you to a direction that shall satisfy you, that you will love. Turn your face, in prayer, towards the Sacred Mosque, that is, the Ka‘ba, and wherever you are (addressing the [Muslim] community) turn your faces, in prayer, towards it. Those who have been given the Scripture know that it, the change towards the Ka‘ba, is the, fixed, truth from their Lord, on account of the description in their Scripture of how the Prophet (s) would re-orient himself to it; God is not heedless of what you do, O believers, when you obey His command (alternatively, ta‘malūna, ‘you do’, can be read ya‘malūna, ‘they do’, in other words [it would be referring to] the Jews’ denial of the matter concerning the direction of prayer).

2:145

وَلَئِنْ أَتَيْتَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ بِكُلِّ آيَةٍ مَّا تَبِعُوا قِبْلَتَكَ ۚ وَمَا أَنتَ بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَتَهُمْ ۚ وَمَا بَعْضُهُم بِتَابِعٍ قِبْلَةَ بَعْضٍ ۚ وَلَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتَ أَهْوَاءَهُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ ۙ إِنَّكَ إِذًا لَّمِنَ الظَّالِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Wala-in atayta allatheena ootooalkitaba bikulli ayatin ma tabiAAooqiblataka wama anta bitabiAAin qiblatahum wamabaAAduhum bitabiAAin qiblata baAAdinwala-ini ittabaAAta ahwaahum min baAAdi ma jaakamina alAAilmi innaka ithan lamina aththalimeen

Translation

And if you brought to those who were given the Scripture every sign, they would not follow your qiblah. Nor will you be a follower of their qiblah. Nor would they be followers of one another’s qiblah. So if you were to follow their desires after what has come to you of knowledge, indeed, you would then be among the wrongdoers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Yet if (wa-la-in: the lām is for oaths) you should bring to those who have been given the Scripture every sign, about your truthfulness in the matter of the direction of prayer, they will not follow your direction, out of obduracy, and you are not a follower of their direction (this is a categorical negation of his [the Prophet’s] desire that they become Muslims and of their desire that he return to their direction of prayer; neither are they, the Jews and the Christians, followers of one another’s direction. If you were to follow their whims, the ones to which they summon you, after the knowledge, the revelation, that has come to you, then you, if, hypothetically, you were to follow them, will surely be among the evildoers.

2:146

الَّذِينَ آتَيْنَاهُمُ الْكِتَابَ يَعْرِفُونَهُ كَمَا يَعْرِفُونَ أَبْنَاءَهُمْ ۖ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقًا مِّنْهُمْ لَيَكْتُمُونَ الْحَقَّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Allatheena ataynahumualkitaba yaAArifoonahu kama yaAArifoona abnaahumwa-inna fareeqan minhum layaktumoona alhaqqa wahumyaAAlamoon

Translation

Those to whom We gave the Scripture know him as they know their own sons. But indeed, a party of them conceal the truth while they know [it].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those to whom We have given the Scripture, they recognise him, Muhammad (s), as they recognise their sons, because of the descriptions of him in their Scripture: [‘Abd Allāh] Ibn Salām said, ‘I recognised him the moment I saw him, as I would my own son; but my recognition of Muhammad (s) was more intense’; even though there is a party of them that conceal the truth, that is, his description, while they know, this [truth] which you [Muhammad (s)] follow.

2:147

الْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۖ فَلَا تَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الْمُمْتَرِينَ

Pronunciation

Alhaqqu min rabbika falatakoonanna mina almumtareen

Translation

The truth is from your Lord, so never be among the doubters.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The truth comes from your Lord; then be not among the doubters, who doubt it, that is to say, ‘[be not] of such a disposition’, which is more eloquent than merely saying, ‘do not waver’.

2:148

وَلِكُلٍّ وِجْهَةٌ هُوَ مُوَلِّيهَا ۖ فَاسْتَبِقُوا الْخَيْرَاتِ ۚ أَيْنَ مَا تَكُونُوا يَأْتِ بِكُمُ اللَّهُ جَمِيعًا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Walikullin wijhatun huwa muwalleehafastabiqoo alkhayrati aynama takoonoo ya/tibikumu Allahu jameeAAan inna Allaha AAalakulli shay-in qadeer

Translation

For each [religious following] is a direction toward which it faces. So race to [all that is] good. Wherever you may be, Allah will bring you forth [for judgement] all together. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Every person, of every community, has his direction (wijha), [his] qibla, to which he turns (muwallīhā, ‘he turns to it’, is also read as muwallāhā, ‘he is made to turn to it’), in his prayers, so vie with one another in good works, strive with acts of obedience and acceptance of these. Wherever you may be, God will bring you all together, gathering you on the Day of Resurrection and requiting you for your deeds; surely God has power over all things.

2:149

وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۖ وَإِنَّهُ لَلْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّكَ ۗ وَمَا اللَّهُ بِغَافِلٍ عَمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ

Pronunciation

Wamin haythu kharajta fawalliwajhaka shatra almasjidi alharami wa-innahulalhaqqu min rabbika wama Allahu bighafilinAAamma taAAmaloon

Translation

So from wherever you go out [for prayer, O Muhammad] turn your face toward al- Masjid al-Haram, and indeed, it is the truth from your Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

From whatever place you issue, on a journey, turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque; it is the truth from your Lord. God is not heedless of what you do (ta‘malūna, ‘you do’, may also be read as ya‘malūna, ‘they do’, as already appears above [sc. 2:144]; its repetition is intended to point out that the stipulation applies equally to being on a journey or otherwise).

2:150

وَمِنْ حَيْثُ خَرَجْتَ فَوَلِّ وَجْهَكَ شَطْرَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۚ وَحَيْثُ مَا كُنتُمْ فَوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ شَطْرَهُ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَيْكُمْ حُجَّةٌ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا مِنْهُمْ فَلَا تَخْشَوْهُمْ وَاخْشَوْنِي وَلِأُتِمَّ نِعْمَتِي عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

Pronunciation

Wamin haythu kharajta fawalliwajhaka shatra almasjidi alharami wahaythuma kuntum fawalloo wujoohakum shatrahu li-allayakoona linnasi AAalaykum hujjatun illaallatheena thalamoo minhum falatakhshawhum wakhshawnee wali-otimma niAAmatee AAalaykumwalaAAallakum tahtadoon

Translation

And from wherever you go out [for prayer], turn your face toward al-Masjid al-Haram. And wherever you [believers] may be, turn your faces toward it in order that the people will not have any argument against you, except for those of them who commit wrong; so fear them not but fear Me. And [it is] so I may complete My favor upon you and that you may be guided.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

From whatever place you issue, turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque; and wherever you may be, turn your faces towards it (all of which is being repeated for emphasis), so that there be not any argument from the people, the Jews or the idolaters, against you, [so that there be not] any cause for contention regarding the change to a different direction of prayer. In this way, their contentions against you will cease to exist, both [the contentions] of the Jews when they say, ‘He [Muhammad (s)] rejects our religion, but follows our direction of prayer’, and of the idolaters when they say, ‘He [Muhammad (s)] claims to follow the creed of Abraham, but he contravenes his [Abraham’s] qibla’; excepting the evildoers among them, acting in obstinacy, who will say, ‘He [Muhammad (s)] only changed to this direction because of his [natural] inclination towards the [idolatrous] religion of his forefathers’. The exceptive statement [indicated by illā] is a continuous one, the meaning being: ‘No one will have anything to say against you, except for what these people say’; and do not fear them, do not fear their arguing [with you] regarding the change to it [the Ka‘ba], but fear Me, by complying with My command; and that I may perfect My grace upon you, by guiding you to the principal rituals of your religion, and that you may be guided, to the truth (wa-li-utimma, ‘that I may perfect’, is a supplement to li-allā yakūna, ‘that there be not’).

2:151

كَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا فِيكُمْ رَسُولًا مِّنكُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْكُمْ آيَاتِنَا وَيُزَكِّيكُمْ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Kama arsalna feekum rasoolanminkum yatloo AAalaykum ayatinawayuzakkeekum wayuAAallimukumu alkitaba walhikmatawayuAAallimukum ma lam takoonoo taAAlamoon

Translation

Just as We have sent among you a messenger from yourselves reciting to you Our verses and purifying you and teaching you the Book and wisdom and teaching you that which you did not know.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

As also We have sent (this [verbal clause ka-mā arsalnā, ‘as We have sent’] is semantically connected to wa-li-utimma [of the previous verse], that is to say, ‘[Also We have sent] by way of perfection’); as it [My grace] has been perfected by Our sending, among you, of yourselves, Muhammad (s), a messenger, to recite Our verses, the Qur’ān, to you and to purify you, to cleanse you from idolatry, and to teach you the Book, the Qur’ān, and wisdom, the rulings therein, and to teach you what you knew not.

2:152

فَاذْكُرُونِي أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لِي وَلَا تَكْفُرُونِ

Pronunciation

Fathkuroonee athkurkumwashkuroo lee wala takfuroon

Translation

So remember Me; I will remember you. And be grateful to Me and do not deny Me.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So remember Me, through prayer, glorification and the like, I will remember you: this is said to mean, ‘I will reward you’; in a hadīth about God [that He says]: ‘whoever remembers Me in himself, I will remember him in Myself, and whoever remembers Me in an assembly, I will remember him in an Assembly more excellent than his’; and be thankful to Me, for My grace, by being obedient, and be not ungrateful towards Me, through disobedience.

2:153

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اسْتَعِينُوا بِالصَّبْرِ وَالصَّلَاةِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooistaAAeenoo bissabri wassalatiinna Allaha maAAa assabireen

Translation

O you who have believed, seek help through patience and prayer. Indeed, Allah is with the patient.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, seek help, regarding the Hereafter, through patience, in obedience and afflictions, and prayer (He singles it out for mention on account of its frequency and its greatness); surely God is with the patient, helping them.

2:154

وَلَا تَقُولُوا لِمَن يُقْتَلُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أَمْوَاتٌ ۚ بَلْ أَحْيَاءٌ وَلَٰكِن لَّا تَشْعُرُونَ

Pronunciation

Wala taqooloo liman yuqtalu feesabeeli Allahi amwatun bal ahyaon walakinla tashAAuroon

Translation

And do not say about those who are killed in the way of Allah , “They are dead.” Rather, they are alive, but you perceive [it] not.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And say not of those slain in God’s way, that, ‘They are dead’; rather they are living, their spirits are, according to a hadīth, contained in green birds that take wing freely wherever they wish in Paradise; but you are not aware, [but you] do not know their condition.

2:155

وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُم بِشَيْءٍ مِّنَ الْخَوْفِ وَالْجُوعِ وَنَقْصٍ مِّنَ الْأَمْوَالِ وَالْأَنفُسِ وَالثَّمَرَاتِ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الصَّابِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Walanabluwannakum bishay-in mina alkhawfiwaljooAAi wanaqsin mina al-amwali wal-anfusiwaththamarati wabashshiri assabireen

Translation

And We will surely test you with something of fear and hunger and a loss of wealth and lives and fruits, but give good tidings to the patient,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Surely We will try you with something of fear, of an enemy, and hunger, by way of drought, and diminution of goods, as a result of destruction, and lives, as a result of slaughter, death and disease, and fruits, by way of crop damage: that is to say, We will try you to see if you practise patience or not; yet give good tidings, of Paradise, to the patient, during calamities;

2:156

الَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌ قَالُوا إِنَّا لِلَّهِ وَإِنَّا إِلَيْهِ رَاجِعُونَ

Pronunciation

Allatheena itha asabat-hummuseebatun qaloo inna lillahi wa-innailayhi rajiAAoon

Translation

Who, when disaster strikes them, say, “Indeed we belong to Allah , and indeed to Him we will return.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

those who, when they are struck by an affliction, a calamity, say, ‘Surely we belong to God, we are His possession and servants, with whom He does as He pleases; and to Him we will return’, in the Hereafter, whereupon He will requite us: in one hadīth [it is said that], ‘whoever pronounces the istirjā‘ [sc. the formula ‘surely we belong to God and to Him we will return’] when an affliction befalls him, God will reward him and compensate him with what is better’. Similarly, it is said that on one occasion when his lamp blew out, the Prophet (s) uttered the istirjā‘, whereupon ‘Ā’isha said to him, saying: ‘But, it is just a lamp’, to which he replied, ‘Whatever bothers a believer is an affliction [of sorts]’: this is reported by Abū Dāwūd in his [section on] mursal reports.

2:157

أُولَٰئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ صَلَوَاتٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُهْتَدُونَ

Pronunciation

Ola-ika AAalayhim salawatunmin rabbihim warahmatun waola-ika humu almuhtadoon

Translation

Those are the ones upon whom are blessings from their Lord and mercy. And it is those who are the [rightly] guided.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Upon those rest blessings, forgiveness, and mercy, grace, from their Lord, and those — they are the truly guided, to rectitude.

2:158

إِنَّ الصَّفَا وَالْمَرْوَةَ مِن شَعَائِرِ اللَّهِ ۖ فَمَنْ حَجَّ الْبَيْتَ أَوِ اعْتَمَرَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِ أَن يَطَّوَّفَ بِهِمَا ۚ وَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَاكِرٌ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Inna assafa walmarwatamin shaAAa-iri Allahi faman hajja albaytaawi iAAtamara fala junaha AAalayhi an yattawwafabihima waman tatawwaAAa khayran fa-inna Allahashakirun AAaleem

Translation

Indeed, as-Safa and al-Marwah are among the symbols of Allah . So whoever makes Hajj to the House or performs ‘umrah – there is no blame upon him for walking between them. And whoever volunteers good – then indeed, Allah is appreciative and Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Truly Safā and Marwa, two mountains near Mecca, are among the waymarks (sha‘ā’ir, plural of sha‘īra) of God, the [ritual] ceremonies of His religion, so whoever makes the Pilgrimage to the House, or the Visitation, that is, whoever prepares to perform the Pilgrimage [hajj] or the Visitation [‘umra]: the original sense of both terms [hajja and i‘tamara] is ‘to aim for’ and ‘to visit’, respectively; he would not be at fault, [it would not be] a sin, if he circumambulates them (the original tā’ [of yatatawwafa, ‘circumambulate’] has been assimilated with the tā’), by pacing quickly (sa‘y) between them seven times: this was revealed when the Muslims were averse to this [circumambulation], because the pagan Arabs used to circumambulate them, and there was an idol atop each mountain which they used to stroke. It is reported from Ibn ‘Abbās that this pacing [between the two] is not obligatory, based on the fact that when no sin can be incurred, the context implies free choice. Al-Shāfi‘ī and others, however, considered it to be a pillar [of the Pilgrimage rituals]. The Prophet made clear its obligatory aspect when he said that, ‘God has prescribed for you the pacing [sa‘y]’, as reported by al-Bayhaqī and others; and he [the Prophet] also said, ‘Begin with what God has begun’, meaning, al-Safā, as reported by Muslim; and whoever volunteers (tatawwa‘a: a variant reading is yattawa‘, the ta’ here being assimilated) good, that is, any good deed such as circumambulation or other, that is not obligatory on him; God is Grateful, for such a deed and rewards that person for it, Knowing, it.

2:159

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنزَلْنَا مِنَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالْهُدَىٰ مِن بَعْدِ مَا بَيَّنَّاهُ لِلنَّاسِ فِي الْكِتَابِ ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ يَلْعَنُهُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَلْعَنُهُمُ اللَّاعِنُونَ

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena yaktumoona maanzalna mina albayyinati walhuda minbaAAdi ma bayyannahu linnasi feealkitabi ola-ika yalAAanuhumu AllahuwayalAAanuhumu allaAAinoon

Translation

Indeed, those who conceal what We sent down of clear proofs and guidance after We made it clear for the people in the Scripture – those are cursed by Allah and cursed by those who curse,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed concerning the Jews: Those who conceal, from people, the clear proofs and the guidance that We have revealed, such as the ‘stoning’ verse and the description of Muhammad (s), after We have shown them clearly in the Scripture, the Torah — they shall be cursed by God, that is, He will move them far away from His mercy, and by the cursers, the angels, believers, or by every single thing, when they supplicate that they be cursed.

2:160

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا وَأَصْلَحُوا وَبَيَّنُوا فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَتُوبُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَأَنَا التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

Pronunciation

Illa allatheena taboowaaslahoo wabayyanoo faola-ika atoobuAAalayhim waana attawwabu arraheem

Translation

Except for those who repent and correct themselves and make evident [what they concealed]. Those – I will accept their repentance, and I am the Accepting of repentance, the Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Except those that repent, turning back from such [deeds], and make amends, in their actions, and show clearly, what they were concealing — them I shall turn [relenting], accepting their repentance; I am the Relenting, the Merciful, to believers.

2:161

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَمَاتُوا وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ أُولَٰئِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ لَعْنَةُ اللَّهِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena kafaroo wamatoowahum kuffarun ola-ika AAalayhim laAAnatu Allahiwalmala-ikati wannasi ajmaAAeen

Translation

Indeed, those who disbelieve and die while they are disbelievers – upon them will be the curse of Allah and of the angels and the people, all together,

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But those who disbelieve, and die disbelieving (wa-hum kuffār, ‘they being disbelievers’, is a circumstantial qualifier) — upon them shall be the curse of God and the angels, and of people altogether, that is, they deserve such [a curse] in this life and in the next; ‘people’ here is said to be either [people] in general, or believers.

2:162

خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۖ لَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمُ الْعَذَابُ وَلَا هُمْ يُنظَرُونَ

Pronunciation

Khalideena feeha layukhaffafu AAanhumu alAAathabu wala hum yuntharoon

Translation

Abiding eternally therein. The punishment will not be lightened for them, nor will they be reprieved.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Abiding therein, that is, [in] the curse and the Fire, [the latter] indicated by the following words: the chastisement shall not be lightened for them, [not even for] a blink of an eye, no respite shall be given them, in which to have time to repent or to excuse themselves.

2:163

وَإِلَٰهُكُمْ إِلَٰهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ لَّا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ

Pronunciation

Wa-ilahukum ilahun wahidunla ilaha illa huwa arrahmanuarraheem

Translation

And your god is one God. There is no deity [worthy of worship] except Him, the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When they asked him [Muhammad (s)] to describe his Lord, the following was revealed: Your God, the One deserving of your worship, is One God, without any equal in either essence or attribute; there is no god except Him, He is the Compassionate, the Merciful.

2:164

إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَالْفُلْكِ الَّتِي تَجْرِي فِي الْبَحْرِ بِمَا يَنفَعُ النَّاسَ وَمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مِن مَّاءٍ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ وَتَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَاحِ وَالسَّحَابِ الْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ

Pronunciation

Inna fee khalqi assamawatiwal-ardi wakhtilafi allayli wannahariwalfulki allatee tajree fee albahri bimayanfaAAu annasa wama anzala Allahumina assama-i min ma-in faahyabihi al-arda baAAda mawtiha wabaththa feehamin kulli dabbatin watasreefi arriyahiwassahabi almusakhkhari bayna assama-iwal-ardi laayatin liqawminyaAAqiloon

Translation

Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and earth, and the alternation of the night and the day, and the [great] ships which sail through the sea with that which benefits people, and what Allah has sent down from the heavens of rain, giving life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness and dispersing therein every [kind of] moving creature, and [His] directing of the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven and the earth are signs for a people who use reason.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They then asked for a sign to prove this, and the following was revealed: Surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the marvels contained in them, and the alternation of the night and day, passing and returning, increasing and diminishing, and the ships that run in the sea, and do not become cracked and sink, with what profits men, of trade and merchandise, and the water, the rain, God sends down from the heaven with which He revives the earth, with vegetation, after it is dead, after it has dried out, and He scatters abroad in it all manner of crawling thing, by dividing them and spreading them throughout on account of the vegetation, for they thrive on the fertile pastures it produces; and the disposition of the winds, changing it from south to north, from cold to warm, and the clouds compelled, subjugated by God’s command, moving to wherever God wishes, between heaven and the earth, without being attached [to either of the two] — surely there are signs, indicating His Oneness, exalted be He, for a people who comprehend, [a people] who contemplate.

2:165

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَتَّخِذُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَندَادًا يُحِبُّونَهُمْ كَحُبِّ اللَّهِ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَشَدُّ حُبًّا لِّلَّهِ ۗ وَلَوْ يَرَى الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا إِذْ يَرَوْنَ الْعَذَابَ أَنَّ الْقُوَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعَذَابِ

Pronunciation

Wamina annasi man yattakhithumin dooni Allahi andadan yuhibboonahum kahubbiAllahi wallatheena amanoo ashaddu hubbanlillahi walaw yara allatheena thalamooith yarawna alAAathaba anna alquwwata lillahijameeAAan waanna Allaha shadeedu alAAathab

Translation

And [yet], among the people are those who take other than Allah as equals [to Him]. They love them as they [should] love Allah . But those who believe are stronger in love for Allah . And if only they who have wronged would consider [that] when they see the punishment, [they will be certain] that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is severe in punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Yet there be people who take to themselves compeers, idols, besides God, that is, other than God, loving them, by magnifying them and being subservient to them, as God is loved, that is, as their love of Him; but those who believe love God more ardently, than those who love their compeers, because the former never reject God, whereas the latter when faced with hardship soon abandon those [compeers] for God; If he, [if you] O Muhammad (s), were to see those who did evil, by taking to themselves compeers, when (idh here denotes idhā) they see (read either as active [yarawna, ‘they see’] or passive [yurawna, ‘they are made to see’]) the chastisement, you would see a grave sight, that, this is because, the might, the power and the vanquishing, altogether (a circumstantial qualifier) belongs to God, and that God is terrible in chastisement (according to one reading, the person listening [to the verse] governs the verb yarā, ‘he sees’, and constitutes the subject [of the clause]; according to another [reading], it is the ‘evildoers’ [who constitute the subject of the clause and govern the verb yarā]; and so it [yarā] has the sense of ya‘lam, ‘he knows’; the particle an, ‘that’, and what comes after it have taken the place of the objects in both cases; the response to the [initial conditional] law, ‘if’, has been omitted). The general meaning [of the verse] then is: ‘If they were aware in this world of the severity of God’s chastisement and of the fact that power is God’s alone, the moment they come to see it with their own eyes, on the Day of Resurrection, they would not take to themselves compeers’.

2:166

إِذْ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُوا مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا وَرَأَوُا الْعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتْ بِهِمُ الْأَسْبَابُ

Pronunciation

Ith tabarraa allatheenaittubiAAoo mina allatheena ittabaAAoo waraawoo alAAathabawataqattaAAat bihimu al-asbab

Translation

[And they should consider that] when those who have been followed disassociate themselves from those who followed [them], and they [all] see the punishment, and cut off from them are the ties [of relationship],

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When (idh here substitutes for the previous idh) those who were followed, that is, the leaders, disown their followers, that is to say, [when] they have denied misleading them [the latter], and they have seen the chastisement, and the cords, the bonds of affection and kinship that were between them on earth, are cut away before them, from them (taqatta‘at, ‘cut away’, is a supplement to tabarra’a, ‘disown’).

2:167

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوا لَوْ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنْهُمْ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُوا مِنَّا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ اللَّهُ أَعْمَالَهُمْ حَسَرَاتٍ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ وَمَا هُم بِخَارِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ

Pronunciation

Waqala allatheena ittabaAAoolaw anna lana karratan fanatabarraa minhum kamatabarraoo minna kathalika yureehimu AllahuaAAmalahum hasaratin AAalayhim wamahum bikharijeena mina annar

Translation

Those who followed will say, “If only we had another turn [at worldly life] so we could disassociate ourselves from them as they have disassociated themselves from us.” Thus will Allah show them their deeds as regrets upon them. And they are never to emerge from the Fire.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those who followed say, ‘O, if only we might return again, to the world, and disown them, the ones who had been followed, as they have disowned us!’, on this day (the particle law, ‘if only’, is an optative, and its response is natabarra’a, ‘we disown’). So, just as He showed them the severity of His chastisement and their disowning of one another, so too, God shall show them their, evil, works, as, anguish (hasarāt is a circumstantial qualifier), regrets, for them! Never shall they exit from the Fire, once they have entered it.

2:168

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ كُلُوا مِمَّا فِي الْأَرْضِ حَلَالًا طَيِّبًا وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha annasukuloo mimma fee al-ardi halalan tayyibanwala tattabiAAoo khutuwati ashshaytaniinnahu lakum AAaduwwun mubeen

Translation

O mankind, eat from whatever is on earth [that is] lawful and good and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed when some said that it was unlawful to take a camel that has been let loose (sawā’ib): O people, eat of what is in the earth, lawful (halālan is a circumstantial qualifier) and wholesome (tayyiban is an adjective for emphasis), that is to say, what is delicious; and follow not the steps, the ways, of Satan, meaning, what he embellishes [of temptations]; he is a manifest foe to you, whose enmity is clear;

2:169

إِنَّمَا يَأْمُرُكُم بِالسُّوءِ وَالْفَحْشَاءِ وَأَن تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Innama ya/murukum bissoo-iwalfahsha-i waan taqooloo AAala Allahima la taAAlamoon

Translation

He only orders you to evil and immorality and to say about Allah what you do not know.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

he only commands you to evil, sin, and indecency, what is abhorred by the Law, and that you should speak against God what you do not know, such as forbidding what He has not forbidden and otherwise.

2:170

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُوا مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُوا بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا أَلْفَيْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا ۗ أَوَلَوْ كَانَ آبَاؤُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha qeela lahumu ittabiAAoo maanzala Allahu qaloo bal nattabiAAu ma alfaynaAAalayhi abaana awa law kana abaohumla yaAAqiloona shay-an wala yahtadoon

Translation

And when it is said to them, “Follow what Allah has revealed,” they say, “Rather, we will follow that which we found our fathers doing.” Even though their fathers understood nothing, nor were they guided?

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when it is said to them, the disbelievers, ‘Follow what God has revealed’, pertaining to affirmation of God’s Oneness and the good things that He has made lawful, they say, ‘No; but we follow what we found our fathers doing’, in the way of idol-worship, deeming unlawful the camel let loose, and [practising] the slitting of the camel’s ear (sc. bahīra). God says: What? (the hamza [of a-wa-law] is for repudiation), do they follow them, Even if their fathers do not understand anything, concerning religion, and they were not guided?, to the truth.

2:171

وَمَثَلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا كَمَثَلِ الَّذِي يَنْعِقُ بِمَا لَا يَسْمَعُ إِلَّا دُعَاءً وَنِدَاءً ۚ صُمٌّ بُكْمٌ عُمْيٌ فَهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ

Pronunciation

Wamathalu allatheena kafarookamathali allathee yanAAiqu bima la yasmaAAuilla duAAaan wanidaan summun bukmunAAumyun fahum la yaAAqiloon

Translation

The example of those who disbelieve is like that of one who shouts at what hears nothing but calls and cries cattle or sheep – deaf, dumb and blind, so they do not understand.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The likeness, the attribute, of those who disbelieve, and the one who calls them to guidance, is as the likeness of one who shouts to that which hears nothing, save a call and a cry, only a sound, not understanding its meaning: when they listen to an admonition they are like cattle that hear the cry of their shepherd but do not understand what he is saying; they are deaf, dumb, blind — they do not comprehend, any admonition.

2:172

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُلُوا مِن طَيِّبَاتِ مَا رَزَقْنَاكُمْ وَاشْكُرُوا لِلَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanookuloo min tayyibati ma razaqnakum washkuroolillahi in kuntum iyyahu taAAbudoon

Translation

O you who have believed, eat from the good things which We have provided for you and be grateful to Allah if it is [indeed] Him that you worship.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, eat of the good things, that are lawful, wherewith We have provided you, and give thanks to God, for what He has made lawful for you, if it be Him that you worship.

2:173

إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْمَيْتَةَ وَالدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ الْخِنزِيرِ وَمَا أُهِلَّ بِهِ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ ۖ فَمَنِ اضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍ وَلَا عَادٍ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Innama harrama AAalaykumualmaytata waddama walahma alkhinzeeri wamaohilla bihi lighayri Allahi famani idturra ghayra baghinwala AAadin fala ithma AAalayhi inna Allahaghafoorun raheem

Translation

He has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah . But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit], there is no sin upon him. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He has only forbidden you: carrion, that is, the consumption of it, since this is the subject of the general address here, and similarly [the consumption of] what follows, [all of] which is what has not been slaughtered in accordance with [prescriptions of] the Law; to this the Sunna adds [as also constituting carrion] what has been severed from a living creature. A special status is, however, accorded fish and locusts; blood, poured forth, as in [sūrat] al-An‘ām [see Q. 6:145], the flesh of swine, the meat is singled out for mention because that [part] is what people mostly seek, every other [part] being implied thereby; what has been hallowed to other than God, that is to say, what has been slaughtered in other than His Name (al-ihlāl is the raising of one’s voice, which they used to do when sacrificing for their gods). Yet whoever is constrained, forced by dire need to eat of the above-mentioned, not desiring, to rebel against Muslims, nor transgressing, committing aggression against them by waylaying them, no sin shall be on him, for eating it. God is Forgiving, to His friends, Merciful, to those who are obedient to Him, for He has granted them wide berth in this matter. The aggressor and the transgressor are excluded from this [dispensation], and to these two [categories] one should also add every person that sets out on a journey in disobedience, such as the fugitive or the excise collector, for whom it would be unlawful to eat any of the mentioned, unless they repent [of their disobedience]; this is the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī.

2:174

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْتُمُونَ مَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَيَشْتَرُونَ بِهِ ثَمَنًا قَلِيلًا ۙ أُولَٰئِكَ مَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ إِلَّا النَّارَ وَلَا يُكَلِّمُهُمُ اللَّهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَلَا يُزَكِّيهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena yaktumoona maanzala Allahu mina alkitabi wayashtaroona bihithamanan qaleelan ola-ika ma ya/kuloona fee butoonihimilla annara wala yukallimuhumu Allahuyawma alqiyamati wala yuzakkeehim walahum AAathabunaleem

Translation

Indeed, they who conceal what Allah has sent down of the Book and exchange it for a small price – those consume not into their bellies except the Fire. And Allah will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them. And they will have a painful punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those who conceal what God has revealed of the Scripture, comprising all the descriptions of Muhammad (s), meaning the Jews, and sell it for a little price, in this world, taking this [little price] in its place from the debased ones among them, for fear of losing out if they were to manifest it [sc. the truth of Muhammad (s)] — they shall consume nothing in their bellies but the Fire, because that is their journey’s end; God shall not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, out of anger with them, neither purify them, from the filth of sin; and theirs is a painful chastisement, that is, the Fire.

2:175

أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ اشْتَرَوُا الضَّلَالَةَ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَالْعَذَابَ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ ۚ فَمَا أَصْبَرَهُمْ عَلَى النَّارِ

Pronunciation

Ola-ika allatheena ishtarawooaddalalata bilhuda walAAathababilmaghfirati fama asbarahum AAala annar

Translation

Those are the ones who have exchanged guidance for error and forgiveness for punishment. How patient they are in pursuit of the Fire!

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those are they that have bought error at the price of guidance, taking the former in place of the latter in this world, and chastisement at the price of pardon, [the pardon] that would have been prepared for them in the Hereafter, had they not concealed this matter; what makes them so patient for the Fire?, that is, how great is the extent of their patience? This [statement] is intended to provoke amazement in the believers at the way in which they [the disbelievers] commit sins that necessitate their punishment in the Fire with complete indifference. In reality they would have no patience whatever [to endure the Fire].

2:176

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ نَزَّلَ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ ۗ وَإِنَّ الَّذِينَ اخْتَلَفُوا فِي الْكِتَابِ لَفِي شِقَاقٍ بَعِيدٍ

Pronunciation

Thalika bi-anna Allahanazzala alkitaba bilhaqqi wa-inna allatheenaikhtalafoo fee alkitabi lafee shiqaqin baAAeed

Translation

That is [deserved by them] because Allah has sent down the Book in truth. And indeed, those who differ over the Book are in extreme dissension.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

That, which has been mentioned of their eating of the Fire and what follows it, is because God has revealed the Book with the truth, but they are at variance regarding it, believing in parts of it while disbelieving in others, and concealing them; and those that are at variance regarding the Book, concerning this matter, namely, the Jews — although it is said that these are the idolaters some of whom said, with regard to the Qur’ān, that it was poetry, others, that it was sorcery, and others still, that it was divination — are in schism, disagreement, far removed, from the truth.

2:177

لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا ۖ وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ

Pronunciation

Laysa albirra an tuwalloo wujoohakum qibalaalmashriqi walmaghribi walakinna albirra man amanabillahi walyawmi al-akhiri walmala-ikatiwalkitabi wannabiyyeena waataalmala AAala hubbihi thawee alqurbawalyatama walmasakeena wabnaalssabeeli wassa-ileena wafee arriqabiwaaqama assalata waataazzakata walmoofoona biAAahdihim ithaAAahadoo wassabireena fee alba/sa-iwaddarra-i waheena alba/si ola-ikaallatheena sadaqoo waola-ika humualmuttaqoon

Translation

Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but [true] righteousness is [in] one who believes in Allah , the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, those who ask [for help], and for freeing slaves; [and who] establishes prayer and gives zakah; [those who] fulfill their promise when they promise; and [those who] are patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

It is not piety, that you turn your faces, in prayer, to the East and to the West. This was revealed in response to the claim made by the Jews and the Christians to this effect. True piety, that is, the pious person (al-birr, is also read al-barr, in the sense of al-bārr [‘the dutiful person’]) is [that of] the one who believes in God and the Last Day and the angels and the Book, that is, the scriptures, and the prophets, and who gives of his substance, however, despite [it being], cherished, by him, to kinsmen and orphans and the needy and the traveller and beggars, and for, the setting free of, slaves, both the captive and the one to be manumitted by contract; and who observes prayer and pays the alms, that are obligatory, and what was [given] before [alms were made obligatory], in the way of charity; and those who fulfil their covenant when they have engaged in a covenant, with God or with others, those who endure with fortitude (al-sābirīna is the accusative of laudation) misfortune (al-ba’sā’ is abject poverty), hardship, illness, and peril, at the height of a battle in the way of God; these, described in the way mentioned, are the ones who are truthful, in their faith and in their claims to piety, and these are the ones who are fearful, of God.

2:178

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِصَاصُ فِي الْقَتْلَى ۖ الْحُرُّ بِالْحُرِّ وَالْعَبْدُ بِالْعَبْدِ وَالْأُنثَىٰ بِالْأُنثَىٰ ۚ فَمَنْ عُفِيَ لَهُ مِنْ أَخِيهِ شَيْءٌ فَاتِّبَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَأَدَاءٌ إِلَيْهِ بِإِحْسَانٍ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ تَخْفِيفٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَرَحْمَةٌ ۗ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَلَهُ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanookutiba AAalaykumu alqisasu fee alqatla alhurrubilhurri walAAabdu bilAAabdi walonthabilontha faman AAufiya lahu min akheehi shay-on fattibaAAunbilmaAAroofi waadaon ilayhi bi-ihsaninthalika takhfeefun min rabbikum warahmatun famaniiAAtada baAAda thalika falahu AAathabunaleem

Translation

O you who have believed, prescribed for you is legal retribution for those murdered – the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. But whoever overlooks from his brother anything, then there should be a suitable follow-up and payment to him with good conduct. This is an alleviation from your Lord and a mercy. But whoever transgresses after that will have a painful punishment.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, prescribed, made obligatory, for you is retaliation, on equal terms, regarding the slain, both in the attributes [of the one slain] and in the action involved; a free man, is killed, for a free man, and not for a slave; and a slave for a slave, and a female for a female. The Sunna makes it clear that a male may be killed [in retaliation] for a female, and that religious affiliation should be taken into account also, so that a Muslim cannot be killed in return for an disbeliever, even if the former be a slave and the latter a free man. But if anything, of the blood, is pardoned any one, of those who have slain, in relation to his brother, the one slain, so that the retaliation is waived (the use of the indefinite shay’un, ‘anything’, here implies the waiving of retaliation through a partial pardon by the inheritors [of the slain]; the mention of akhīh [‘his brother’] is intended as a conciliatory entreaty to pardon and a declaration that killing should not sever the bonds of religious brotherhood; the particle man, ‘any one’, is the subject of a conditional or a relative clause, of which the predicate is [the following, fa’ittibā‘un]) let the pursuing, that is, the action of the one who has pardoned in pursuing the killer, be honourable, demanding the blood money without force. The fact that the ‘pursuing’ results from the ‘pardoning’ implies that one of the two [actions] is a duty, which is one of al-Shāfi‘ī’s two opinions here. The other [opinion] is that retaliation is the duty, whereas the blood money is merely compensation [for non-retaliation], so that if one were to pardon but not name his blood money, then nothing [happens]; and this [latter] is the preferred [opinion]. And let the payment, of the blood money by the slayer, to him, the pardoner, that is, the one inheriting [from the slain], be with kindliness, without procrastination or fraud; that, stipulation mentioned here about the possibility of retaliation and the forgoing of this in return for blood money, is an alleviation, a facilitation, given, to you, by your Lord, and a mercy, for you, for He has given you latitude in this matter and has not categorically demanded that one [of the said options] be followed through, in the way that He made it obligatory for Jews to retaliate and for Christians to [pardon and] accept blood money; and for him who commits aggression, by being unjust towards the killer and slaying him, after that, that is, [after] pardoning — his is a painful chastisement, of the Fire in the Hereafter, or of being killed in this world.

2:179

وَلَكُمْ فِي الْقِصَاصِ حَيَاةٌ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

Pronunciation

Walakum fee alqisasi hayatunya olee al-albabi laAAallakum tattaqoon

Translation

And there is for you in legal retribution [saving of] life, O you [people] of understanding, that you may become righteous.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

In retaliation there is life for you, that is great longevity, O people of pith, possessors of intellect, because if the would-be killer knew that he would be killed [in retaliation], he would refrain [from such action] and would have thereby given life to himself and to the one whom he had intended to kill; and so it [retaliation] was stipulated by the Law, so that you might fear killing, fearing retaliation.

2:180

كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَكُمُ الْمَوْتُ إِن تَرَكَ خَيْرًا الْوَصِيَّةُ لِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۖ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ

Pronunciation

Kutiba AAalaykum itha hadaraahadakumu almawtu in taraka khayran alwasiyyatulilwalidayni wal-aqrabeena bilmaAAroofi haqqanAAala almuttaqeen

Translation

Prescribed for you when death approaches [any] one of you if he leaves wealth [is that he should make] a bequest for the parents and near relatives according to what is acceptable – a duty upon the righteous.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Prescribed, made obligatory, for you, when any of you is approached by death, that is, [by] its causes, and leaves behind some good, material possessions, is to make testament (al-wasiyyatu is in the nominative because of kutiba, and is semantically connected to the particle idhā, ‘when’, if the latter is adverbial; but if this latter is conditional, then it [al-wasiyyatu] indicates the response; the response to the [conditional] particle in, ‘if’, is, in other words, [implied to be] fa’l-yūsi, ‘let him make testament’); in favour of his parents and kinsmen honourably, that is justly, not giving more than the allotted share of a third, nor preferring the richer person — an obligation (haqqan here emphasises the import of what has preceded) on those that fear, God (this verse has been abrogated by the ‘inheritance’ verse [āyat al-mīrāth, see Q. 4:11] and by the hadīth: ‘Do not make testament for one [already] inheriting’, as reported by al-Tirmidhī).

2:181

فَمَن بَدَّلَهُ بَعْدَمَا سَمِعَهُ فَإِنَّمَا إِثْمُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يُبَدِّلُونَهُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Faman baddalahu baAAda ma samiAAahufa-innama ithmuhu AAala allatheenayubaddiloonahu inna Allaha sameeAAun AAaleem

Translation

Then whoever alters the bequest after he has heard it – the sin is only upon those who have altered it. Indeed, Allah is Hearing and Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then if anyone, whether a witness or a trustee, changes it, that is, the testament, after hearing it, and knowing it, the sin, resulting from the changed testament, shall rest upon those who change it (here the explicit subject stands in place of the implicit one); surely God is Hearing, of the testator’s words, Knowing, of the deeds of the trustee, requiting [each] accordingly.

2:182

فَمَنْ خَافَ مِن مُّوصٍ جَنَفًا أَوْ إِثْمًا فَأَصْلَحَ بَيْنَهُمْ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Faman khafa min moosinjanafan aw ithman faaslaha baynahum falaithma AAalayhi inna Allaha ghafoorun raheem

Translation

But if one fears from the bequeather [some] error or sin and corrects that which is between them, there is no sin upon him. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But if any one fears injustice, an error, in straying from what is right, or sin, because he has purposely increased the share of a third or specified a rich individual, from one making testament (read mūsī or muwassī), and so makes things right between them, the testator and the trustee, by commanding that justice be done, then no sin shall be upon him, with regard to this matter; surely God is Forgiving, Merciful.

2:183

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanookutiba AAalaykumu assiyamu kamakutiba AAala allatheena min qablikum laAAallakumtattaqoon

Translation

O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous -

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, prescribed for you, obligatory [for you], is the Fast, just as it was prescribed for those, communities, that were before you so that you might guard yourselves, against acts of disobedience, for, it [the fast] curbs the desires that prompt these [acts].

2:184

أَيَّامًا مَّعْدُودَاتٍ ۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۚ وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ ۖ فَمَن تَطَوَّعَ خَيْرًا فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّهُ ۚ وَأَن تَصُومُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Ayyaman maAAdoodatin faman kanaminkum mareedan aw AAala safarin faAAiddatun minayyamin okhara waAAala allatheena yuteeqoonahufidyatun taAAamu miskeenin faman tatawwaAAakhayran fahuwa khayrun lahu waan tasoomoo khayrun lakum inkuntum taAAlamoon

Translation

[Fasting for] a limited number of days. So whoever among you is ill or on a journey [during them] – then an equal number of days [are to be made up]. And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship] – a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day]. And whoever volunteers excess – it is better for him. But to fast is best for you, if you only knew.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

For days (ayyāman, ‘days’, is in the accusative as the object of al-siyām, ‘the fast’, or of an implied yasūmū, ‘he fasts’) numbered, few or specific in number, that is, those of Ramadān, as will be mentioned below; God has specified a small number as a way of facilitating matters for those under the obligation; and if any of you, during the month, be sick, or be on a journey, in which prayers are shortened, or if one is strained by the fast in both cases and breaks it, then a number of other days, equal to the ones during which he broke his fast — let him fast them instead; and for those who are, not, able to do it, [to fast] on account of old age or chronic illness, a redemption: which is, the feeding of a poor man, with about the same amount one consumes in a given day, that is, one mudd measure of the principal food of that town each day (a variant reading has [genitive] fidyatin as an explicative clause. It is also said that the [lā] negation of the verb [yutīqūnahu] is not actually implied, because at the very beginning of Islam, they could choose between fasting or offering the redemption; but later on this was abrogated by fixing the Fast [as an obligation], where God says, So let those of you, who are present at the month, fast it [Q. 2:185]: Ibn ‘Abbās said [by way of qualification] ‘Except for the pregnant one and the one breastfeeding, if they break their fast out of concern for the child; in the case of these two, the verse remains valid and has not been abrogated’). For him who volunteers good, by offering more than the minimum amount mentioned for the redemption; that, volunteering, is good for him; but that you should fast (wa-an tasūmū is the subject) is better for you (khayrun lakum is its predicate), than breaking the fast and paying the redemption, if you but knew, that this is better for you, then do it.

2:185

شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ الَّذِي أُنزِلَ فِيهِ الْقُرْآنُ هُدًى لِّلنَّاسِ وَبَيِّنَاتٍ مِّنَ الْهُدَىٰ وَالْفُرْقَانِ ۚ فَمَن شَهِدَ مِنكُمُ الشَّهْرَ فَلْيَصُمْهُ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ مَرِيضًا أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِّنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ ۗ يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ بِكُمُ الْيُسْرَ وَلَا يُرِيدُ بِكُمُ الْعُسْرَ وَلِتُكْمِلُوا الْعِدَّةَ وَلِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Pronunciation

Shahru ramadana allatheeonzila feehi alqur-anu hudan linnasiwabayyinatin mina alhuda walfurqanifaman shahida minkumu ashshahra falyasumhu waman kanamareedan aw AAala safarin faAAiddatun min ayyaminokhara yureedu Allahu bikumu alyusra wala yureedubikumu alAAusra walitukmiloo alAAiddata walitukabbiroo AllahaAAala ma hadakum walaAAallakum tashkuroon

Translation

The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur’an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey – then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and [wants] for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

These days of, the month of Ramadān, wherein the Qur’ān was revealed, from the Preserved Tablet to the earthly heaven on the Night of Ordainment [laylat al-qadr] from Him, a guidance (hudan, ‘a guidance’, is a circumstantial qualifier), guiding away from error, for the people, and as clear proofs, lucid verses, of the Guidance, the rulings that guide to truth, and, of, the Criterion, that discriminates between truth and falsehood; So let those of you, who are present at the month, fast it and if any of you be sick, or if he be on a journey, then a number of other days (this [concession] has already been mentioned, but it is repeated here to avoid the mistaken impression that it has been abrogated by the comprehensive implication of man shahida, ‘who are present’). God desires ease for you, and desires not hardship for you, and for this reason He has permitted you the breaking of the fast during illness or travel, [this ease being] the very reason He has commanded you to fast; He supplements [the previous statement with]: and that you fulfil (read tukmilū or tukammilū) the number, of the fasting days of Ramadān, and magnify God, when you have completed them, for having guided you, for having directed you to the principal rites of His religion, and that you might be thankful, to God for this.

2:186

وَإِذَا سَأَلَكَ عِبَادِي عَنِّي فَإِنِّي قَرِيبٌ ۖ أُجِيبُ دَعْوَةَ الدَّاعِ إِذَا دَعَانِ ۖ فَلْيَسْتَجِيبُوا لِي وَلْيُؤْمِنُوا بِي لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْشُدُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha saalaka AAibadeeAAannee fa-innee qareebun ojeebu daAAwata addaAAiitha daAAani falyastajeeboo lee walyu/minoo beelaAAallahum yarshudoon

Translation

And when My servants ask you, [O Muhammad], concerning Me – indeed I am near. I respond to the invocation of the supplicant when he calls upon Me. So let them respond to Me [by obedience] and believe in Me that they may be [rightly] guided.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

A group of followers of the Prophet (s) asked him, ‘Is our Lord nearby so that we should talk to Him secretly, or is He far away, so that we should call out to him?’, and the following was revealed: And when My servants question you concerning Me — I am near, to them in My knowledge, and he informed them of this; I answer the call of the caller, by granting him his request, when he calls to Me; so let them respond to Me, My call to them to be obedient, and let them believe, [let them] persevere in faith, in Me that they might go aright, [that] they [might] become guided.

2:187

أُحِلَّ لَكُمْ لَيْلَةَ الصِّيَامِ الرَّفَثُ إِلَىٰ نِسَائِكُمْ ۚ هُنَّ لِبَاسٌ لَّكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لِبَاسٌ لَّهُنَّ ۗ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ كُنتُمْ تَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَكُمْ فَتَابَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَعَفَا عَنكُمْ ۖ فَالْآنَ بَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَابْتَغُوا مَا كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ ثُمَّ أَتِمُّوا الصِّيَامَ إِلَى اللَّيْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَقْرَبُوهَا ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ

Pronunciation

Ohilla lakum laylata assiyamiarrafathu ila nisa-ikum hunna libasunlakum waantum libasun lahunna AAalima Allahuannakum kuntum takhtanoona anfusakum fatabaAAalaykum waAAafa AAankum fal-ana bashiroohunnawabtaghoo ma kataba Allahu lakum wakuloo washraboohatta yatabayyana lakumu alkhaytu al-abyadumina alkhayti al-aswadi mina alfajri thumma atimmoo assiyamaila allayli wala tubashiroohunna waantum AAakifoonafee almasajidi tilka hudoodu Allahi falataqrabooha kathalika yubayyinu Allahu ayatihilinnasi laAAallahum yattaqoon

Translation

It has been made permissible for you the night preceding fasting to go to your wives [for sexual relations]. They are clothing for you and you are clothing for them. Allah knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He accepted your repentance and forgave you. So now, have relations with them and seek that which Allah has decreed for you. And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night]. Then complete the fast until the sunset. And do not have relations with them as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques. These are the limits [set by] Allah , so do not approach them. Thus does Allah make clear His ordinances to the people that they may become righteous.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Permitted to you, upon the night of the Fast, is to go in to your wives, in sexual intercourse: this was revealed as an abrogation of its unlawfulness during the earliest phase of Islam, as well as [an abrogation of] the unlawfulness of eating and drinking after the night prayer; they are a vestment for you, and you are a vestment for them (a metaphor for their embraces or their need for one another); God knows that you have been betraying yourselves, by having sexual intercourse on the eve of the fast: this happened with ‘Umar [b. al-Khattāb] and others, and they apologised to the Prophet (s), and so He has turned to you [relenting], before you even turned in repentance, and He has pardoned you. So now, when it is permitted to you, lie with them, in sexual intercourse, and seek what God has prescribed for you, of sexual intercourse or what it produces of offspring; and eat and drink, [at any time] during the night, until the white thread is distinct, to you, from the black thread at daybreak, that is, the true [moment of daybreak], which explains the white thread, while the explanation of the black thread, namely, the night, has been left out. The whiteness and the darkness of the dawn [twilight] are likened to two black and white threads in the way they stretch out; then complete the fast, from daybreak, to the night, that is, until it arrives, after the setting of the sun; and do not lie with them, your women, while you cleave to the mosques in devotion [to God], while you are residing [therein] with the intention of [performing] i‘tikāf (‘spiritual retreat’). This was a prohibition pertaining to one who used to leave [the mosque], whilst in a state of i‘tikāf, have sexual intercourse with his wife, and then return. Those, rulings mentioned, are God’s bounds, delimited by God for His servants so that they do not overstep them; do not approach them (lā taqrabūhā, is more intense than lā ta‘taddūhā, ‘Do not overstep’, used in verses elsewhere). So, just as He makes clear to you what has been mentioned, God makes clear His signs to people so that they might fear [disobeying] His prohibitions.

2:188

وَلَا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوَالَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتُدْلُوا بِهَا إِلَى الْحُكَّامِ لِتَأْكُلُوا فَرِيقًا مِّنْ أَمْوَالِ النَّاسِ بِالْإِثْمِ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wala ta/kuloo amwalakumbaynakum bilbatili watudloo biha ilaalhukkami lita/kuloo fareeqan min amwali annasibil-ithmi waantum taAAlamoon

Translation

And do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly or send it [in bribery] to the rulers in order that [they might aid] you [to] consume a portion of the wealth of the people in sin, while you know [it is unlawful].

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Consume not your goods between you, that is to say, do not let one consume the goods of the other, in deception, that which is illicit according to the Law, such as theft and extortion; and, do not, proffer them, the regulation of these [goods] or any bribes, to the judges, that you may consume, as a result of any arbitration, a portion of other people’s goods, embroiled, in sin while you are aware, that you are in error.

2:189

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْأَهِلَّةِ ۖ قُلْ هِيَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالْحَجِّ ۗ وَلَيْسَ الْبِرُّ بِأَن تَأْتُوا الْبُيُوتَ مِن ظُهُورِهَا وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنِ اتَّقَىٰ ۗ وَأْتُوا الْبُيُوتَ مِنْ أَبْوَابِهَا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

Pronunciation

Yas-aloonaka AAani al-ahillati qul hiya mawaqeetulinnasi walhajji walaysa albirrubi-an ta/too albuyoota min thuhooriha walakinnaalbirra mani ittaqa wa/too albuyoota min abwabihawattaqoo Allaha laAAallakum tuflihoon

Translation

They ask you, [O Muhammad], about the new moons. Say, “They are measurements of time for the people and for Hajj.” And it is not righteousness to enter houses from the back, but righteousness is [in] one who fears Allah. And enter houses from their doors. And fear Allah that you may succeed.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They will ask you, O Muhammad (s), about the new moons (ahilla, plural of hilāl): ‘Why do they seem very thin, and then wax until they are full of light, and then wane again as at the first, and are not always the same, in the way that the sun is?’ Say, to them: ‘They are appointed times (mawāqīt is the plural of mīqāt) for the people, for them to know the times for sowing the land, for business, for their women’s waiting periods, their fast and their breaking it, and the Pilgrimage’ (wa’l-hajji and the Pilgrimage’, is a supplement to li’l-nāsi, ‘for the people’), that is to say, [appointed times] by which its season is known, for if they [the new moons] always looked the same, none of these things could be known. It is not piety to come to the houses from their backs, in [your] state of pilgrimage inviolability (ihrām), when you would bore holes in them to enter them and then exit, disregarding their doors; they used to do this and claim that it was out of piety; but piety is to fear, God by not contravening His commands; so come to the houses by their doors, when in a state of pilgrimage inviolability, and fear God, that you may prosper, [that you may] triumph.

2:190

وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ وَلَا تَعْتَدُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ الْمُعْتَدِينَ

Pronunciation

Waqatiloo fee sabeeli Allahiallatheena yuqatiloonakum wala taAAtadooinna Allaha la yuhibbu almuAAtadeen

Translation

Fight in the way of Allah those who fight you but do not transgress. Indeed. Allah does not like transgressors.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

After the Prophet (s) was prevented from [visiting] the House in the year of the battle of Hudaybiyya, he made a pact with the disbelievers that he would be allowed to return the following year, at which time they would vacate Mecca for three days. Having prepared to depart for the Visitation [‘umra], [he and] the believers were concerned that Quraysh would not keep to the agreement and instigate fighting. The Muslims were averse to becoming engaged in fighting while in a state of pilgrimage inviolability in the Sacred Enclosure [al-haram] and during the sacred months, and so the following was revealed: And fight in the way of God, to elevate His religion, with those who fight against you, the disbelievers, but aggress not, against them by initiating the fighting; God loves not the aggressors, the ones that overstep the bounds which God has set for them: this stipulation was abrogated by the verse of barā’a, ‘immunity’ [Q. 9:1], or by His saying [below]:

2:191

وَاقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ وَأَخْرِجُوهُم مِّنْ حَيْثُ أَخْرَجُوكُمْ ۚ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَشَدُّ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ ۚ وَلَا تُقَاتِلُوهُمْ عِندَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ حَتَّىٰ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِيهِ ۖ فَإِن قَاتَلُوكُمْ فَاقْتُلُوهُمْ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الْكَافِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Waqtuloohum haythuthaqiftumoohum waakhrijoohum min haythu akhrajookum walfitnatuashaddu mina alqatli wala tuqatiloohum AAindaalmasjidi alharami hatta yuqatilookumfeehi fa-in qatalookum faqtuloohum kathalikajazao alkafireen

Translation

And kill them wherever you overtake them and expel them from wherever they have expelled you, and fitnah is worse than killing. And do not fight them at al-Masjid al- Haram until they fight you there. But if they fight you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And slay them wherever you come upon them, and expel them from where they expelled you, that is, from Mecca, and this was done after the Conquest of Mecca; sedition, their idolatry, is more grievous, more serious, than slaying, them in the Sacred Enclosure or while in a state of pilgrimage inviolability, the thing that you greatly feared. But fight them not by the Sacred Mosque, that is, in the Sacred Enclosure, until they should fight you there; then if they fight you, there, slay them, there (a variant reading drops the alif in the three verbs [sc. wa-lā taqtilūhum, hattā yaqtulūkum, fa-in qatalūkum, so that the sense is ‘slaying’ in all three, and not just ‘fighting’]) — such, killing and expulsion, is the requital of disbelievers.

2:192

فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Fa-ini intahaw fa-inna Allahaghafoorun raheem

Translation

And if they cease, then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But if they desist, from unbelief and become Muslims, surely God is Forgiving, Merciful, to them.

2:193

وَقَاتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ الدِّينُ لِلَّهِ ۖ فَإِنِ انتَهَوْا فَلَا عُدْوَانَ إِلَّا عَلَى الظَّالِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Waqatiloohum hatta latakoona fitnatun wayakoona addeenu lillahi fa-iniintahaw fala AAudwana illa AAala aththalimeen

Translation

Fight them until there is no [more] fitnah and [until] worship is [acknowledged to be] for Allah . But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Fight them till there is no sedition, no idolatry, and the religion, all worship, is for God, alone and none are worshipped apart from Him; then if they desist, from idolatry, do not aggress against them. This is indicated by the following words, there shall be no enmity, no aggression through slaying or otherwise, save against evildoers. Those that desist, however, are not evildoers and should not be shown any enmity.

2:194

الشَّهْرُ الْحَرَامُ بِالشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْحُرُمَاتُ قِصَاصٌ ۚ فَمَنِ اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُوا عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ

Pronunciation

Ashshahru alharamu bishshahrialharami walhurumatu qisasunfamani iAAtada AAalaykum faAAtadoo AAalayhibimithli ma iAAtada AAalaykum wattaqoo AllahawaAAlamoo anna Allaha maAAa almuttaqeen

Translation

[Fighting in] the sacred month is for [aggression committed in] the sacred month, and for [all] violations is legal retribution. So whoever has assaulted you, then assault him in the same way that he has assaulted you. And fear Allah and know that Allah is with those who fear Him.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The sacred month, in return, for the sacred month, therefore, just as they fight you during it, kill them during it: a response to the Muslims’ consideration of the momentous nature of this matter; holy things (hurumāt, plural of hurma, is what must be treated as sacrosanct) demand retaliation, in kind if these [holy things] are violated; whoever commits aggression against you, through fighting in the Sacred Enclosure, or during a state of ritual purity or in the sacred months, then commit aggression against him in the manner that he committed against you, the [Muslim] response is also referred to as ‘aggression’, because that is what it resembles formally; and fear God, when avenging yourselves and [by] renouncing aggression, and know that God is with the God-fearing, helping and assisting [them].

2:195

وَأَنفِقُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَلَا تُلْقُوا بِأَيْدِيكُمْ إِلَى التَّهْلُكَةِ ۛ وَأَحْسِنُوا ۛ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Waanfiqoo fee sabeeli Allahi walatulqoo bi-aydeekum ila attahlukati waahsinooinna Allaha yuhibbu almuhsineen

Translation

And spend in the way of Allah and do not throw [yourselves] with your [own] hands into destruction [by refraining]. And do good; indeed, Allah loves the doers of good.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And spend in the way of God, in obedience to Him, in holy struggle and the like; and cast not your own hands, yourselves (the bā’ of bi-aydīkum ‘with your hands’ is extra) into destruction, by withholding funds needed for the struggle or abandoning it altogether, because this will give your enemy the advantage over you; but be virtuous, by spending etc.; God loves the virtuous, that is, He rewards them.

2:196

وَأَتِمُّوا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلَّهِ ۚ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ ۖ وَلَا تَحْلِقُوا رُءُوسَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ ۚ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضًا أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ ۚ فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ ۚ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ ۗ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ

Pronunciation

Waatimmoo alhajja walAAumratalillahi fa-in ohsirtum fama istaysara minaalhadyi wala tahliqoo ruoosakum hattayablugha alhadyu mahillahu faman kana minkum mareedanaw bihi athan min ra/sihi fafidyatun min siyaminaw sadaqatin aw nusukin fa-itha amintum famantamattaAAa bilAAumrati ila alhajji famaistaysara mina alhadyi faman lam yajid fasiyamuthalathati ayyamin fee alhajji wasabAAatin itharajaAAtum tilka AAasharatun kamilatun thalika limanlam yakun ahluhu hadiree almasjidi alharamiwattaqoo Allaha waAAlamoo anna Allahashadeedu alAAiqab

Translation

And complete the Hajj and ‘umrah for Allah . But if you are prevented, then [offer] what can be obtained with ease of sacrificial animals. And do not shave your heads until the sacrificial animal has reached its place of slaughter. And whoever among you is ill or has an ailment of the head [making shaving necessary must offer] a ransom of fasting [three days] or charity or sacrifice. And when you are secure, then whoever performs ‘umrah [during the Hajj months] followed by Hajj [offers] what can be obtained with ease of sacrificial animals. And whoever cannot find [or afford such an animal] – then a fast of three days during Hajj and of seven when you have returned [home]. Those are ten complete [days]. This is for those whose family is not in the area of al-Masjid al-Haram. And fear Allah and know that Allah is severe in penalty.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Fulfil the Pilgrimage and the Visitation to God, by completing them according to their due; but if you are prevented, from fulfilling them by an enemy, then [give] such offering as may be feasible, for you — a sheep — and do not shave your heads, that is, do not release yourselves from the state of pilgrimage inviolability, until the offering, mentioned, reaches its place, its place of sacrifice, that is, within the enclosure, according to al-Shāfi‘ī; the sacrifice is then made with the intention of releasing oneself from the state of pilgrimage inviolability, and is divided among the needy, after which the head is shaved and the release is effected. If any of you is sick, or has an ailment of the head, such as lice or severe pains, and has thus shaved his head while in a state of pilgrimage inviolability, then, incumbent upon him is, a redemption by fast, for three days, or a voluntary almsgiving, consisting of three cubic measures of the principal food of the town for six needy persons, or a ritual sacrifice, that is, the slaughter of a sheep (aw, ‘or’, denotes freedom of choice). To this [last] has been added the [case of the] one who shaves his head without excuse because the requirement of redemption is most obvious in his case; but also [it is required in the case of] one that enjoys, without shaving, such things as scents, attire, or oils, be it with an excuse or without. When you are secure, knowing that the enemy has gone or is not present, then whoever enjoys the Visitation, having completed it and observed its ritual prohibitions, until the Pilgrimage, until he enters its ritual inviolability in the relevant months; let his offering be such as is feasible, for him, such as a sheep that he sacrifices after entering into the state of pilgrimage inviolability, ideally, on the Day of Sacrifice; or if he finds none, because there are none available, or because he does not have sufficient funds, then, incumbent upon him is, a fast of three days in the Pilgrimage, that is to say, in a state of pilgrimage inviolability. In such a case, he should enter into the state of pilgrimage inviolability before the seventh of Dhū’l-Hijja, but ideally before the sixth, because one is discouraged from fasting on the Day of ‘Arafa.

2:197

الْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَّعْلُومَاتٌ ۚ فَمَن فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الْحَجَّ فَلَا رَفَثَ وَلَا فُسُوقَ وَلَا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللَّهُ ۗ وَتَزَوَّدُوا فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَىٰ ۚ وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ

Pronunciation

Alhajju ashhurun maAAloomatunfaman farada feehinna alhajja fala rafathawala fusooqa wala jidala fee alhajjiwama tafAAaloo min khayrin yaAAlamhu Allahuwatazawwadoo fa-inna khayra azzadi attaqwawattaqooni ya olee al-albab

Translation

Hajj is [during] well-known months, so whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself therein [by entering the state of ihram], there is [to be for him] no sexual relations and no disobedience and no disputing during Hajj. And whatever good you do – Allah knows it. And take provisions, but indeed, the best provision is fear of Allah . And fear Me, O you of understanding.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The Pilgrimage, the time for it, is in months well-known: Shawwāl, Dhū’l-Qa’da and ten nights, some say all, of Dhū’l Hijja; whoever undertakes, upon himself, the duty of Pilgrimage during them, by entering into the state of pilgrimage inviolability, then no lewdness, [no] sexual intercourse for them, nor wickedness, [nor] acts of disobedience, or disputing, [or] quarrelling, in the Pilgrimage (a variant reading [for fa-lā rafathun wa-lā fusūqun wa-lā jidāla] has the accusative for all three nouns [sc. fa-lā rafatha wa-lā fusūqa wa-lā jidāla]; prohibition is meant in all three cases). Whatever good you do, by way of voluntary almsgiving, God knows it, and will reward you for it. And take provision, to suffice you your journey: this was revealed regarding the people of Yemen, who use to make the Pilgrimage and not take any provisions with them, thus, becoming a burden for others. But the best provision is piety [taqwā, ‘piety’, literally ‘guarding’] with which you are able to guard against asking others [for things]; and fear you Me, O people of pith!, [O] possessors of intellect.

2:198

لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَبْتَغُوا فَضْلًا مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ ۚ فَإِذَا أَفَضْتُم مِّنْ عَرَفَاتٍ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ عِندَ الْمَشْعَرِ الْحَرَامِ ۖ وَاذْكُرُوهُ كَمَا هَدَاكُمْ وَإِن كُنتُم مِّن قَبْلِهِ لَمِنَ الضَّالِّينَ

Pronunciation

Laysa AAalaykum junahun an tabtaghoofadlan min rabbikum fa-itha afadtum minAAarafatin fathkuroo Allaha AAindaalmashAAari alharami wathkuroohu kamahadakum wa-in kuntum min qablihi lamina addalleen

Translation

There is no blame upon you for seeking bounty from your Lord [during Hajj]. But when you depart from ‘Arafat, remember Allah at al- Mash’ar al-Haram. And remember Him, as He has guided you, for indeed, you were before that among those astray.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

You would not be at fault if you should seek bounty, sustenance, from your Lord, by engaging in commerce at the Pilgrimage: this was revealed in response to their aversion to such an idea; but when you press on, push on, from ‘Arafāt, having stood [in prayer] upon it, then remember God, after the overnight stay at Muzdalifa, by repeating the talbiya [sc. labbayka Llāhummā labbayk, ‘at thy service, O God, at thy service’], the tahlīl [lā ilāha illā Llāh, ‘no god but God’] and making supplications, at the Sacred Waymark, a mountain at the end of Muzdalifa, called Quzah. In one hadīth, the Prophet (s) stood there remembering God and supplicating until his face began to glow brightly, according to Muslim; and remember Him as He has guided you, to the principal rites of His religion and the rituals of His Pilgrimage (the kāf of ka-mā, ‘as’, is the particle denoting the reason), though previously, before His guidance, you were astray.

2:199

ثُمَّ أَفِيضُوا مِنْ حَيْثُ أَفَاضَ النَّاسُ وَاسْتَغْفِرُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Thumma afeedoo min haythu afadaannasu wastaghfiroo Allaha inna Allahaghafoorun raheem

Translation

Then depart from the place from where [all] the people depart and ask forgiveness of Allah . Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then (thumma denotes the sequence intended) press on, O Quraysh, from where the people press on, that is, from ‘Arafa, by standing there together with them (for, they used to stand at Muzdalifa, disdaining to stand with other people); and seek God’s forgiveness, for your sins; God is Forgiving, Merciful, to the believers.

2:200

فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُم مَّنَاسِكَكُمْ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَذِكْرِكُمْ آبَاءَكُمْ أَوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْرًا ۗ فَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَمَا لَهُ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلَاقٍ

Pronunciation

Fa-itha qadaytum manasikakumfathkuroo Allaha kathikrikum abaakumaw ashadda thikran famina annasi manyaqoolu rabbana atina fee addunyawama lahu fee al-akhirati min khalaq

Translation

And when you have completed your rites, remember Allah like your [previous] remembrance of your fathers or with [much] greater remembrance. And among the people is he who says, “Our Lord, give us in this world,” and he will have in the Hereafter no share.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when you have performed, and completed, your holy rites, that is, the devotions pertaining to your pilgrimage, having cast [stones] at the Jamrat al-‘Aqaba, performed the circumambulation and stopped at Minā, remember God, by extolling Him and repeating the takbīr [saying Allāhu akbar, ‘God is Great’], as you remember your fathers, as you used to remember them and boast about them at the end of your pilgrimage, or yet more intensely, than your remembrance of them (ashadda is in the accusative because it is a circumstantial qualifier referring to dhikr ‘remembrance’, which itself is in the accusative as the object of udhkurū, ‘remember’, because had it come after it, it would have functioned as an adjectival phrase). There are some people who say, ‘Our Lord, give to us, our lot, in this world’, and they are given it; such people will have no part, no lot, in the Hereafter.

2:201

وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

Pronunciation

Waminhum man yaqoolu rabbana atinafee addunya hasanatan wafee al-akhiratihasanatan waqina AAathaba annar

Translation

But among them is he who says, “Our Lord, give us in this world [that which is] good and in the Hereafter [that which is] good and protect us from the punishment of the Fire.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And there are others who say, ‘Our Lord, give to us in this world good, a grace, and good, Paradise, in the Hereafter, and guard us against the chastisement of the Fire’, by not making us enter it. This [former statement] depicts the manner of the idolaters, while [the latter] the way of the believers, and is intended to encourage [people] to petition for good in both abodes, for which one is promised a reward, as He says:

2:202

أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا كَسَبُوا ۚ وَاللَّهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ

Pronunciation

Ola-ika lahum naseebun mimmakasaboo wallahu sareeAAu alhisab

Translation

Those will have a share of what they have earned, and Allah is swift in account.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those — they shall have a portion, a reward, from, as a result of, what they have earned, the deeds they have performed, such as Pilgrimage and supplication; and God is swift at reckoning, reckoning with the whole of creation in half a day of this world, as one hadīth states.

2:203

وَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ فِي أَيَّامٍ مَّعْدُودَاتٍ ۚ فَمَن تَعَجَّلَ فِي يَوْمَيْنِ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَن تَأَخَّرَ فَلَا إِثْمَ عَلَيْهِ ۚ لِمَنِ اتَّقَىٰ ۗ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُمْ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ

Pronunciation

Wathkuroo Allaha feeayyamin maAAdoodatin faman taAAajjala fee yawmaynifala ithma AAalayhi waman taakhkhara fala ithmaAAalayhi limani ittaqa wattaqoo Allaha waAAlamooannakum ilayhi tuhsharoon

Translation

And remember Allah during [specific] numbered days. Then whoever hastens [his departure] in two days – there is no sin upon him; and whoever delays [until the third] – there is no sin upon him – for him who fears Allah . And fear Allah and know that unto Him you will be gathered.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And remember God, by making takbīr [saying Allāhu akbar, ‘God is Great’] while you cast your stones at the Jamarāt, during certain days numbered, the three days of tashrīq. If any man hastens on, his departure from Minā, in two days, that is, on the second day of tashrīq after he has cast his stones, that, hastening, is no sin for him; and if he delays, such that he stays until the third night and cast his stones, it is not a sin for him: that is, they have the choice of either, for the sin has been precluded in both cases; if he fears, God during his pilgrimage — for such [a person] is truly a pilgrim — and fear God, and know that to Him you shall be gathered, in the Hereafter, that He may requite you for your deeds.

2:204

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُعْجِبُكَ قَوْلُهُ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيُشْهِدُ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ مَا فِي قَلْبِهِ وَهُوَ أَلَدُّ الْخِصَامِ

Pronunciation

Wamina annasi man yuAAjibukaqawluhu fee alhayati addunyawayushhidu Allaha AAala ma fee qalbihiwahuwa aladdu alkhisam

Translation

And of the people is he whose speech pleases you in worldly life, and he calls Allah to witness as to what is in his heart, yet he is the fiercest of opponents.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And among people there is he whose speech in the life of this world pleases you, but it would not please you in the Hereafter because it contradicts what he actually used to believe; and who calls on God to witness what is in his heart, as being in accordance with what he says; yet he is most stubborn in dispute, with you and your followers on account of his enmity towards you: this was al-Akhnas b. Sharīq, a hypocrite who spoke kindly in the presence of the Prophet (s), swearing that he believed in him and that he loved him, and frequently sitting with him. God then revealed his mendacity in this matter. On one occasion he passed by some crops and livestock that belonged to the Muslims and later that night he set fire to them [the crops] and slaughtered them [the livestock]. God, moreover, says:

2:205

وَإِذَا تَوَلَّىٰ سَعَىٰ فِي الْأَرْضِ لِيُفْسِدَ فِيهَا وَيُهْلِكَ الْحَرْثَ وَالنَّسْلَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَسَادَ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha tawalla saAAafee al-ardi liyufsida feeha wayuhlika alharthawannasla wallahu la yuhibbualfasad

Translation

And when he goes away, he strives throughout the land to cause corruption therein and destroy crops and animals. And Allah does not like corruption.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when he turns his back, leaving you behind, he hastens, he walks, about the earth to do corruption there and to destroy the tillage and the stock (these [last two actions] are included in such ‘corruption’); and God loves not corruption, that is to say, it does not please Him.

2:206

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُ اتَّقِ اللَّهَ أَخَذَتْهُ الْعِزَّةُ بِالْإِثْمِ ۚ فَحَسْبُهُ جَهَنَّمُ ۚ وَلَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha qeela lahu ittaqi Allahaakhathat-hu alAAizzatu bil-ithmi fahasbuhujahannamu walabi/sa almihad

Translation

And when it is said to him, “Fear Allah ,” pride in the sin takes hold of him. Sufficient for him is Hellfire, and how wretched is the resting place.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when it is said to him, ‘Fear God’, in your actions, he is seized by vainglory, pride and rage, in his sin, the one he was commanded to avoid committing. So Hell shall be enough, [it] suffices, for him — how evil a cradling, a resting place it is!

2:207

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَشْرِي نَفْسَهُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ رَءُوفٌ بِالْعِبَادِ

Pronunciation

Wamina annasi man yashreenafsahu ibtighaa mardati Allahi wallahuraoofun bilAAibad

Translation

And of the people is he who sells himself, seeking means to the approval of Allah . And Allah is kind to [His] servants.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But there are other men who sell themselves, expend themselves in obedience to God, desiring God’s pleasure: this was Suhayb [b. Sinān al-Rūmī], who emigrated to Medina when the idolaters began to persecute him, leaving them all his property; and God is Gentle with His servants, for He guides them to what pleases Him.

2:208

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooodkhuloo fee assilmi kaffatan walatattabiAAoo khutuwati ashshaytaniinnahu lakum AAaduwwun mubeen

Translation

O you who have believed, enter into Islam completely [and perfectly] and do not follow the footsteps of Satan. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following verse was revealed regarding ‘Abd Allāh b. Salām and his companions, who after converting to Islam still observed the Sabbath with reverence and were averse to [the consumption of] camels: O you who believe, come, all of you, into submission (read al-salm or al-silm), that is, Islam; kāffatan is a circumstantial qualifier referring to al-silm, meaning, into all of its precepts; and follow not the steps, the ways, of Satan, that is, his temptations to you by way of creating divisions; he is a manifest foe to you, one whose enmity is obvious.

2:209

فَإِن زَلَلْتُم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْكُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ فَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Fa-in zalaltum min baAAdi ma jaatkumualbayyinatu faAAlamoo anna Allaha AAazeezunhakeem

Translation

But if you deviate after clear proofs have come to you, then know that Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But if you slip, and incline away from implementing all of its precepts, after the clear proofs, the lucid arguments, have come to you, to the effect that this is the truth, know then that God is Mighty, and nothing can prevent Him from taking His vengeance against you; Wise, in His actions.

2:210

هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِّنَ الْغَمَامِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ وَقُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ ۚ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ الْأُمُورُ

Pronunciation

Hal yanthuroona illaan ya/tiyahumu Allahu fee thulalin minaalghamami walmala-ikatu waqudiyaal-amru wa-ila Allahi turjaAAu al-omoor

Translation

Do they await but that Allah should come to them in covers of clouds and the angels [as well] and the matter is [then] decided? And to Allah [all] matters are returned.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

What do they, those that fail to enter into it [sc. Islam] completely, wait for, await, that God shall come to them, that is, His Command; this is similar to where God says, or that God’s command should come to pass [Q. 16:33], meaning His chastisement, in the shadows (zulal, plural of zulla) of clouds, and the angels? The matter is determined, the matter of their destruction has been completed, and to God all matters are returned, in the Hereafter, where He will requite each according to his deeds (read passive [turja‘u al-umūr, ‘matters are returned’] or active [tarji‘u al-umūr, ‘matters return’]).

2:211

سَلْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ كَمْ آتَيْنَاهُم مِّنْ آيَةٍ بَيِّنَةٍ ۗ وَمَن يُبَدِّلْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ

Pronunciation

Sal banee isra-eela kam ataynahummin ayatin bayyinatin waman yubaddil niAAmata Allahimin baAAdi ma jaat-hu fa-inna Allahashadeedu alAAiqab

Translation

Ask the Children of Israel how many a sign of evidence We have given them. And whoever exchanges the favor of Allah [for disbelief] after it has come to him – then indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Ask, O Muhammad (s), the Children of Israel, by way of rebuke, how many a clear proof, manifest ones such as the parting of the sea, and the sending down of manna and quails, which they exchanged for unbelief, did We give them (kam, ‘how many’, is the interrogative particle linking the second object of the verb sal, ‘ask’, and is also the second object of the verb ātaynā, ‘We gave’, and its specifier); whoever changes God’s grace, that is, what God has blessed him with in the way of signs, for these constitute the causes of guidance, after it has come to him, out of unbelief, God is severe in retribution against him.

2:212

زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا وَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ۘ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّقَوْا فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَاءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

Pronunciation

Zuyyina lillatheena kafaroo alhayatuaddunya wayaskharoona mina allatheena amanoowallatheena ittaqaw fawqahum yawma alqiyamatiwallahu yarzuqu man yashao bighayri hisab

Translation

Beautified for those who disbelieve is the life of this world, and they ridicule those who believe. But those who fear Allah are above them on the Day of Resurrection. And Allah gives provision to whom He wills without account.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Decked out fair to the disbelievers, of Mecca, is the life of this world, in disguise and they have fallen in love with it; and they deride the believers, on account of their poverty, the likes of Bilāl [al-Habashī], ‘Ammār [b. Yāsir], and Suhayb [al-Rūmī], mocking them and treating them condescendingly with their wealth; but those who fear, idolatry, namely, those mentioned, shall be above them on the Day of Resurrection; and God sustains whomever He will without reckoning, with ample sustenance in the Hereafter or in this world, when He gives to those that were mocked possession of the property and lives of those that mocked them.

2:213

كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللَّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ فَهَدَى اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِمَا اخْتَلَفُوا فِيهِ مِنَ الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ

Pronunciation

Kana annasu ommatan wahidatanfabaAAatha Allahu annabiyyeena mubashshireenawamunthireena waanzala maAAahumu alkitaba bilhaqqiliyahkuma bayna annasi feemaikhtalafoo feehi wama ikhtalafa feehi illa allatheenaootoohu min baAAdi ma jaat-humu albayyinatubaghyan baynahum fahada Allahu allatheena amanoolima ikhtalafoo feehi mina alhaqqi bi-ithnihiwallahu yahdee man yashao ila siratinmustaqeem

Translation

Mankind was [of] one religion [before their deviation]; then Allah sent the prophets as bringers of good tidings and warners and sent down with them the Scripture in truth to judge between the people concerning that in which they differed. And none differed over the Scripture except those who were given it – after the clear proofs came to them – out of jealous animosity among themselves. And Allah guided those who believed to the truth concerning that over which they had differed, by His permission. And Allah guides whom He wills to a straight path.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

People were one community, in faith, but they fell into disagreement, and some believed, while others disbelieved; then God sent forth the prophets, to them, as bearers of good tidings, of Paradise for the believers, and warners, of the Fire for the disbelievers; and He revealed with them the Scripture, meaning, the Books, with the truth (bi’l-haqqi, ‘with the truth’, is semantically connected to anzala, ‘He revealed’) that He might decide, according to it, between people regarding their differences, in religion; and only those who had been given it, the Scripture, so that some believed while others disbelieved, differed about it, [about] religion, after the clear proofs, the manifest arguments for God’s Oneness, had come to them (min [of min ba‘di, ‘after’] is semantically connected to ikhtalafa, ‘they differed’, and together with what follows should be understood as coming before the exception [illā lladhīna, ‘only those’]); out of insolence, on the part of the disbelievers, one to another; then God guided those who believed to the truth, regarding which (min [of min al-haqqi, ‘of the truth’] here is explicative) they were at variance, by His leave, by His will; and God guides, with His guidance, whomever He will to a straight path, the path of truth.

2:214

أَمْ حَسِبْتُمْ أَن تَدْخُلُوا الْجَنَّةَ وَلَمَّا يَأْتِكُم مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِن قَبْلِكُم ۖ مَّسَّتْهُمُ الْبَأْسَاءُ وَالضَّرَّاءُ وَزُلْزِلُوا حَتَّىٰ يَقُولَ الرَّسُولُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ مَتَىٰ نَصْرُ اللَّهِ ۗ أَلَا إِنَّ نَصْرَ اللَّهِ قَرِيبٌ

Pronunciation

Am hasibtum an tadkhuloo aljannatawalamma ya/tikum mathalu allatheena khalaw minqablikum massat-humu alba/sao waddarraowazulziloo hatta yaqoola arrasoolu wallatheenaamanoo maAAahu mata nasru Allahi alainna nasra Allahi qareeb

Translation

Or do you think that you will enter Paradise while such [trial] has not yet come to you as came to those who passed on before you? They were touched by poverty and hardship and were shaken until [even their] messenger and those who believed with him said,”When is the help of Allah ?” Unquestionably, the help of Allah is near.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The following was revealed after the Muslims suffered a trying experience: Or did you suppose that you should enter Paradise without there having come upon you the like of, what came upon, those, believers, who passed away before you?, of trials, so that you may endure as they did; a new sentence begins here, explaining the previous one: They were afflicted by misery, extreme poverty, and hardship, illness, and were so convulsed, by all types of tribulations, that the Messenger and those who believed with him said (read yaqūla or yaqūlu), not expecting to see any help, on account of the extreme hardship afflicting them, ‘When will God’s help come?’, [the help] which we were promised; and God responded to them: Ah, but surely God’s help is nigh, in coming.

2:215

يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ ۖ قُلْ مَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Yas-aloonaka matha yunfiqoona qul maanfaqtum min khayrin falilwalidayni wal-aqrabeenawalyatama walmasakeeni wabniassabeeli wama tafAAaloo min khayrin fa-inna Allahabihi AAaleem

Translation

They ask you, [O Muhammad], what they should spend. Say, “Whatever you spend of good is [to be] for parents and relatives and orphans and the needy and the traveler. And whatever you do of good – indeed, Allah is Knowing of it.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They will ask you, O Muhammad (s), about what they should expend. This was the question posed by ‘Amr b. al-Jamūh. He was a wealthy elderly man and went to ask the Prophet (s) what and for whom he should expend; Say, to them: ‘Whatever you expend of good (min khayrin, ‘of good’, is an explication of mā, ‘whatever’, covering small and large amounts, and denotes one half of the question represented by the expender; God responds with regard to the one receiving the expenditure, this pertaining to the other half of the question, in the following) it is for parents and kinsmen, orphans, the needy, and the traveller, that is, they are the most deserving of it; and whatever good you may do, by way of expending or otherwise, God has knowledge of it’, and will requite it accordingly.

2:216

كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ وَهُوَ كُرْهٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ وَعَسَىٰ أَن تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ وَعَسَىٰ أَن تُحِبُّوا شَيْئًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَّكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Kutiba AAalaykumu alqitalu wahuwakurhun lakum waAAasa an takrahoo shay-an wahuwa khayrunlakum waAAasa an tuhibboo shay-an wahuwa sharrunlakum wallahu yaAAlamu waantum lataAAlamoon

Translation

Fighting has been enjoined upon you while it is hateful to you. But perhaps you hate a thing and it is good for you; and perhaps you love a thing and it is bad for you. And Allah Knows, while you know not.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Prescribed for you, obligatory [for you], is fighting, disbelievers, though it be hateful to you, by nature, because of the hardship involved. Yet it may happen that you hate a thing which is good for you; and it may happen that you love a thing which is bad for you: because the soul inclines towards those desires which result in its destruction and its rejection of the religious obligations that would bring about its happiness. Perhaps, then, even if you are averse to it, you will find much good in fighting, as a result of victory, booty, martyrdom or reward; while, if you were to reject fighting, even if you would like to do so, you will find much evil, because then you may be subjugated, impoverished and denied the reward; God knows, what is good for you, and you know, this, not, so strive in what He commands you.

2:217

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الشَّهْرِ الْحَرَامِ قِتَالٍ فِيهِ ۖ قُلْ قِتَالٌ فِيهِ كَبِيرٌ ۖ وَصَدٌّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَكُفْرٌ بِهِ وَالْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَإِخْرَاجُ أَهْلِهِ مِنْهُ أَكْبَرُ عِندَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالْفِتْنَةُ أَكْبَرُ مِنَ الْقَتْلِ ۗ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَرُدُّوكُمْ عَن دِينِكُمْ إِنِ اسْتَطَاعُوا ۚ وَمَن يَرْتَدِدْ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَيَمُتْ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فَأُولَٰئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Pronunciation

Yas-aloonaka AAani ashshahri alharamiqitalin feehi qul qitalun feehi kabeerun wasaddunAAan sabeeli Allahi wakufrun bihi walmasjidi alharamiwa-ikhraju ahlihi minhu akbaru AAinda Allahi walfitnatuakbaru mina alqatli wala yazaloona yuqatiloonakumhatta yaruddookum AAan deenikum ini istataAAoowaman yartadid minkum AAan deenihi fayamut wahuwa kafirunfaola-ika habitat aAAmaluhum fee addunyawal-akhirati waola-ika as-habuannari hum feeha khalidoon

Translation

They ask you about the sacred month – about fighting therein. Say, “Fighting therein is great [sin], but averting [people] from the way of Allah and disbelief in Him and [preventing access to] al-Masjid al-Haram and the expulsion of its people therefrom are greater [evil] in the sight of Allah . And fitnah is greater than killing.” And they will continue to fight you until they turn you back from your religion if they are able. And whoever of you reverts from his religion [to disbelief] and dies while he is a disbeliever – for those, their deeds have become worthless in this world and the Hereafter, and those are the companions of the Fire, they will abide therein eternally.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Thus the Prophet (s) sent forth the first of his raiding parties under the command of ‘Abd Allāh b. Jahsh. They fought against the idolaters and killed [‘Amr b. ‘Abd Allāh] Ibn al-Hadramī in [the sacred month of] Rajab, thinking that it was the last day of Jumādā II. The disbelievers reviled them for making fighting lawful in a sacred month, and so God revealed the following: They ask you about the sacred, the forbidden, month, and fighting in it (qitālin fīhi, ‘fighting in it’, is an inclusive substitution [for al-shahri l-harāmi, ‘the sacred month’]). Say, to them: ‘Fighting (qitālun is the subject) in it is a grave thing (kabīr, ‘grave’, is the predicate), that is, heinous in terms of sin; but to bar (saddun is the subject), people, from God’s way, His religion, and disbelief in Him, in God, and, to bar from, the Sacred Mosque, that is, Mecca, and to expel its people, the Prophet (s) and the believers, from it — that is graver (the predicate of the [last] subject), [that is] more heinous in terms of sin than fighting in it, in God’s sight; and sedition, your idolatry, is graver than, your, slaying’, in it. They, the disbelievers, will not cease to fight against you, O believers, until, so that, they turn you from your religion, to unbelief, if they are able; and whoever of you turns from his religion, and dies disbelieving — their, good, works have failed, that is, they are invalid, in this world and the Hereafter. Thus they will not count for anything and will not result in any reward. The specification of death as a condition is because if that person were to return to Islam [again], his original deeds would not be invalidated, and he will be rewarded for them, and he would not have to repeat them, [deeds] such as [performing] the Pilgrimage: al-Shāfi‘ī is of this opinion. Those are the inhabitants of the Fire, abiding therein.

2:218

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا وَجَاهَدُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ أُولَٰئِكَ يَرْجُونَ رَحْمَتَ اللَّهِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena amanoo wallatheenahajaroo wajahadoo fee sabeeli Allahi ola-ikayarjoona rahmata Allahi wallahughafoorun raheem

Translation

Indeed, those who have believed and those who have emigrated and fought in the cause of Allah – those expect the mercy of Allah . And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When those of the raiding party [of ‘Abd Allāh b. Jahsh] thought that, although they had been released from the sin [of having slain in the sacred month], they would not receive any reward, the following was revealed: Verily the believers, and those who emigrate, and depart from their homeland, and struggle in God’s way, in order to elevate His religion — those have hope of God’s compassion, His reward; and God is Forgiving, of believers, Merciful, to them.

2:219

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ ۖ قُلْ فِيهِمَا إِثْمٌ كَبِيرٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَإِثْمُهُمَا أَكْبَرُ مِن نَّفْعِهِمَا ۗ وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ قُلِ الْعَفْوَ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Pronunciation

Yas-aloonaka AAani alkhamri walmaysiriqul feehima ithmun kabeerun wamanafiAAu linnasiwa-ithmuhuma akbaru min nafAAihima wayas-aloonaka mathayunfiqoona quli alAAafwa kathalika yubayyinu Allahulakumu al-ayati laAAallakum tatafakkaroon

Translation

They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, “In them is great sin and [yet, some] benefit for people. But their sin is greater than their benefit.” And they ask you what they should spend. Say, “The excess [beyond needs].” Thus Allah makes clear to you the verses [of revelation] that you might give thought.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They ask you about wine, and divinatory arrows, gambling, and what the ruling is regarding them. Say, to them: ‘In both, that is, in the partaking of both, is great sin (a variant reading [for kabīr, ‘great’] has kathīr, ‘much’) because of the fighting, cursing and swearing that ensue from it; and profit for men, by way of delight and enjoyment in wine, and acquiring money effortlessly from gambling; but the sin in them, that is, the degenerate behaviour in which they result, is greater, graver, than the usefulness’. When this verse was revealed, some gave up drinking, while others persisted, until the verse of sūrat al-Mā’ida [Q. 5:90-91] finally made it illicit. And they will ask you what, that is to say, how much, they should expend. Say, expend, ‘Comfortably’ (al-‘afwa [in the accusative] is also read in the nominative, al-‘afwu, implying a preceding huwa), that is, the surplus of your need, and do not expend what you need, ruining yourselves. So, just as He explained to you what has been mentioned, God makes clear His signs to you that you might reflect,

2:220

فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۗ وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْيَتَامَىٰ ۖ قُلْ إِصْلَاحٌ لَّهُمْ خَيْرٌ ۖ وَإِن تُخَالِطُوهُمْ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ الْمُفْسِدَ مِنَ الْمُصْلِحِ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ لَأَعْنَتَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Fee addunya wal-akhiratiwayas-aloonaka AAani alyatama qul islahunlahum khayrun wa-in tukhalitoohum fa-ikhwanukumwallahu yaAAlamu almufsida mina almuslihiwalaw shaa Allahu laaAAnatakum inna AllahaAAazeezun hakeem

Translation

To this world and the Hereafter. And they ask you about orphans. Say, “Improvement for them is best. And if you mix your affairs with theirs – they are your brothers. And Allah knows the corrupter from the amender. And if Allah had willed, He could have put you in difficulty. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

on, the matters of, this world and the Hereafter, and follow what is best for you in both. They will ask you about orphans, and the distress their affair caused them, for, if they became intimate with them, they may slip into error, but if they put aside the money due to them and prepare their meals for them separately, this would distress them. Say: ‘To set their affairs aright, in terms of their funds, by looking after it, and your mingling with them, is better’, than you not doing this; and if you intermix with them, your funds and theirs, they are your brothers, in religion and it is only natural for one to intermix his affair with his brother, so you do too; God knows well him who works corruption, in their property when he intermixes with them, from him who sets, it, aright, and God will requite both; and had He willed He would have harassed you, and made it difficult for you by prohibiting you from intermixing with them. Surely God is Mighty, victorious in His affair, Wise, in His actions.

2:221

وَلَا تَنكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكَاتِ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنَّ ۚ وَلَأَمَةٌ مُّؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ ۗ وَلَا تُنكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنُوا ۚ وَلَعَبْدٌ مُّؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن مُّشْرِكٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَدْعُو إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ بِإِذْنِهِ ۖ وَيُبَيِّنُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ

Pronunciation

Wala tankihoo almushrikatihatta yu/minna walaamatun mu/minatun khayrun minmushrikatin walaw aAAjabatkum wala tunkihooalmushrikeena hatta yu/minoo walaAAabdun mu/minunkhayrun min mushrikin walaw aAAjabakum ola-ika yadAAoonaila annari wallahu yadAAooila aljannati walmaghfirati bi-ithnihiwayubayyinu ayatihi linnasilaAAallahum yatathakkaroon

Translation

And do not marry polytheistic women until they believe. And a believing slave woman is better than a polytheist, even though she might please you. And do not marry polytheistic men [to your women] until they believe. And a believing slave is better than a polytheist, even though he might please you. Those invite [you] to the Fire, but Allah invites to Paradise and to forgiveness, by His permission. And He makes clear His verses to the people that perhaps they may remember.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O Muslims, Do not marry idolatresses, disbelievers, until they believe; a believing slavegirl is better than an idolatress, who may be a free woman; this was revealed as a rebuttal of the idea that it was shameful to marry a slavegirl and that it was better to marry an idolatress free woman; though you may admire her, because of her beauty and wealth: this provision excludes the womenfolk of the People of the Scripture (as indicated by the verse [Q. 5:5], [lawful to you] are the chaste women among those who were given the Scripture). And do not marry, off believing women to, idolaters, until they believe. A believing slave is better than an idolater, though you may admire him, for his wealth and good looks. Those, the people of idolatry, call to the Fire, because they invite one to perform deeds that merit this, and for this reason one should not marry with them; and God calls, through the voice of His prophets, to Paradise and pardon, that is, to the deeds that merit these two, by His leave, by His will, so that His call may be heeded by marrying with His friends; and He makes clear His signs to the people so that they might remember, [that] they [might] be admonished.

2:222

وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الْمَحِيضِ ۖ قُلْ هُوَ أَذًى فَاعْتَزِلُوا النِّسَاءَ فِي الْمَحِيضِ ۖ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوهُنَّ حَتَّىٰ يَطْهُرْنَ ۖ فَإِذَا تَطَهَّرْنَ فَأْتُوهُنَّ مِنْ حَيْثُ أَمَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ التَّوَّابِينَ وَيُحِبُّ الْمُتَطَهِّرِينَ

Pronunciation

Wayas-aloonaka AAani almaheediqul huwa athan faAAtaziloo annisaafee almaheedi wala taqraboohunna hattayathurna fa-itha tatahharna fa/toohunna min haythuamarakumu Allahu inna Allaha yuhibbu attawwabeenawayuhibbu almutatahhireen

Translation

And they ask you about menstruation. Say, “It is harm, so keep away from wives during menstruation. And do not approach them until they are pure. And when they have purified themselves, then come to them from where Allah has ordained for you. Indeed, Allah loves those who are constantly repentant and loves those who purify themselves.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

They will ask you about the monthly period, that is, menstruation and the spot in which it occurs, and how should one treat women during it. Say: ‘It is an ailment, filth, or the place whence it issues is so; so part with women, refrain from sexual intercourse with them, in the monthly period, in this time, or in the part affected; and do not approach them, for sexual intercourse, until they are pure (yathurna, or yattahharna: the original tā’ [of yatatahharna] has been assimilated with the tā’), that is, until they have cleansed themselves after its cessation; when they have cleansed themselves, then come to them, in sexual intercourse, as God has commanded you’, by avoiding it, the female organ, during menstruation and not resorting to any other part. Truly, God loves, that is, He rewards and honours, those who repent, of sins, and He loves those who cleanse themselves, from impurities.

2:223

نِسَاؤُكُمْ حَرْثٌ لَّكُمْ فَأْتُوا حَرْثَكُمْ أَنَّىٰ شِئْتُمْ ۖ وَقَدِّمُوا لِأَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّكُم مُّلَاقُوهُ ۗ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Nisaokum harthun lakum fa/tooharthakum anna shi/tum waqaddimoo li-anfusikum wattaqooAllaha waAAlamoo annakum mulaqoohuwabashshiri almu/mineen

Translation

Your wives are a place of sowing of seed for you, so come to your place of cultivation however you wish and put forth [righteousness] for yourselves. And fear Allah and know that you will meet Him. And give good tidings to the believers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Your women are a tillage for you, that is, the place where you sow [the seeds of] your children; so come to your tillage, that is, the specified place, the front part, as, in whichever way, you wish, whether standing up, sitting down, lying down, from the front or the back: this was revealed in response to the Jews saying that if a person had vaginal intercourse with his wife from behind, the child would be born cross-eyed; and offer for your souls, righteous deeds, such as saying, ‘In the Name of God’ (bismillāh) when you commence intercourse; and fear God, in what He commands and prohibits; and know that you shall meet Him, at the Resurrection, where He will requite you according to your deeds; and give good tidings, of Paradise, to the believers, who feared Him.

2:224

وَلَا تَجْعَلُوا اللَّهَ عُرْضَةً لِّأَيْمَانِكُمْ أَن تَبَرُّوا وَتَتَّقُوا وَتُصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ النَّاسِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Wala tajAAaloo Allaha AAurdatanli-aymanikum an tabarroo watattaqoo watuslihoobayna annasi wallahu sameeAAunAAaleem

Translation

And do not make [your oath by] Allah an excuse against being righteous and fearing Allah and making peace among people. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Do not make God, by swearing in His Name, a hindrance, a cause of impediment, in your oaths, that is, setting up [such impediments] by swearing in His Name frequently, so as not, to be pious and God-fearing; in such instances oaths are hateful, and result in perjury, which requires a redemption, effected by doing the opposite [of the oath], such as performing righteous deeds and so forth, which constitute an act of obedience; and to put things right between people: this means, do not be prevented from doing righteous deeds, as mentioned, just because you swore against them; nay, do them and make redemption; [this understanding of the verse is] justified by the reason for its revelation, namely, their refraining from such deeds; surely God is All-Hearing, of what you say, Knower, of your circumstances.

2:225

لَّا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا كَسَبَتْ قُلُوبُكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

La yu-akhithukumu Allahubillaghwi fee aymanikum walakin yu-akhithukumbima kasabat quloobukum wallahu ghafoorun haleem

Translation

Allah does not impose blame upon you for what is unintentional in your oaths, but He imposes blame upon you for what your hearts have earned. And Allah is Forgiving and Forbearing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God will not take you to task for a slip, that results, in your oaths, which is what the tongue utters spontaneously and unintentionally, such as ‘By God’, ‘Indeed, by God’: in such instances there is no sin and no redemption required; but He will take you to task for what your hearts have earned, what their intention is, when you commit perjury in your oaths; and God is Forgiving, of slips [in your oaths], Forbearing, since He delays the punishment of the one deserving it.

2:226

لِّلَّذِينَ يُؤْلُونَ مِن نِّسَائِهِمْ تَرَبُّصُ أَرْبَعَةِ أَشْهُرٍ ۖ فَإِن فَاءُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Lillatheena yu/loona min nisa-ihimtarabbusu arbaAAati ashhurin fa-in faoo fa-inna Allahaghafoorun raheem

Translation

For those who swear not to have sexual relations with their wives is a waiting time of four months, but if they return [to normal relations] – then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

For those who forswear their women, by swearing that they will not have sexual intercourse with them, a wait of four months; if they revert, back from the oath, or repeal it and resume sexual relations, God is Forgiving, of the harm they caused their women by swearing, Merciful, to them.

2:227

وَإِنْ عَزَمُوا الطَّلَاقَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Wa-in AAazamoo attalaqafa-inna Allaha sameeAAun AAaleem

Translation

And if they decide on divorce – then indeed, Allah is Hearing and Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But if they resolve upon divorce, by not repealing it, then let them go through with it; surely God is Hearing, of what they say; Knowing, of their resolve, meaning that after the waiting period mentioned, they can only revert or divorce.

2:228

وَالْمُطَلَّقَاتُ يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ ثَلَاثَةَ قُرُوءٍ ۚ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَهُنَّ أَن يَكْتُمْنَ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ فِي أَرْحَامِهِنَّ إِن كُنَّ يُؤْمِنَّ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ وَبُعُولَتُهُنَّ أَحَقُّ بِرَدِّهِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ إِنْ أَرَادُوا إِصْلَاحًا ۚ وَلَهُنَّ مِثْلُ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَيْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Walmutallaqatuyatarabbasna bi-anfusihinna thalathata quroo-in walayahillu lahunna an yaktumna ma khalaqa Allahufee arhamihinna in kunna yu/minna billahiwalyawmi al-akhiri wabuAAoolatuhunna ahaqqubiraddihinna fee thalika in aradoo islahanwalahunna mithlu allathee AAalayhinna bilmaAAroofiwalirrijali AAalayhinna darajatun wallahuAAazeezun hakeem

Translation

Divorced women remain in waiting for three periods, and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allah has created in their wombs if they believe in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have more right to take them back in this [period] if they want reconciliation. And due to the wives is similar to what is expected of them, according to what is reasonable. But the men have a degree over them [in responsibility and authority]. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Divorced women shall wait by themselves, before remarrying, for three periods (qurū’in is the plural of qar’), of purity or menstruation — these are two different opinions — which begin from the moment of divorce. This [stipulation] applies to those who have been sexually penetrated but not to those otherwise, on account of His saying, there shall be no [waiting] period for you to reckon against them [Q. 33:49]. The waiting period for immature or menopausal women is three months; pregnant women, on the other hand, must wait until they give birth, as stated in the sūrat al-Talāq [Q. 65:4], while slavegirls must wait two months, according to the Sunna. And it is not lawful for them to hide what God has created in their wombs, of child or menstruation, if they believe in God and the Last Day. Their mates, their spouses, have a better right to restore them, to bring them back, even if they refuse, in such time, that is, during the waiting period, if they desire to set things right, between them, and put pressure on the woman [to return]; the statement is not a condition for the possibility of return, but an incitement [to set things right] in the case of repealed divorce; the term ahaqq, ‘better right to’, does not denote any priority, since, in any case, no other person has the right to marry them during their waiting period; women shall have rights, due from their spouses, similar to those, rights, due from them, with justice, as stipulated by the Law, in the way of kind conjugality and not being harmed; but their men have a degree above them, in rights, as in their duty to obey their husbands, because of their [the husbands’] payment of a dowry and their [husbands] being the bread-winners; God is Mighty, in His Kingdom, Wise, in what He has ordained for His creatures.

2:229

الطَّلَاقُ مَرَّتَانِ ۖ فَإِمْسَاكٌ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ تَسْرِيحٌ بِإِحْسَانٍ ۗ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَأْخُذُوا مِمَّا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ شَيْئًا إِلَّا أَن يَخَافَا أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ ۖ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا فِيمَا افْتَدَتْ بِهِ ۗ تِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ فَلَا تَعْتَدُوهَا ۚ وَمَن يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللَّهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ

Pronunciation

Attalaqu marratanifa-imsakun bimaAAroofin aw tasreehun bi-ihsaninwala yahillu lakum an ta/khuthoo mimmaataytumoohunna shay-an illa an yakhafaalla yuqeema hudooda Allahi fa-inkhiftum alla yuqeema hudooda Allahifala junaha AAalayhima feema iftadatbihi tilka hudoodu Allahi fala taAAtadoohawaman yataAAadda hudooda Allahi faola-ikahumu aththalimoon

Translation

Divorce is twice. Then, either keep [her] in an acceptable manner or release [her] with good treatment. And it is not lawful for you to take anything of what you have given them unless both fear that they will not be able to keep [within] the limits of Allah . But if you fear that they will not keep [within] the limits of Allah , then there is no blame upon either of them concerning that by which she ransoms herself. These are the limits of Allah , so do not transgress them. And whoever transgresses the limits of Allah – it is those who are the wrongdoers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Divorce, that is, repudiation of the type that may be revoked, is twice; then honourable retention, that is to say, you are then obliged to revert to them to retain them, without harming them; or setting, them, free kindly. It is not lawful for you, O male spouses, to take of what you have given them, of dowry, if you divorce them, unless the, married, couple fear that they may not maintain God’s bounds, that is to say, that they will not honour the rights God has established for them (a variant reading [for yakhāfā, ‘they (dual form) fear’] has yukhāfā, with the direct object taking the accusative ending; allā yuqīmā is an inclusive substitution for the person [governing the verb]; both verbs are also read in the second person [sc. takhāfā, ‘you fear’, tuqīmā, ‘you maintain’]). If you fear they may not maintain God’s bounds, neither of them would be at fault if she were to ransom herself, of some money, so that he should divorce her. In other words, in this instance, there is no culpability either for the man, should he take of the dowry, or for the woman, should she offer of it. Those, prescriptions mentioned, are God’s bounds; do not transgress them. Whoever transgresses God’s bounds — those are the evildoers.

2:230

فَإِن طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا تَحِلُّ لَهُ مِن بَعْدُ حَتَّىٰ تَنكِحَ زَوْجًا غَيْرَهُ ۗ فَإِن طَلَّقَهَا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا أَن يَتَرَاجَعَا إِن ظَنَّا أَن يُقِيمَا حُدُودَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ يُبَيِّنُهَا لِقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Fa-in tallaqaha falatahillu lahu min baAAdu hatta tankihazawjan ghayrahu fa-in tallaqaha fala junahaAAalayhima an yatarajaAAa in thannaan yuqeema hudooda Allahi watilka hudooduAllahi yubayyinuha liqawmin yaAAlamoon

Translation

And if he has divorced her [for the third time], then she is not lawful to him afterward until [after] she marries a husband other than him. And if the latter husband divorces her [or dies], there is no blame upon the woman and her former husband for returning to each other if they think that they can keep [within] the limits of Allah . These are the limits of Allah , which He makes clear to a people who know.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

If he, the husband, divorces her, after the two utterances [of divorce]; she shall not be lawful to him after that, after the third [utterance of] divorce, until she marries another husband, who has sexual intercourse with her, as reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim]. If he, the second husband, divorces her, then neither of them would be at fault, that is, the woman and her first husband, to return to each other, in wedlock, after the completion of the waiting period, if they think that they will maintain God’s bounds. Those, matters mentioned, are God’s bounds, which He makes clear to a people who have knowledge, [a people who] reflect.

2:231

وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ سَرِّحُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ ۚ وَلَا تُمْسِكُوهُنَّ ضِرَارًا لِّتَعْتَدُوا ۚ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ فَقَدْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَهُ ۚ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا آيَاتِ اللَّهِ هُزُوًا ۚ وَاذْكُرُوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَا أَنزَلَ عَلَيْكُم مِّنَ الْكِتَابِ وَالْحِكْمَةِ يَعِظُكُم بِهِ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha tallaqtumu annisaafabalaghna ajalahunna faamsikoohunna bimaAAroofin aw sarrihoohunnabimaAAroofin wala tumsikoohunna diraranlitaAAtadoo waman yafAAal thalika faqad thalamanafsahu wala tattakhithoo ayati Allahihuzuwan wathkuroo niAAmata Allahi AAalaykumwama anzala AAalaykum mina alkitabi walhikmatiyaAAithukum bihi wattaqoo Allaha waAAlamooanna Allaha bikulli shay-in AAaleem

Translation

And when you divorce women and they have [nearly] fulfilled their term, either retain them according to acceptable terms or release them according to acceptable terms, and do not keep them, intending harm, to transgress [against them]. And whoever does that has certainly wronged himself. And do not take the verses of Allah in jest. And remember the favor of Allah upon you and what has been revealed to you of the Book and wisdom by which He instructs you. And fear Allah and know that Allah is Knowing of all things.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When you divorce women, and they have, very nearly, reached, the end of, their term, then retain them, by returning to them, honourably, not harming them, or set them free honourably, or leave them until their term is completed; do not retain them, when reverting, in harm (dirāran is an object denoting reason), to transgress, that is, so as to force them to redemption, or to repudiate them or confine them indoors for a long time; whoever does that has wronged his soul, by exposing it to God’s chastisement; take not God’s verses in mockery, in jest by contravening them, and remember God’s grace upon you, that is, Islam, and the Book, the Qur’ān, and the wisdom, the rulings contained therein, He has revealed to you, to exhort you therewith, so that you should give thanks by acting in accordance with it; and fear God, and know that God has knowledge of all things, and nothing can be hidden from Him.

2:232

وَإِذَا طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ فَبَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ أَن يَنكِحْنَ أَزْوَاجَهُنَّ إِذَا تَرَاضَوْا بَيْنَهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۗ ذَٰلِكَ يُوعَظُ بِهِ مَن كَانَ مِنكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۗ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَزْكَىٰ لَكُمْ وَأَطْهَرُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-itha tallaqtumu annisaafabalaghna ajalahunna fala taAAduloohunna an yankihnaazwajahunna itha taradaw baynahum bilmaAAroofithalika yooAAathu bihi man kanaminkum yu/minu billahi walyawmi al-akhirithalikum azka lakum waatharu wallahuyaAAlamu waantum la taAAlamoon

Translation

And when you divorce women and they have fulfilled their term, do not prevent them from remarrying their [former] husbands if they agree among themselves on an acceptable basis. That is instructed to whoever of you believes in Allah and the Last Day. That is better for you and purer, and Allah knows and you know not.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When you divorce women, and they have reached, completed, their term, of waiting, do not debar them — addressing the guardians here — from marrying their, divorced, husbands when they, the male spouses and their women, have agreed together honourably, in accordance with the Law. The occasion for the revelation [of this verse] was: Ma‘qil b. Yasār’s sister was divorced by her husband, who then wanted to restore her, but Ma‘qil refused, as reported by al-Hākim. That, the prohibition against debarring, is an admonition for whoever of you believe in God and the Last Day, because it is for the benefit of such a person; that, refraining from debarring, is purer for you, better, and cleaner, for you and for them, bearing in mind the suspicion that can be aroused by the couple on account of prior intimacy. God knows, what is in your interest, and you know not, any of this, so follow His commands.

2:233

وَالْوَالِدَاتُ يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْنِ ۖ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يُتِمَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ ۚ وَعَلَى الْمَوْلُودِ لَهُ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ لَا تُكَلَّفُ نَفْسٌ إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَا تُضَارَّ وَالِدَةٌ بِوَلَدِهَا وَلَا مَوْلُودٌ لَّهُ بِوَلَدِهِ ۚ وَعَلَى الْوَارِثِ مِثْلُ ذَٰلِكَ ۗ فَإِنْ أَرَادَا فِصَالًا عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنْهُمَا وَتَشَاوُرٍ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا ۗ وَإِنْ أَرَدتُّمْ أَن تَسْتَرْضِعُوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا سَلَّمْتُم مَّا آتَيْتُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۗ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Walwalidatu yurdiAAnaawladahunna hawlayni kamilayni liman aradaan yutimma arradaAAata waAAala almawloodilahu rizquhunna wakiswatuhunna bilmaAAroofi latukallafu nafsun illa wusAAaha la tudarrawalidatun biwaladiha wala mawloodun lahubiwaladihi waAAala alwarithi mithlu thalikafa-in arada fisalan AAan taradinminhuma watashawurin fala junahaAAalayhima wa-in aradtum an tastardiAAoo awladakumfala junaha AAalaykum itha sallamtum maataytum bilmaAAroofi wattaqoo AllahawaAAlamoo anna Allaha bima taAAmaloona baseer

Translation

Mothers may breastfeed their children two complete years for whoever wishes to complete the nursing [period]. Upon the father is the mothers’ provision and their clothing according to what is acceptable. No person is charged with more than his capacity. No mother should be harmed through her child, and no father through his child. And upon the [father's] heir is [a duty] like that [of the father]. And if they both desire weaning through mutual consent from both of them and consultation, there is no blame upon either of them. And if you wish to have your children nursed by a substitute, there is no blame upon you as long as you give payment according to what is acceptable. And fear Allah and know that Allah is Seeing of what you do.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Mothers, shall, suckle their children for two full years (kāmilayn, ‘two full ones’, is an adjective for emphasis); this is, for such as desire to fulfil the suckling, and this is the maximum length of time. It is for the father to provide, food for, them, the mothers, and clothe them, during the suckling if they be divorced, honourably, to the best of his ability. No soul is charged save to its capacity, its ability; a mother shall not be harmed by her child, that is, on account of the child, by being forced to suckle it, if she does not want to; neither, should, a father, be harmed, by his child, that is, on account of it, by being charged with more than he is able to bear. The mention of both parents here in relation to the child is intended to show sympathy [for both]. The heir, the one inheriting from his father, that is, the young man who is the trustee of his [father’s] property, has a similar duty, to that of the father in terms of providing sustenance and clothing for the [other] parent. But if the two, parents, desire by mutual consent, agreement, and consultation, so that the child’s best interests are clear, to wean, that is, to effect ablactation before the completion of the two-year period, then they would not be at fault, in this matter. And if you (addressing the parents) desire to seek nursing, from other than the mothers, for your children, you would not be at fault, in this respect, provided you hand over, to them, what you have given, what you intend to give them in the way of wages, honourably, in kindness and good nature; and fear God, and know that God sees what you do, and that nothing of it can be hidden from Him.

2:234

وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةَ أَشْهُرٍ وَعَشْرًا ۖ فَإِذَا بَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا فَعَلْنَ فِي أَنفُسِهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Wallatheena yutawaffawnaminkum wayatharoona azwajan yatarabbasnabi-anfusihinna arbaAAata ashhurin waAAashran fa-ithabalaghna ajalahunna fala junaha AAalaykum feemafaAAalna fee anfusihinna bilmaAAroofi wallahubima taAAmaloona khabeer

Translation

And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind – they, [the wives, shall] wait four months and ten [days]. And when they have fulfilled their term, then there is no blame upon you for what they do with themselves in an acceptable manner. And Allah is [fully] Acquainted with what you do.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those of you who pass away, die, leaving, behind, wives, they shall wait by themselves, after their death, refraining from marriage, for four months and ten, nights: this applies to women who are not pregnant. The waiting period in the case of pregnant women is for them to give birth — as stated by a verse in sūrat al-Talāq [Q. 65:4]. The slavegirl must wait for half this period [of four months] according to the Sunna; when they have reached, completed, their term, of waiting, then you would not be at fault, O guardians, regarding what they may do with themselves, in the way of adorning themselves and offering themselves before suitors, honourably, in accordance with the Law; God is aware of what you do, both secretly and openly.

2:235

وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا عَرَّضْتُم بِهِ مِنْ خِطْبَةِ النِّسَاءِ أَوْ أَكْنَنتُمْ فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ أَنَّكُمْ سَتَذْكُرُونَهُنَّ وَلَٰكِن لَّا تُوَاعِدُوهُنَّ سِرًّا إِلَّا أَن تَقُولُوا قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا ۚ وَلَا تَعْزِمُوا عُقْدَةَ النِّكَاحِ حَتَّىٰ يَبْلُغَ الْكِتَابُ أَجَلَهُ ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ فَاحْذَرُوهُ ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Wala junaha AAalaykum feemaAAarradtum bihi min khitbati annisa-iaw aknantum fee anfusikum AAalima Allahu annakum satathkuroonahunnawalakin la tuwaAAidoohunna sirran illaan taqooloo qawlan maAAroofan wala taAAzimoo AAuqdata annikahihatta yablugha alkitabu ajalahu waAAlamooanna Allaha yaAAlamu ma fee anfusikum fahtharoohuwaAAlamoo anna Allaha ghafoorun haleem

Translation

There is no blame upon you for that to which you [indirectly] allude concerning a proposal to women or for what you conceal within yourselves. Allah knows that you will have them in mind. But do not promise them secretly except for saying a proper saying. And do not determine to undertake a marriage contract until the decreed period reaches its end. And know that Allah knows what is within yourselves, so beware of Him. And know that Allah is Forgiving and Forbearing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

You would not be at fault regarding the proposal, with the intention of marriage, you present, offer, or hide in your hearts, during the waiting period, to women, whose spouses have died: such as men saying, ‘How beautiful you are!’, or, ‘Who could find one like you?’, or ‘How many a man must desire you!’. God knows that you will be mindful of them, in proposing to them impatiently, and so He has permitted you to make such offers; but do not make arrangements, of marriage, with them secretly, unless you speak honourable words, such as are acknowledged by the Law, in other words, such as proposals, that which is permitted to you. And do not resolve on the knot, the consummation, of marriage until that which is written, the period prescribed, has reached its term, and has been completed; and know that God knows what is in your souls, of resolve or otherwise; so be fearful of Him, that He should chastise you if you have made such resolve; and know that God is Forgiving, toward him who is fearful of Him, Forbearing, in delaying the chastisement of the one deserving it.

2:236

لَّا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن طَلَّقْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ مَا لَمْ تَمَسُّوهُنَّ أَوْ تَفْرِضُوا لَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً ۚ وَمَتِّعُوهُنَّ عَلَى الْمُوسِعِ قَدَرُهُ وَعَلَى الْمُقْتِرِ قَدَرُهُ مَتَاعًا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۖ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُحْسِنِينَ

Pronunciation

La junaha AAalaykum in tallaqtumuannisaa ma lam tamassoohunna aw tafridoolahunna fareedatan wamattiAAoohunna AAalaalmoosiAAi qadaruhu waAAala almuqtiri qadaruhu mataAAanbilmaAAroofi haqqan AAala almuhsineen

Translation

There is no blame upon you if you divorce women you have not touched nor specified for them an obligation. But give them [a gift of] compensation – the wealthy according to his capability and the poor according to his capability – a provision according to what is acceptable, a duty upon the doers of good.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

You would not be at fault if you divorce women while you have not touched them (tamassūhunna: also read tumāssūhunna), that is, [while] you have not had sexual intercourse with them, nor appointed any obligation, dowry, for them (the particle mā, ‘while’, relates to the verbal action and is also adverbial) that is to say, there are no sinful consequences for divorcing them if you have not copulated with them or assigned them a dowry, so divorce them; yet make provision of comforts for them honourably, that is, in accordance with the Law (bi’l-ma‘rūf, ‘honourably’, is an adjectival qualification of matā‘an, ‘comforts’), giving them what they can enjoy, the one of ample means, the affluent among you, according to his means, and the needy man, of restricted income, according to his means — an obligation (haqqan, ‘obligation’, is either a second qualifier of matā‘an, ‘comforts’, or an emphatic verbal noun), on the virtuous, the obedient ones.

2:237

وَإِن طَلَّقْتُمُوهُنَّ مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَمَسُّوهُنَّ وَقَدْ فَرَضْتُمْ لَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً فَنِصْفُ مَا فَرَضْتُمْ إِلَّا أَن يَعْفُونَ أَوْ يَعْفُوَ الَّذِي بِيَدِهِ عُقْدَةُ النِّكَاحِ ۚ وَأَن تَعْفُوا أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ ۚ وَلَا تَنسَوُا الْفَضْلَ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Wa-in tallaqtumoohunna min qabli antamassoohunna waqad faradtum lahunna fareedatanfanisfu ma faradtum illa an yaAAfoonaaw yaAAfuwa allathee biyadihi AAuqdatu annikahiwaan taAAfoo aqrabu littaqwa wala tansawooalfadla baynakum inna Allaha bimataAAmaloona baseer

Translation

And if you divorce them before you have touched them and you have already specified for them an obligation, then [give] half of what you specified – unless they forego the right or the one in whose hand is the marriage contract foregoes it. And to forego it is nearer to righteousness. And do not forget graciousness between you. Indeed Allah , of whatever you do, is Seeing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if you divorce them before you have touched them, and you have already appointed for them an obligation, then one-half of what you have appointed, must be given to them and the other half returns to you; unless it be that they, the women, make remission, and forgo it, or he makes remission, by leaving her the entire amount, the one in whose hand is the knot of marriage, the husband to be, or as Ibn ‘Abbās is reported to have said, ‘The legal guardian, where the female is a minor’; in which case nobody would be at fault; yet that you should remit (wa-an ta‘fū is the subject) is nearer to piety (aqrabu li’l-taqwā is its predicate). Forget not kindness between you, that is, to be bountiful towards one another; surely God sees what you do, and will requite you accordingly.

2:238

حَافِظُوا عَلَى الصَّلَوَاتِ وَالصَّلَاةِ الْوُسْطَىٰ وَقُومُوا لِلَّهِ قَانِتِينَ

Pronunciation

Hafithoo AAalaassalawati wassalatialwusta waqoomoo lillahi qaniteen

Translation

Maintain with care the [obligatory] prayers and [in particular] the middle prayer and stand before Allah , devoutly obedient.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Maintain the, five, prayers, by performing them at their appointed times, and the middle prayer, either that of the afternoon, or the morning, or the midday, or another prayer (there are many opinions on this matter); God has singled it out for mention because of its merit; and stand, in prayer, submissive to God, li Lllāhi qānitīn: some have said that this means ‘obedience’, on account of the Prophet (s) saying, ‘Wherever the [expression] qunūt [‘submission’], appears in the Qur’ān, it denotes obedience’, as reported by Ahmad [b. Hanbal] and others; it is also said to mean ‘in silence’ [sākitīn], on the basis of a hadīth of Zayd b. Arqam, in which he said, ‘We used to speak to each other sometimes during prayer, but when this was revealed, we were commanded to be silent and were forbidden to talk’, as reported by the two Shaykhs [Bukhārī and Muslim].

2:239

فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ فَرِجَالًا أَوْ رُكْبَانًا ۖ فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ كَمَا عَلَّمَكُم مَّا لَمْ تَكُونُوا تَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Fa-in khiftum farijalan aw rukbananfa-itha amintum fathkuroo Allaha kamaAAallamakum ma lam takoonoo taAAlamoon

Translation

And if you fear [an enemy, then pray] on foot or riding. But when you are secure, then remember Allah [in prayer], as He has taught you that which you did not [previously] know.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if you are in fear, of an enemy, or a torrent, or a predatory animal, then standing (rijāl, plural of rājil), praying while walking, or mounted (rukbān, plural of rākib). In other words, in whichever way you can, facing the direction of the qibla or otherwise, making the gestures of genuflexion and prostration; but when you are secure, from any fear, then remember God, by performing prayer, as He taught you what you knew not, before He taught you its obligations and its proper ways (the particle kāf [of ka-mā, ‘as’] has the same meaning as mithl [‘like’], while the mā is related to the verbal action, or is relative).

2:240

وَالَّذِينَ يُتَوَفَّوْنَ مِنكُمْ وَيَذَرُونَ أَزْوَاجًا وَصِيَّةً لِّأَزْوَاجِهِم مَّتَاعًا إِلَى الْحَوْلِ غَيْرَ إِخْرَاجٍ ۚ فَإِنْ خَرَجْنَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي مَا فَعَلْنَ فِي أَنفُسِهِنَّ مِن مَّعْرُوفٍ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Wallatheena yutawaffawnaminkum wayatharoona azwajan wasiyyatanli-azwajihim mataAAan ila alhawlighayra ikhrajin fa-in kharajna fala junahaAAalaykum fee ma faAAalna fee anfusihinna min maAAroofinwallahu AAazeezun hakeem

Translation

And those who are taken in death among you and leave wives behind – for their wives is a bequest: maintenance for one year without turning [them] out. But if they leave [of their own accord], then there is no blame upon you for what they do with themselves in an acceptable way. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And those of you who die, leaving wives, let them, make testament (wasiyyatan, or wasiyyatun) for their wives, as an obligation, and give them provision, what they can enjoy of property and clothes, for, until the completion of, a year (matā‘an ilā l-hawl, ‘provision for a year’, is a circumstantial qualifier), that is, without expelling them from their habitations; but if they go forth, of their own accord, you would not be at fault, [you] the guardians of the dead one, regarding what they may do with themselves honourably, in accordance with the Law, such as adorning themselves or abandoning the mourning, or that you should cut off their expenditure; God is Mighty, in His Kingdom, Wise, in His actions. The testament mentioned here was abrogated by the ‘inheritance’ verse [Q. 4:12], and the waiting of one year [without expulsion] was abrogated by the previous verse four months and ten [Q. 2:234] which was revealed later. In the opinion of al-Shāfi‘ī, may God have mercy on him, the habitation remains hers.

2:241

وَلِلْمُطَلَّقَاتِ مَتَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۖ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُتَّقِينَ

Pronunciation

Walilmutallaqati mataAAunbilmaAAroofi haqqan AAala almuttaqeen

Translation

And for divorced women is a provision according to what is acceptable – a duty upon the righteous.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

There shall be provision for divorced women, which they are given, honourably, as is feasible — an obligation (haqqan, ‘obligation’, is in the accusative because it is governed by an implied verb) on those who fear God, may He be exalted. He has repeated the phrase in order to include the woman that has been touched [sexually], since the previous verse addresses a different issue.

2:242

كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

Pronunciation

Kathalika yubayyinu Allahulakum ayatihi laAAallakum taAAqiloon

Translation

Thus does Allah make clear to you His verses that you might use reason.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So, in the same way that He has explained to you what has been mentioned, God makes clear His signs for you, so that you might understand, reflect.

2:243

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا مِن دِيَارِهِمْ وَهُمْ أُلُوفٌ حَذَرَ الْمَوْتِ فَقَالَ لَهُمُ اللَّهُ مُوتُوا ثُمَّ أَحْيَاهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لَا يَشْكُرُونَ

Pronunciation

Alam tara ila allatheenakharajoo min diyarihim wahum oloofun hatharaalmawti faqala lahumu Allahu mootoo thumma ahyahuminna Allaha lathoo fadlin AAala annasiwalakinna akthara annasi layashkuroon

Translation

Have you not considered those who left their homes in many thousands, fearing death? Allah said to them, “Die”; then He restored them to life. And Allah is full of bounty to the people, but most of the people do not show gratitude.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Have you not seen (an interrogative to provoke amazement and a longing to hear what will follow), that is, ‘Has your knowledge not attained’, those thousands, four, eight, ten, thirty, forty or seventy thousand, who went forth from their habitations fearful of death? (hadhara’l-mawt: an object denoting reason). These were a people from among the Children of Israel who fled their homeland after it was afflicted with plague. God said to them, ‘Die!’, and they did. Then He gave them life, after eight days or more, as a result of the supplication of their prophet Ezekiel (Hizqīl), and they lived on for a while with the effects of death still upon them, such that when they wore garments these turned into shrouds for the deceased; and this [phenomenon] remained with their descendants. Truly God is bounteous to people, such as when He gave life back to those just mentioned, but most people, that is, disbelievers, are not thankful. The purpose of mentioning the story of these people is to encourage believers to fight [in the way of God], which is why the following [statement] is supplemented to it:

2:244

وَقَاتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Waqatiloo fee sabeeli AllahiwaAAlamoo anna Allaha sameeAAun AAaleem

Translation

And fight in the cause of Allah and know that Allah is Hearing and Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So fight in God’s way, in order to elevate His religion, and know that God is Hearing, of your sayings, Knowing, of your affairs, and He will requite you accordingly.

2:245

مَّن ذَا الَّذِي يُقْرِضُ اللَّهَ قَرْضًا حَسَنًا فَيُضَاعِفَهُ لَهُ أَضْعَافًا كَثِيرَةً ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَقْبِضُ وَيَبْسُطُ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

Pronunciation

Man tha allathee yuqriduAllaha qardan hasanan fayudaAAifahulahu adAAafan katheeratan wallahuyaqbidu wayabsutu wa-ilayhi turjaAAoon

Translation

Who is it that would loan Allah a goodly loan so He may multiply it for him many times over? And it is Allah who withholds and grants abundance, and to Him you will be returned.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Who is he that will lend God a loan, by expending his property in the way of God, that is good, by expending it for the sake of God, Mighty and Majestic, out of pureness of heart, and He will multiply (yudā‘if, also read yuda‘‘if) it for him manifold?, up to ten or seven hundred times or more, as will be mentioned soon. God straitens, sustenance for whomever He wills in order to try him, and enlarges, it in abundance for whomever He wills in order to test him; and to Him you shall be returned, in the Hereafter through the Resurrection, where He will requite you for your deeds.

2:246

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الْمَلَإِ مِن بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ مِن بَعْدِ مُوسَىٰ إِذْ قَالُوا لِنَبِيٍّ لَّهُمُ ابْعَثْ لَنَا مَلِكًا نُّقَاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۖ قَالَ هَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُ أَلَّا تُقَاتِلُوا ۖ قَالُوا وَمَا لَنَا أَلَّا نُقَاتِلَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ وَقَدْ أُخْرِجْنَا مِن دِيَارِنَا وَأَبْنَائِنَا ۖ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْقِتَالُ تَوَلَّوْا إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنْهُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Alam tara ila almala-i min banee isra-eelamin baAAdi moosa ith qaloo linabiyyin lahumuibAAath lana malikan nuqatil fee sabeeli Allahiqala hal AAasaytum in kutiba AAalaykumu alqitalualla tuqatiloo qaloo wama lanaalla nuqatila fee sabeeli Allahi waqadokhrijna min diyarina waabna-inafalamma kutiba AAalayhimu alqitalu tawallaw illaqaleelan minhum wallahu AAaleemun biththalimeen

Translation

Have you not considered the assembly of the Children of Israel after [the time of] Moses when they said to a prophet of theirs, “Send to us a king, and we will fight in the way of Allah “? He said, “Would you perhaps refrain from fighting if fighting was prescribed for you?” They said, “And why should we not fight in the cause of Allah when we have been driven out from our homes and from our children?” But when fighting was prescribed for them, they turned away, except for a few of them. And Allah is Knowing of the wrongdoers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Have you not seen, the story and the tale of, the council, an assembly, of the Children of Israel, after, the death of, Moses, when they said to a prophet of theirs, namely, Samuel, ‘Send, establish, for us a king, to unite us and to whom we can refer [matters], and we will fight, with him, in God’s way’. He, the prophet, said, to them: ‘Might it be that (‘asaytum, or ‘asītum) if fighting is prescribed for you, you will not fight? (allā tuqātilū is the predicate of ‘asā, ‘might it be’; the interrogative is intended to confirm the expectation that follows [sc. that they will not fight]). They said, ‘Why should we not fight in God’s way, when we have been expelled from our habitations and our children?’, as a result of these latter being taken captive or killed, that which they suffered at the hands of Goliath and his men. The meaning is, ‘There is nothing to stop us fighting, provided the requirement [we demanded] is forthcoming’. God, exalted be He, says, Yet when fighting was prescribed for them, they turned their backs, from fighting in cowardice, except a few of them, the ones that crossed the river with Saul (Tālūt), as will be mentioned; and God has knowledge of the evildoers, and will requite them accordingly. The prophet then asked his Lord to send forth a king, and God responded by sending forth Saul.

2:247

وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ بَعَثَ لَكُمْ طَالُوتَ مَلِكًا ۚ قَالُوا أَنَّىٰ يَكُونُ لَهُ الْمُلْكُ عَلَيْنَا وَنَحْنُ أَحَقُّ بِالْمُلْكِ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُؤْتَ سَعَةً مِّنَ الْمَالِ ۚ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَاهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَزَادَهُ بَسْطَةً فِي الْعِلْمِ وَالْجِسْمِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يُؤْتِي مُلْكَهُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Waqala lahum nabiyyuhum inna Allahaqad baAAatha lakum taloota malikan qaloo annayakoonu lahu almulku AAalayna wanahnu ahaqqubilmulki minhu walam yu/ta saAAatan mina almali qalainna Allaha istafahu AAalaykum wazadahubastatan fee alAAilmi waljismi wallahuyu/tee mulkahu man yashao wallahu wasiAAunAAaleem

Translation

And their prophet said to them, “Indeed, Allah has sent to you Saul as a king.” They said, “How can he have kingship over us while we are more worthy of kingship than him and he has not been given any measure of wealth?” He said, “Indeed, Allah has chosen him over you and has increased him abundantly in knowledge and stature. And Allah gives His sovereignty to whom He wills. And Allah is all-Encompassing [in favor] and Knowing.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Then their prophet said to them, ‘Verily God has raised up Saul for you as king’ They said, ‘How can he be king over us when we have better right than he to kingship, since he is not of the tribe of monarchs or that of prophets; he [Saul] was a tanner or a shepherd; seeing he has not been given amplitude of wealth?’ which he can use to establish a kingdom. He, the prophet, said, to them, ‘God has chosen him over you, for kingship, and has increased him broadly, amply, in knowledge and body: at that time, he was the most knowledgeable and the most handsome of all the Children of Israel, and the most perfect of character. God gives the kingship to whom He will, in the way He does, and there can be no objection; and God is Embracing, in His bounty, Knowing, of those who deserve it.

2:248

وَقَالَ لَهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ إِنَّ آيَةَ مُلْكِهِ أَن يَأْتِيَكُمُ التَّابُوتُ فِيهِ سَكِينَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَبَقِيَّةٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ آلُ مُوسَىٰ وَآلُ هَارُونَ تَحْمِلُهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Waqala lahum nabiyyuhum inna ayatamulkihi an ya/tiyakumu attabootu feehi sakeenatunmin rabbikum wabaqiyyatun mimma taraka alu moosawaalu haroona tahmiluhu almala-ikatuinna fee thalika laayatan lakum in kuntum mu/mineen

Translation

And their prophet said to them, “Indeed, a sign of his kingship is that the chest will come to you in which is assurance from your Lord and a remnant of what the family of Moses and the family of Aaron had left, carried by the angels. Indeed in that is a sign for you, if you are believers.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And their prophet said to them, after they had demanded a sign of his kingship: ‘The sign of his kingship is that there will come to you the Ark, a chest containing the images of the prophets, which God sent down to Adam, and which was handed down to them [sc. the Israelites], until the Amalekites seized it from them in battle. They used to commence fighting invoking it before their enemy and marching behind it, as well as experience peacefulness in its presence, as God says: therein is a Spirit of Peace, reassurance for your hearts, from your Lord, and a remnant of what the folk of Moses and the folk of Aaron left behind, which were Moses’s pair of sandals and his staff, Aaron’s turban, a measure (qafīz) of the manna that used to come down on them, and the pieces of the broken tablets, the angels bearing it (tahmiluhu l-malā’ikatu, the circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject of the verb ya’tiyakum, ‘there will come to’). Surely in that shall be a sign for you, of his kingship, if you are believers’. The angels bore it between the earth and the sky while they gazed at it, until finally they placed it before Saul. They then acknowledged his kingship and hastened to enlist in the [holy] struggle, and he chose seventy thousand of their young men.

2:249

فَلَمَّا فَصَلَ طَالُوتُ بِالْجُنُودِ قَالَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مُبْتَلِيكُم بِنَهَرٍ فَمَن شَرِبَ مِنْهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي وَمَن لَّمْ يَطْعَمْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّي إِلَّا مَنِ اغْتَرَفَ غُرْفَةً بِيَدِهِ ۚ فَشَرِبُوا مِنْهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا مِّنْهُمْ ۚ فَلَمَّا جَاوَزَهُ هُوَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَهُ قَالُوا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا الْيَوْمَ بِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ ۚ قَالَ الَّذِينَ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّهُم مُّلَاقُو اللَّهِ كَم مِّن فِئَةٍ قَلِيلَةٍ غَلَبَتْ فِئَةً كَثِيرَةً بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Falamma fasala talootubiljunoodi qala inna Allaha mubtaleekumbinaharin faman shariba minhu falaysa minnee waman lam yatAAamhufa-innahu minnee illa mani ightarafa ghurfatan biyadihifashariboo minhu illa qaleelan minhum falamma jawazahuhuwa wallatheena amanoo maAAahu qaloola taqata lana alyawma bijalootawajunoodihi qala allatheena yathunnoonaannahum mulaqoo Allahi kam min fi-atin qaleelatinghalabat fi-atan katheeratan bi-ithni Allahi wallahumaAAa assabireen

Translation

And when Saul went forth with the soldiers, he said, “Indeed, Allah will be testing you with a river. So whoever drinks from it is not of me, and whoever does not taste it is indeed of me, excepting one who takes [from it] in the hollow of his hand.” But they drank from it, except a [very] few of them. Then when he had crossed it along with those who believed with him, they said, “There is no power for us today against Goliath and his soldiers.” But those who were certain that they would meet Allah said, “How many a small company has overcome a large company by permission of Allah . And Allah is with the patient.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And when Saul went forth with the hosts, from the Holy House [sc. Jerusalem], the heat was intense and so they asked him for water; he said, ‘God will try, test, you, in order to distinguish the obedient among you from the disobedient, with a river, between Jordan and Palestine, whoever drinks of it, of its water, is not of me, is not of my followers, and whoever tastes it not, he is of me, except for him who scoops up with his hand’ (ghurfa, or gharfa, ‘a scoop’), satisfying himself therewith and not taking more, he is also of my followers. But they drank of it, when they reached it and saw that it was abundant, except a few of them, who restricted themselves to a scoop: it is reported that one scoop was enough for each man and his horse, and they numbered over three hundred; and when he crossed it, with those who believed, the ones who confined themselves to the one scoop, they, the ones that drank profusely, said, ‘We have no power today against Goliath and his troops’, that is, [no power] to fight them, and they were cowardly and did not cross it. Those who thought, with certainty that, they would meet God, at the Resurrection, and these were the ones that crossed it, said, ‘How often (kam, ‘how’, functions as a predicate, meaning kathīr, ‘many’) a little company, group of men, has overcome a numerous one, by God’s leave, by His will; and God is with the patient’, [providing them] with help and assistance.

2:250

وَلَمَّا بَرَزُوا لِجَالُوتَ وَجُنُودِهِ قَالُوا رَبَّنَا أَفْرِغْ عَلَيْنَا صَبْرًا وَثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَنَا وَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Walamma barazoo lijalootawajunoodihi qaloo rabbana afrigh AAalayna sabranwathabbit aqdamana wansurnaAAala alqawmi alkafireen

Translation

And when they went forth to [face] Goliath and his soldiers, they said, “Our Lord, pour upon us patience and plant firmly our feet and give us victory over the disbelieving people.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

So, when they went forth against Goliath and his troops, facing them in military columns, they said, ‘Our Lord, pour out upon us patience, and make firm our feet, by strengthening our hearts for this struggle, and grant us victory over the disbelieving folk!’

2:251

فَهَزَمُوهُم بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَقَتَلَ دَاوُودُ جَالُوتَ وَآتَاهُ اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَهُ مِمَّا يَشَاءُ ۗ وَلَوْلَا دَفْعُ اللَّهِ النَّاسَ بَعْضَهُم بِبَعْضٍ لَّفَسَدَتِ الْأَرْضُ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ ذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ

Pronunciation

Fahazamoohum bi-ithni Allahiwaqatala dawoodu jaloota waatahu Allahualmulka walhikmata waAAallamahu mimma yashaowalawla dafAAu Allahi annasa baAAdahumbibaAAdin lafasadati al-ardu walakinna Allahathoo fadlin AAala alAAalameen

Translation

So they defeated them by permission of Allah , and David killed Goliath, and Allah gave him the kingship and prophethood and taught him from that which He willed. And if it were not for Allah checking [some] people by means of others, the earth would have been corrupted, but Allah is full of bounty to the worlds.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And they routed, they broke, them, by the leave of God, by His will, and David, who was among the ranks of Saul’s army, slew Goliath; and God gave him, David, the kingship, over the Children of Israel, and Wisdom, prophethood after the death of Samuel and Saul, and the combination [of kingship and prophethood] had never come to anyone before him; and He taught him such as He willed, of the manufacture of mail-coats and the speech of birds. Had God not repelled people some (ba‘dahum, ‘some’, substitutes for [saying] ba‘dan min al-nās, ‘some people’) by means of others the earth would have surely been corrupted, with idolaters defeating and slaying Muslims, and mosques being destroyed; but God is bounteous to all worlds, by repelling some by means of others.

2:252

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۚ وَإِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ

Pronunciation

Tilka ayatu Allahinatlooha AAalayka bilhaqqi wa-innaka laminaalmursaleen

Translation

These are the verses of Allah which We recite to you, [O Muhammad], in truth. And indeed, you are from among the messengers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

These, verses, are the verses of God We recite to you, O Muhammad (s), as narration, in truth, and assuredly you are one of the Messengers [of God], the emphasis is made here with the particle inna [of innaka, ‘surely you are’], with the remainder of the statement being a rebuttal of the disbelievers’ saying, ‘You are no Messenger’.

2:253

تِلْكَ الرُّسُلُ فَضَّلْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۘ مِّنْهُم مَّن كَلَّمَ اللَّهُ ۖ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَهُمْ دَرَجَاتٍ ۚ وَآتَيْنَا عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ الْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَيَّدْنَاهُ بِرُوحِ الْقُدُسِ ۗ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا اقْتَتَلَ الَّذِينَ مِن بَعْدِهِم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ وَلَٰكِنِ اخْتَلَفُوا فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ آمَنَ وَمِنْهُم مَّن كَفَرَ ۚ وَلَوْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مَا اقْتَتَلُوا وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَفْعَلُ مَا يُرِيدُ

Pronunciation

Tilka arrusulu faddalnabaAAdahum AAala baAAdin minhum man kallamaAllahu warafaAAa baAAdahum darajatin waataynaAAeesa ibna maryama albayyinati waayyadnahubiroohi alqudusi walaw shaa Allahu maiqtatala allatheena min baAAdihim min baAAdi ma jaat-humualbayyinatu walakini ikhtalafoo faminhum man amanawaminhum man kafara walaw shaa Allahu maiqtataloo walakinna Allaha yafAAalu mayureed

Translation

Those messengers – some of them We caused to exceed others. Among them were those to whom Allah spoke, and He raised some of them in degree. And We gave Jesus, the Son of Mary, clear proofs, and We supported him with the Pure Spirit. If Allah had willed, those [generations] succeeding them would not have fought each other after the clear proofs had come to them. But they differed, and some of them believed and some of them disbelieved. And if Allah had willed, they would not have fought each other, but Allah does what He intends.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those (tilka is the subject) messengers (al-rusul is either an adjective or the predicate) some We have preferred above others, by assigning a particular trait to one not found in the other; some there are to whom God spoke, such as Moses, and some He raised in rank, namely, Muhammad (s), on account of his call being to all peoples, his being the Seal of the Prophets, on account of the superiority of his community to all others, the sundry miracles and the many special qualities. And We gave Jesus son of Mary the clear proofs, and confirmed him, strengthened him, with the Holy Spirit, namely, Gabriel who would accompany him wherever he went. And had God willed, that all people be guided, those who came after them, after the messengers, that is, their communities, would not have fought against one another after the clear proofs had come to them, because of their disagreement and their leading one another astray; but they fell into variance, as He willed, and some of them believed, and adhered firmly to his faith, and some disbelieved, as the Christians did after Jesus (al-Masīh), and had God willed they would not have fought against one another (repeated here for emphasis), but God does whatever He desires, giving success to whomever He will and disappointment to whomever He will.

2:254

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنفِقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقْنَاكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِيَ يَوْمٌ لَّا بَيْعٌ فِيهِ وَلَا خُلَّةٌ وَلَا شَفَاعَةٌ ۗ وَالْكَافِرُونَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooanfiqoo mimma razaqnakum min qabli an ya/tiyayawmun la bayAAun feehi wala khullatun walashafaAAatun walkafiroona humu aththalimoon

Translation

O you who have believed, spend from that which We have provided for you before there comes a Day in which there is no exchange and no friendship and no intercession. And the disbelievers – they are the wrongdoers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, expend of what We have provided you with, what is due of it as alms, before there comes a day in which there shall be neither commerce, ransom, nor friendship, that can be of any benefit, nor intercession, without His permission (a variant reading has all three nouns in nominative inflection bay‘un, khullatun, shafā‘atun [as opposed to lā bay‘a, lā khullata, lā shafā‘ata]): this is the Day of Resurrection. And the disbelievers, those that disbelieve in God or in the obligations He has imposed on them — they are the evildoers, for not respecting God’s command.

2:255

اللَّهُ لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ ۚ لَا تَأْخُذُهُ سِنَةٌ وَلَا نَوْمٌ ۚ لَّهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ مَن ذَا الَّذِي يَشْفَعُ عِندَهُ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ ۚ يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِشَيْءٍ مِّنْ عِلْمِهِ إِلَّا بِمَا شَاءَ ۚ وَسِعَ كُرْسِيُّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ ۖ وَلَا يَئُودُهُ حِفْظُهُمَا ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْعَظِيمُ

Pronunciation

Allahu la ilaha illahuwa alhayyu alqayyoomu la ta/khuthuhusinatun wala nawmun lahu ma fee assamawatiwama fee al-ardi man tha allatheeyashfaAAu AAindahu illa bi-ithnihi yaAAlamu mabayna aydeehim wama khalfahum wala yuheetoonabishay-in min AAilmihi illa bima shaawasiAAa kursiyyuhu assamawati wal-ardawala yaooduhu hifthuhumawahuwa alAAaliyyu alAAatheem

Translation

Allah – there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of [all] existence. Neither drowsiness overtakes Him nor sleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is it that can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, and they encompass not a thing of His knowledge except for what He wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth, and their preservation tires Him not. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God, there is no god, that is, there is none worthy of being worshipped in [all] existence, except Him, the Living, the Everlasting, the Eternal Sustainer, the One constantly engaged in the management of His creation. Slumber does not seize Him, neither sleep; to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth, as possessions, creatures and servants; who is there, that is to say, none is there, that shall intercede with Him save by His leave?, in this for him. He knows what lies before them, that is, creation, and what is after them, of the affairs of this world and the Hereafter; and they encompass nothing of His knowledge, that is, they know nothing of what He knows, save such as He wills, to inform of it by way of His messengers. His throne subsumes the heavens and the earth, it is said that His knowledge encompasses them both; it is also said that the kursī (‘throne’) itself subsumes them on account of its vastness, as in the hadīth, ‘The seven heavens compared to the kursī are like seven silver coins lying in a metal shield [of armour]’; the preserving of them, the heavens and the earth, wearies Him not, does not burden Him; He is the Sublime, above His creation by virtue of His subjugation [of them], the Tremendous, the Great.

2:256

لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ لَا انفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

La ikraha fee addeeniqad tabayyana arrushdu mina alghayyi faman yakfur bittaghootiwayu/min billahi faqadi istamsaka bilAAurwatialwuthqa la infisama laha wallahusameeAAun AAaleem

Translation

There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong. So whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

There is no compulsion in, entering into, religion. Rectitude has become clear from error, that is say, through clear proofs it has become manifest that faith is rectitude and disbelief is error: this was revealed concerning the Ansār [of Medina] who tried to compel their sons to enter into Islam; so whoever disbelieves in the false deity, namely, Satan or idols (tāghūt, ‘false deity’, is used in a singular and plural sense), and believes in God, has laid hold of the most firm handle, the tight knot, unbreaking, that cannot be severed; God is Hearing, of what is said, Knowing, of what is done.

2:257

اللَّهُ وَلِيُّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا يُخْرِجُهُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَوْلِيَاؤُهُمُ الطَّاغُوتُ يُخْرِجُونَهُم مِّنَ النُّورِ إِلَى الظُّلُمَاتِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Pronunciation

Allahu waliyyu allatheena amanooyukhrijuhum mina aththulumati ilaannoori wallatheena kafaroo awliyaohumuattaghootu yukhrijoonahum mina annoori ilaaththulumati ola-ika as-habuannari hum feeha khalidoon

Translation

Allah is the ally of those who believe. He brings them out from darknesses into the light. And those who disbelieve – their allies are Taghut. They take them out of the light into darknesses. Those are the companions of the Fire; they will abide eternally therein.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God is the Protector, helper, of the believers; He brings them forth from the shadows, of unbelief, into the light, of faith. And the disbelievers — their protectors are false deities, that bring them forth from the light into the shadows: the repetition of ‘bringing forth from’ here is either to be taken as a reflection of His [previous] words, “He brings them forth from the shadows”, or as a reference to all those Jews who believed in the Prophet before he was sent, but then rejected him, those are the inhabitants of the Fire, therein they shall abide.

2:258

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ أَنْ آتَاهُ اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ إِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّيَ الَّذِي يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ قَالَ أَنَا أُحْيِي وَأُمِيتُ ۖ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْتِي بِالشَّمْسِ مِنَ الْمَشْرِقِ فَأْتِ بِهَا مِنَ الْمَغْرِبِ فَبُهِتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ

Pronunciation

Alam tara ila allathee hajjaibraheema fee rabbihi an atahu Allahualmulka ith qala ibraheemu rabbiya allatheeyuhyee wayumeetu qala ana ohyeewaomeetu qala ibraheemu fa-inna Allahaya/tee bishshamsi mina almashriqi fa/ti biha minaalmaghribi fabuhita allathee kafara wallahula yahdee alqawma aththalimeen

Translation

Have you not considered the one who argued with Abraham about his Lord [merely] because Allah had given him kingship? When Abraham said, “My Lord is the one who gives life and causes death,” he said, “I give life and cause death.” Abraham said, “Indeed, Allah brings up the sun from the east, so bring it up from the west.” So the disbeliever was overwhelmed [by astonishment], and Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Have you not seen him who disputed with Abraham, concerning his Lord, because of the fact, that God had given him the kingship?, that is, his arrogance towards this very grace of God: this was Nimrod (Nimrūd). When (idh is a substitution for hājja, ‘disputed’) Abraham, in response to the other’s question, ‘Who is this Lord of yours to whom you are calling us?’, said: ‘My Lord is He who gives life, and makes to die’, the One that creates life and death in bodies; he [Nimrod] said, ‘I give life, by sparing, and make to die’, by killing. He then had two men brought before him, killed one and spared the other. When Abraham realised that this man was a fool, Abraham, resorting to a more sophisticated argument, said: ‘God brings the sun from the east; so bring, you, it from the west.’ Then the disbeliever was confused, perplexed and amazed; and God guides not the folk who do evil, disbelieving, to the art of argument.

2:259

أَوْ كَالَّذِي مَرَّ عَلَىٰ قَرْيَةٍ وَهِيَ خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَىٰ عُرُوشِهَا قَالَ أَنَّىٰ يُحْيِي هَٰذِهِ اللَّهُ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا ۖ فَأَمَاتَهُ اللَّهُ مِائَةَ عَامٍ ثُمَّ بَعَثَهُ ۖ قَالَ كَمْ لَبِثْتَ ۖ قَالَ لَبِثْتُ يَوْمًا أَوْ بَعْضَ يَوْمٍ ۖ قَالَ بَل لَّبِثْتَ مِائَةَ عَامٍ فَانظُرْ إِلَىٰ طَعَامِكَ وَشَرَابِكَ لَمْ يَتَسَنَّهْ ۖ وَانظُرْ إِلَىٰ حِمَارِكَ وَلِنَجْعَلَكَ آيَةً لِّلنَّاسِ ۖ وَانظُرْ إِلَى الْعِظَامِ كَيْفَ نُنشِزُهَا ثُمَّ نَكْسُوهَا لَحْمًا ۚ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ قَالَ أَعْلَمُ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Aw kallathee marra AAalaqaryatin wahiya khawiyatun AAala AAurooshihaqala anna yuhyee hathihi AllahubaAAda mawtiha faamatahu Allahu mi-ata AAaminthumma baAAathahu qala kam labithta qala labithtuyawman aw baAAda yawmin qala bal labithta mi-ata AAaminfanthur ila taAAamikawasharabika lam yatasannah wanthurila himarika walinajAAalaka ayatan linnasiwanthur ila alAAithamikayfa nunshizuha thumma naksooha lahmanfalamma tabayyana lahu qala aAAlamu anna AllahaAAala kulli shay-in qadeer

Translation

Or [consider such an example] as the one who passed by a township which had fallen into ruin. He said, “How will Allah bring this to life after its death?” So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years; then He revived him. He said, “How long have you remained?” The man said, “I have remained a day or part of a day.” He said, “Rather, you have remained one hundred years. Look at your food and your drink; it has not changed with time. And look at your donkey; and We will make you a sign for the people. And look at the bones [of this donkey] – how We raise them and then We cover them with flesh.” And when it became clear to him, he said, “I know that Allah is over all things competent.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Or, did you see, such as he, Ezra (‘Uzayr), who (the kāf of ka’lladhī, ‘such as he who’, is extra) passed by a city, namely, the Holy House [sc. Jerusalem], riding on an ass and carrying with him a basket of figs and a cup of juice, [a city] that was fallen down, collapsed, upon its turrets, its roof tops: after Nebuchadnezzar had destroyed it; he said, ‘How (annā means kayfa, ‘how’) shall God give life to this now that it is dead?’, challenging the power of the exalted One, so God made him die, and remain dead for, a hundred years, then he raised him up, brought him back to life to show him how this could be done; He, God, said, ‘How long have you tarried?’, been here?; he said, ‘I have tarried a day, or part of a day’, because he fell asleep before noon, and was made dead and then brought back to life again at sunset, and thus he thought it was a day’s sleep; He said, ‘Nay; you have tarried a hundred years. Look at your food, the figs, and drink, the cup of juice, it has not spoiled, despite the length of time (the final hā’ of yatasannah, ‘to spoil’, is said to belong to the original root, s-n-h; but it is also said to be silent, in which case the root would be s-n-y; a variant reading omits the final hā’); and look at your ass, how it is, and he saw that it had died, and all that remained were its withered white bones. We did this so that you would know and, so that We would make you a sign, of [the truth of] the Resurrection, for the people. And look at the bones, of the ass, how We shall set them up, how We shall raise them back to life (nunshiruhā, or nanshiruhā, derived from the two expressions, nashara and anshara; a variant reading has nunshizuhā, meaning ‘How We shall move it and make it stand’); and then clothe them with flesh’, and when he looked at it, he saw that [the bones] had been reconstituted and clothed with flesh, and that the Spirit had been breathed into it, making it bray. So, when it was made clear to him, as a result of witnessing it, he said, ‘I know (a variant reading for a‘lam, ‘I know’, has [the imperative] i‘lam, ‘know!’, thus making it a command from God), with the knowledge of direct vision, that God has power over all things’.

2:260

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّ أَرِنِي كَيْفَ تُحْيِي الْمَوْتَىٰ ۖ قَالَ أَوَلَمْ تُؤْمِن ۖ قَالَ بَلَىٰ وَلَٰكِن لِّيَطْمَئِنَّ قَلْبِي ۖ قَالَ فَخُذْ أَرْبَعَةً مِّنَ الطَّيْرِ فَصُرْهُنَّ إِلَيْكَ ثُمَّ اجْعَلْ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ جَبَلٍ مِّنْهُنَّ جُزْءًا ثُمَّ ادْعُهُنَّ يَأْتِينَكَ سَعْيًا ۚ وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Wa-ith qala ibraheemurabbi arinee kayfa tuhyee almawta qala awalam tu/min qala bala walakin liyatma-innaqalbee qala fakhuth arbaAAatan mina attayrifasurhunna ilayka thumma ijAAal AAala kulli jabalinminhunna juz-an thumma odAAuhunna ya/teenaka saAAyan waAAlamanna Allaha AAazeezun hakeem

Translation

And [mention] when Abraham said, “My Lord, show me how You give life to the dead.” [ Allah ] said, “Have you not believed?” He said, “Yes, but [I ask] only that my heart may be satisfied.” [ Allah ] said, “Take four birds and commit them to yourself. Then [after slaughtering them] put on each hill a portion of them; then call them – they will come [flying] to you in haste. And know that Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And, mention, when Abraham said, ‘My Lord show me how You give life to the dead,’ He, God, exalted be He, said, to him, ‘Why, do you not believe?’, in My power to revive; God asks him this even though He knows of his belief in this [power], as a response to his request, and so that the ones listening will know the purpose [of the request]; ‘Yes,’, I do believe, he said, ‘but, I ask You, so that my heart may be re-assured’, [so that it may be] at peace, through direct vision, in addition to that [certainty] which is sought through logical reasoning. Said He, ‘Take four birds, and twist them to you (sirhunna, or surhunna), turn them towards you, cut them up and mix together their flesh and feathers, then set a part of them on every hill, in the land around you, then summon them, to you, and they will come to you in haste. And know that God is Mighty, that nothing is beyond Him, Wise’, in His actions. Abraham took a peacock, an eagle, a raven and a cock and did with them as has been mentioned, but kept their heads with him. He called them, and all the parts began to fly back together, combining until they were whole and returning to their heads.

2:261

مَّثَلُ الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ كَمَثَلِ حَبَّةٍ أَنبَتَتْ سَبْعَ سَنَابِلَ فِي كُلِّ سُنبُلَةٍ مِّائَةُ حَبَّةٍ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يُضَاعِفُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Mathalu allatheena yunfiqoona amwalahumfee sabeeli Allahi kamathali habbatin anbatatsabAAa sanabila fee kulli sunbulatin mi-atu habbatinwallahu yudaAAifu liman yashao wallahuwasiAAun AAaleem

Translation

The example of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is like a seed [of grain] which grows seven spikes; in each spike is a hundred grains. And Allah multiplies [His reward] for whom He wills. And Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The likeness, of the quality of the expenditure, of those who expend their wealth in the way of God, that is, in obedience of Him, is as the likeness of a grain of corn that sprouts seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains: likewise what they expend will be multiplied seven hundred times; so God multiplies, even more than this, for whom He will; God is Embracing, in His bounty, Knowing, those who deserve such multiplications.

2:262

الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ لَا يُتْبِعُونَ مَا أَنفَقُوا مَنًّا وَلَا أَذًى ۙ لَّهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Pronunciation

Allatheena yunfiqoona amwalahumfee sabeeli Allahi thumma la yutbiAAoona maanfaqoo mannan wala athan lahum ajruhum AAindarabbihim wala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoon

Translation

Those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah and then do not follow up what they have spent with reminders [of it] or [other] injury will have their reward with their Lord, and there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those who expend their wealth in the way of God then do not follow up their expenditure with reminder of their generosity, of the one on whom they expended, for example, by saying, ‘I was good to him and restored his affairs’; and injury, to that person, by mentioning this to people whom he would prefer not to know about it; their wage, the reward for their expenditure, is with their Lord, and no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve, in the Hereafter.

2:263

قَوْلٌ مَّعْرُوفٌ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِّن صَدَقَةٍ يَتْبَعُهَا أَذًى ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَنِيٌّ حَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Qawlun maAAroofun wamaghfiratun khayrun minsadaqatin yatbaAAuha athan wallahughaniyyun haleem

Translation

Kind speech and forgiveness are better than charity followed by injury. And Allah is Free of need and Forbearing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Honourable words, kind talk and a generous reply to the beggar, and forgiveness, towards him for his persistence, are better than a voluntary almsgiving followed by injury, through reproach and deriding him for his begging; and God is Independent, of the voluntary almsgiving of His servants, Forbearing, in His delaying the punishment of the reproachful and injurious one.

2:264

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُبْطِلُوا صَدَقَاتِكُم بِالْمَنِّ وَالْأَذَىٰ كَالَّذِي يُنفِقُ مَالَهُ رِئَاءَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۖ فَمَثَلُهُ كَمَثَلِ صَفْوَانٍ عَلَيْهِ تُرَابٌ فَأَصَابَهُ وَابِلٌ فَتَرَكَهُ صَلْدًا ۖ لَّا يَقْدِرُونَ عَلَىٰ شَيْءٍ مِّمَّا كَسَبُوا ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الْكَافِرِينَ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoola tubtiloo sadaqatikum bilmanniwal-atha kallathee yunfiqu malahuri-aa annasi wala yu/minu billahiwalyawmi al-akhiri famathaluhu kamathali safwaninAAalayhi turabun faasabahu wabilunfatarakahu saldan la yaqdiroona AAalashay-in mimma kasaboo wallahu layahdee alqawma alkafireen

Translation

O you who have believed, do not invalidate your charities with reminders or injury as does one who spends his wealth [only] to be seen by the people and does not believe in Allah and the Last Day. His example is like that of a [large] smooth stone upon which is dust and is hit by a downpour that leaves it bare. They are unable [to keep] anything of what they have earned. And Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, annul not, the rewards of, your voluntary almsgivings with reproach and injury, as, in the manner of the annulment of the expenditure of, one who expends of his substance to show off to men and believes not in God and the Last Day: this is the hypocrite. The likeness of him is as the likeness of a smooth rock on which is soil, and a torrent, of intense rain, smites it, and leaves it barren, and smooth with nothing on it. They have no power (lā yaqdirūna is a resumption of the statement about the likeness of the one that expends for show; the person becomes plural on account of the [potential plural] implication of alladhī, ‘the one who’) over anything that they have earned, that they did, in other words, they find no reward for it in the Hereafter, just as one finds nothing of the dust that was on the surface of the smooth rock, after the rain has washed it away. God guides not the disbelieving folk.

2:265

وَمَثَلُ الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُمُ ابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِ اللَّهِ وَتَثْبِيتًا مِّنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ كَمَثَلِ جَنَّةٍ بِرَبْوَةٍ أَصَابَهَا وَابِلٌ فَآتَتْ أُكُلَهَا ضِعْفَيْنِ فَإِن لَّمْ يُصِبْهَا وَابِلٌ فَطَلٌّ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Wamathalu allatheena yunfiqoona amwalahumuibtighaa mardati Allahi watathbeetan minanfusihim kamathali jannatin birabwatin asabaha wabilunfaatat okulaha diAAfayni fa-in lam yusibhawabilun fatallun wallahu bimataAAmaloona baseer

Translation

And the example of those who spend their wealth seeking means to the approval of Allah and assuring [reward for] themselves is like a garden on high ground which is hit by a downpour – so it yields its fruits in double. And [even] if it is not hit by a downpour, then a drizzle [is sufficient]. And Allah , of what you do, is Seeing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But the likeness, of the expenditure, of those who expend their wealth, seeking God’s good pleasure, and to confirm themselves, that is, to realise the reward thereof, in contrast to the hypocrites who do not hope for it, since they do not believe in it, is as the likeness of a garden, an orchard, upon a hill, (read rabwa or rubwa) a high ground; a torrent smites it and it yields, gives forth, its produce (read ukulahā or uklahā), its fruits, twofold, twice the fruits of another [garden]; if no torrent smites it, then dew, (tall, a light drizzle) which falls on it and suffices it on account of its altitude. In other words, it grows and bears fruit, regardless of how much rain falls; likewise are the expenditures of those mentioned: they will increase with God, regardless of how much they were; and God sees what you do, and He will requite you for it.

2:266

أَيَوَدُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن تَكُونَ لَهُ جَنَّةٌ مِّن نَّخِيلٍ وَأَعْنَابٍ تَجْرِي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ لَهُ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ الثَّمَرَاتِ وَأَصَابَهُ الْكِبَرُ وَلَهُ ذُرِّيَّةٌ ضُعَفَاءُ فَأَصَابَهَا إِعْصَارٌ فِيهِ نَارٌ فَاحْتَرَقَتْ ۗ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Pronunciation

Ayawaddu ahadukum an takoona lahujannatun min nakheelin waaAAnabin tajree min tahtihaal-anharu lahu feeha min kulli aththamaratiwaasabahu alkibaru walahu thurriyyatun duAAafaofaasabaha iAAsarun feehi narun fahtaraqatkathalika yubayyinu Allahu lakumu al-ayatilaAAallakum tatafakkaroon

Translation

Would one of you like to have a garden of palm trees and grapevines underneath which rivers flow in which he has from every fruit? But he is afflicted with old age and has weak offspring, and it is hit by a whirlwind containing fire and is burned. Thus does Allah make clear to you [His] verses that you might give thought.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Would any of you wish to have a garden, an orchard, of date-palms and vines, with rivers flowing beneath it, for him there is in it all manner of fruit, then old age smites him, and makes him too weak to profit from it, and he has seed, but they are weak, young children who cannot manage it; then a whirlwind (i‘sār are violent winds) with fire smites it, and it is consumed?, so that he loses what he is most in need of, and now he and his children have become incapacitated, confused, without any resources. This is a similitude of how the expenditure of the one expending for show, or the one who reproaches [after having expended], vanishes and how it is of no avail when he will be most in need of it in the Hereafter (the interrogative [a-yawaddu, ‘would any wish’] is intended as a denial). According to Ibn ‘Abbās, this is the person who performs deeds of obedience, but when Satan comes to him, he begins to work disobedience, until all his good deeds have been consumed. So, in the way that He has explained what has been mentioned, God makes clear the signs to you, so that you might reflect, and take heed.

2:267

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَنفِقُوا مِن طَيِّبَاتِ مَا كَسَبْتُمْ وَمِمَّا أَخْرَجْنَا لَكُم مِّنَ الْأَرْضِ ۖ وَلَا تَيَمَّمُوا الْخَبِيثَ مِنْهُ تُنفِقُونَ وَلَسْتُم بِآخِذِيهِ إِلَّا أَن تُغْمِضُوا فِيهِ ۚ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooanfiqoo min tayyibati ma kasabtum wamimmaakhrajna lakum mina al-ardi wala tayammamooalkhabeetha minhu tunfiqoona walastum bi-akhitheehiilla an tughmidoo feehi waAAlamoo anna Allahaghaniyyun hameed

Translation

O you who have believed, spend from the good things which you have earned and from that which We have produced for you from the earth. And do not aim toward the defective therefrom, spending [from that] while you would not take it [yourself] except with closed eyes. And know that Allah is Free of need and Praiseworthy.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, expend of, that is to say, purify, the good things you have earned, of property, and, the good things, of what We have produced for you from the earth, of grains and fruits, and seek not (lā tayammamū, means lā taqsudū) the corrupt, the vile, of it, the above-mentioned, for your expending, it as alms (tunfiqūna, ‘you expend’, is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person of [the verb] tayammamū, ‘seek’); for you would never take it, the vile part, yourselves, if you were given it as something due to you; without closing your eyes to it, by being careless and mindless, so how do you expect to give what is due to God from this?; and know that God is Independent, of your expenditures, Laudable, praised in every situation.

2:268

الشَّيْطَانُ يَعِدُكُمُ الْفَقْرَ وَيَأْمُرُكُم بِالْفَحْشَاءِ ۖ وَاللَّهُ يَعِدُكُم مَّغْفِرَةً مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلًا ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Ashshaytanu yaAAidukumualfaqra waya/murukum bilfahsha-i wallahuyaAAidukum maghfiratan minhu wafadlan wallahuwasiAAun AAaleem

Translation

Satan threatens you with poverty and orders you to immorality, while Allah promises you forgiveness from Him and bounty. And Allah is all-Encompassing and Knowing.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Satan promises you poverty, by making you fear [loss] when you make a voluntary almsgiving, and so you withhold it, and enjoins you to indecency, niggardliness and the impeding of almsgiving; but God promises you, in return for your expenditure, His pardon, for your sins, and His bounty, as sustenance from Him; and God is Embracing, in His bounty, Knowing, the one who expends.

2:269

يُؤْتِي الْحِكْمَةَ مَن يَشَاءُ ۚ وَمَن يُؤْتَ الْحِكْمَةَ فَقَدْ أُوتِيَ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا ۗ وَمَا يَذَّكَّرُ إِلَّا أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

Pronunciation

Yu/tee alhikmata man yashaowaman yu/ta alhikmata faqad ootiya khayran katheeran wamayaththakkaru illa oloo al-albab

Translation

He gives wisdom to whom He wills, and whoever has been given wisdom has certainly been given much good. And none will remember except those of understanding.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

He gives wisdom, that is, the profitable knowledge that leads to [righteous] action, to whomever He will, and he who is given wisdom, has been given much good, because he will end up in perpetual bliss; yet none remembers (the tā’ of yadhdhakkar has been assimilated with the dhāl), that is to say, [none] is admonished, but the people of pith, possessors of intellects.

2:270

وَمَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّن نَّفَقَةٍ أَوْ نَذَرْتُم مِّن نَّذْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُهُ ۗ وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ مِنْ أَنصَارٍ

Pronunciation

Wama anfaqtum min nafaqatin aw nathartummin nathrin fa-inna Allaha yaAAlamuhu wamaliththalimeena min ansar

Translation

And whatever you spend of expenditures or make of vows – indeed, Allah knows of it. And for the wrongdoers there are no helpers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And whatever expenditure you expend, be it as alms or a voluntary almsgiving, and whatever vow you make, and fulfil, surely God knows it, and will requite you for it. For the evildoers, who prevent almsgiving and vows, or expend other than the way they should, in disobedience to God, they have no helpers, to protect them from His chastisement.

2:271

إِن تُبْدُوا الصَّدَقَاتِ فَنِعِمَّا هِيَ ۖ وَإِن تُخْفُوهَا وَتُؤْتُوهَا الْفُقَرَاءَ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۚ وَيُكَفِّرُ عَنكُم مِّن سَيِّئَاتِكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ

Pronunciation

In tubdoo assadaqatifaniAAimma hiya wa-in tukhfooha watu/toohaalfuqaraa fahuwa khayrun lakum wayukaffiru AAankum minsayyi-atikum wallahu bimataAAmaloona khabeer

Translation

If you disclose your charitable expenditures, they are good; but if you conceal them and give them to the poor, it is better for you, and He will remove from you some of your misdeeds [thereby]. And Allah , with what you do, is [fully] Acquainted.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

If you proclaim, make manifest, your voluntary almsgivings, that is, your supererogatory deeds, it is a fine thing, to show them; but if you conceal them, and give them to the poor, that is even better for you, than making them manifest or giving it to the rich. As regards the obligatory almsgiving, it is better to make it manifest, so that it serves as an example and so that one is not accused [falsely of not giving]; as regards giving it to the poor, this is obligatory; and it will absolve you of, some of, your evil deeds (read yukaffir, ‘it will absolve’, or nukaffir, ‘We will absolve’, either in apocopated form [with no final vowel, yukaffir, nukaffir], being a supplement to the locus of fa-huwa, ‘that is’, or with nominative inflection [yukaffiru, nukaffiru], indicating the beginning of a new sentence). God is aware of what you do, knowing its inner and outer aspects, nothing of it being hidden from Him.

2:272

لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَاهُمْ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِأَنفُسِكُمْ ۚ وَمَا تُنفِقُونَ إِلَّا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تُظْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Laysa AAalayka hudahum walakinnaAllaha yahdee man yashao wama tunfiqoo minkhayrin fali-anfusikum wama tunfiqoona illa ibtighaawajhi Allahi wama tunfiqoo min khayrin yuwaffailaykum waantum la tuthlamoon

Translation

Not upon you, [O Muhammad], is [responsibility for] their guidance, but Allah guides whom He wills. And whatever good you [believers] spend is for yourselves, and you do not spend except seeking the countenance of Allah . And whatever you spend of good – it will be fully repaid to you, and you will not be wronged.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

When the Prophet (s) was prohibited from giving voluntary alms to idolaters [as an incentive] for them to embrace Islam, the following was revealed: You are not responsible for guiding them, that is to say, for people, that they should embrace Islam, [you are responsible] only for conveying the Message [to them]; but God guides, with His guidance, whomever He will, to embrace Islam. And whatever good, property, you expend is for yourselves, since the reward is for you; for then you are expending, desiring only God’s Face (this clause is the predicate, denoting a prohibition), that is to say, His reward and not any other transient object of this world, and whatever good you expend, its requital, shall be repaid to you in full, and you will not be wronged, you will not suffer any diminishment of it (both [of the last two] sentences emphasise the first one).

2:273

لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الَّذِينَ أُحْصِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ ضَرْبًا فِي الْأَرْضِ يَحْسَبُهُمُ الْجَاهِلُ أَغْنِيَاءَ مِنَ التَّعَفُّفِ تَعْرِفُهُم بِسِيمَاهُمْ لَا يَسْأَلُونَ النَّاسَ إِلْحَافًا ۗ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Lilfuqara-i allatheena ohsiroofee sabeeli Allahi la yastateeAAoona darbanfee al-ardi yahsabuhumu aljahilu aghniyaamina attaAAaffufi taAArifuhum biseemahum layas-aloona annasa ilhafan wamatunfiqoo min khayrin fa-inna Allaha bihi AAaleem

Translation

[Charity is] for the poor who have been restricted for the cause of Allah , unable to move about in the land. An ignorant [person] would think them self-sufficient because of their restraint, but you will know them by their [characteristic] sign. They do not ask people persistently [or at all]. And whatever you spend of good – indeed, Allah is Knowing of it.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

For the poor (this is the predicate of the missing subject, al-sadaqāt, ‘voluntary almsgiving’), who are constrained in the way of God, those who have confined themselves [in preparation] for the struggle: this was revealed concerning the people of Suffa, consisting in some four hundred of the Emigrants (muhājirūn), set apart [from the other Muslims] for the study of the Qur’ān and to take part in raids; and they are unable to journey (darban, means safaran) in the land, to engage in commerce and earn their living, since they are fully engaged in the struggle; the ignorant man supposes them, on account of the way they behave, rich because of their abstinence, that is, their refraining from asking for things; but you, the one being addressed, shall know them by their mark, by the signs of their humility and exertion; they do not beg of men, and make urgent demands, importunately, that is to say, they do not beg in the first place, so there is no question of persistence. And whatever good you expend, surely God has knowledge of it, and will requite it accordingly.

2:274

الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ سِرًّا وَعَلَانِيَةً فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Pronunciation

Allatheena yunfiqoona amwalahumbillayli wannahari sirran waAAalaniyatanfalahum ajruhum AAinda rabbihim wala khawfun AAalayhim walahum yahzanoon

Translation

Those who spend their wealth [in Allah 's way] by night and by day, secretly and publicly – they will have their reward with their Lord. And no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those who expend their wealth night and day, secretly and openly, their wage awaits them with their Lord, and no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve.

2:275

الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَا لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِي يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَا ۗ وَأَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَا ۚ فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَىٰ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَأَمْرُهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ وَمَنْ عَادَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ

Pronunciation

Allatheena ya/kuloona arribala yaqoomoona illa kama yaqoomu allatheeyatakhabbatuhu ashshaytanu mina almassi thalikabi-annahum qaloo innama albayAAu mithlu arribawaahalla Allahu albayAAa waharrama arribafaman jaahu mawAAithatun min rabbihi fantahafalahu ma salafa waamruhu ila Allahi wamanAAada faola-ika as-habu annarihum feeha khalidoon

Translation

Those who consume interest cannot stand [on the Day of Resurrection] except as one stands who is being beaten by Satan into insanity. That is because they say, “Trade is [just] like interest.” But Allah has permitted trade and has forbidden interest. So whoever has received an admonition from his Lord and desists may have what is past, and his affair rests with Allah . But whoever returns to [dealing in interest or usury] – those are the companions of the Fire; they will abide eternally therein.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those who devour, that is, [those who] seize by way of, usury, which is an excess [levied] in transactions of money or foodstuffs either on their value or on credit, shall not rise again, from their graves, except, rising, as one whom Satan has made prostrate, demented, from touch, [through] madness (min al-mass, ‘from touch’, is semantically connected to yaqūmūna, ‘they rise’); that, which befalls them, is because, of the fact that, they say, ‘Trade is like usury’, in terms of permissibility: this [statement] is a type of reversed simile used for intensity [sc. ‘usury is like trade’ is the expected word order]. God responds to them saying that: God has permitted trade, and forbidden usury. Whoever receives an admonition from his Lord and desists, from devouring it, he shall have his past gains, those made before the prohibition and which cannot be reclaimed from him, and his affair, with regard to pardoning him, is committed to God; but whoever reverts, to devouring it, treating it like trade in terms of lawfulness — those are the inhabitants of the Fire, abiding therein.

2:276

يَمْحَقُ اللَّهُ الرِّبَا وَيُرْبِي الصَّدَقَاتِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ كَفَّارٍ أَثِيمٍ

Pronunciation

Yamhaqu Allahu arribawayurbee assadaqati wallahula yuhibbu kulla kaffarin atheem

Translation

Allah destroys interest and gives increase for charities. And Allah does not like every sinning disbeliever.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God effaces usury, diminishing it and eliminating any blessing in it, but He augments voluntary almsgivings with interest, increasing them, making them grow and multiplying their reward. God loves not, that is to say, He will requite, any guilty, profligate devouring it, ingrate, who deems usury licit.

2:277

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ لَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ

Pronunciation

Inna allatheena amanoowaAAamiloo assalihati waaqamoo assalatawaatawoo azzakata lahum ajruhum AAindarabbihim wala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoon

Translation

Indeed, those who believe and do righteous deeds and establish prayer and give zakah will have their reward with their Lord, and there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

Those who believe and perform righteous deeds, and establish the prayer, and pay the alms — their wage awaits them with their Lord, and no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve.

2:278

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَذَرُوا مَا بَقِيَ مِنَ الرِّبَا إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooittaqoo Allaha watharoo ma baqiya mina arribain kuntum mu/mineen

Translation

O you who have believed, fear Allah and give up what remains [due to you] of interest, if you should be believers.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, fear God, and give up, abandon, the usury that is outstanding, if you are believers, true to your faith, since it is expected of the believer that he adhere to God’s command: this was revealed when some of the Companions, after the prohibition, wanted to reclaim some of the usury from before.

2:279

فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا فَأْذَنُوا بِحَرْبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۖ وَإِن تُبْتُمْ فَلَكُمْ رُءُوسُ أَمْوَالِكُمْ لَا تَظْلِمُونَ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Fa-in lam tafAAaloo fa/thanoo biharbinmina Allahi warasoolihi wa-in tubtum falakum ruoosu amwalikumla tathlimoona wala tuthlamoon

Translation

And if you do not, then be informed of a war [against you] from Allah and His Messenger. But if you repent, you may have your principal – [thus] you do no wrong, nor are you wronged.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

But if you do not, do what you have been commanded, then be warned, have knowledge, of war from God, and His Messenger, against you: herein is a grave threat for them. When it was revealed, they said, ‘What power can we have in a war against Him!’ Yet if you repent, and forgo it, you shall have your principal sums, the original amounts, not being unjust, by charging interest, and no injustice being done to you, by way of any diminution.

2:280

وَإِن كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظِرَةٌ إِلَىٰ مَيْسَرَةٍ ۚ وَأَن تَصَدَّقُوا خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wa-in kana thoo AAusratinfanathiratun ila maysaratin waan tasaddaqookhayrun lakum in kuntum taAAlamoon

Translation

And if someone is in hardship, then [let there be] postponement until [a time of] ease. But if you give [from your right as] charity, then it is better for you, if you only knew.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if any man, in debt, should be in difficulties, then, let him have, respite, a postponement, till things are easier (read maysara or maysura, meaning ‘a time of ease’); but that you should give (tassaddaqū, where the second tā’ of the softened form, tatasaddaqū, has been assimilated with the sād), the one in difficulty, a voluntary almsgiving, by waiving his debt, is better for you, did you but know, [if you know] that it is better for you, then do it. In a hadīth it is said, ‘Whoever gives respite to one in difficulty, or waives his debt, God will place him under His shade, on a day when there shall be no shade except God’s’, as reported by Muslim.

2:281

وَاتَّقُوا يَوْمًا تُرْجَعُونَ فِيهِ إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ ثُمَّ تُوَفَّىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍ مَّا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ

Pronunciation

Wattaqoo yawman turjaAAoona feehiila Allahi thumma tuwaffa kullu nafsin makasabat wahum la yuthlamoon

Translation

And fear a Day when you will be returned to Allah . Then every soul will be compensated for what it earned, and they will not be treated unjustly.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And fear a day wherein you shall be returned to God, namely, the Day of Resurrection (read the passive [turja‘ūna] meaning, ‘you shall be returned’, or the active [tarji‘ūna] meaning ‘you shall return’), and every soul, on that day, shall be paid in full, the requital of, what it has earned, what it has done of good or evil; and they shall not be wronged, through any loss of a good deed or the incurring of an extra evil deed.

2:282

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا تَدَايَنتُم بِدَيْنٍ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى فَاكْتُبُوهُ ۚ وَلْيَكْتُب بَّيْنَكُمْ كَاتِبٌ بِالْعَدْلِ ۚ وَلَا يَأْبَ كَاتِبٌ أَن يَكْتُبَ كَمَا عَلَّمَهُ اللَّهُ ۚ فَلْيَكْتُبْ وَلْيُمْلِلِ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ وَلْيَتَّقِ اللَّهَ رَبَّهُ وَلَا يَبْخَسْ مِنْهُ شَيْئًا ۚ فَإِن كَانَ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْحَقُّ سَفِيهًا أَوْ ضَعِيفًا أَوْ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُ أَن يُمِلَّ هُوَ فَلْيُمْلِلْ وَلِيُّهُ بِالْعَدْلِ ۚ وَاسْتَشْهِدُوا شَهِيدَيْنِ مِن رِّجَالِكُمْ ۖ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّن تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ الشُّهَدَاءِ أَن تَضِلَّ إِحْدَاهُمَا فَتُذَكِّرَ إِحْدَاهُمَا الْأُخْرَىٰ ۚ وَلَا يَأْبَ الشُّهَدَاءُ إِذَا مَا دُعُوا ۚ وَلَا تَسْأَمُوا أَن تَكْتُبُوهُ صَغِيرًا أَوْ كَبِيرًا إِلَىٰ أَجَلِهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَقْسَطُ عِندَ اللَّهِ وَأَقْوَمُ لِلشَّهَادَةِ وَأَدْنَىٰ أَلَّا تَرْتَابُوا ۖ إِلَّا أَن تَكُونَ تِجَارَةً حَاضِرَةً تُدِيرُونَهَا بَيْنَكُمْ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَلَّا تَكْتُبُوهَا ۗ وَأَشْهِدُوا إِذَا تَبَايَعْتُمْ ۚ وَلَا يُضَارَّ كَاتِبٌ وَلَا شَهِيدٌ ۚ وَإِن تَفْعَلُوا فَإِنَّهُ فُسُوقٌ بِكُمْ ۗ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ اللَّهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Ya ayyuha allatheena amanooitha tadayantum bidaynin ila ajalin musammanfaktuboohu walyaktub baynakum katibun bilAAadliwala ya/ba katibun an yaktuba kamaAAallamahu Allahu falyaktub walyumlili allatheeAAalayhi alhaqqu walyattaqi Allaha rabbahu walayabkhas minhu shay-an fa-in kana allathee AAalayhialhaqqu safeehan aw daAAeefan aw la yastateeAAuan yumilla huwa falyumlil waliyyuhu bilAAadli wastashhidooshaheedayni min rijalikum fa-in lam yakoonarajulayni farajulun wamraatani mimman tardawnamina ashshuhada-i an tadilla ihdahumafatuthakkira ihdahuma al-okhrawala ya/ba ashshuhadao itha maduAAoo wala tas-amoo an taktuboohu sagheeran awkabeeran ila ajalihi thalikum aqsatu AAindaAllahi waaqwamu lishshahadati waadnaalla tartaboo illa an takoona tijaratanhadiratan tudeeroonaha baynakum falaysa AAalaykumjunahun alla taktubooha waashhidoo ithatabayaAAtum wala yudarra katibun walashaheedun wa-in tafAAaloo fa-innahu fusooqun bikum wattaqooAllaha wayuAAallimukumu Allahu wallahubikulli shay-in AAaleem

Translation

O you who have believed, when you contract a debt for a specified term, write it down. And let a scribe write [it] between you in justice. Let no scribe refuse to write as Allah has taught him. So let him write and let the one who has the obligation dictate. And let him fear Allah , his Lord, and not leave anything out of it. But if the one who has the obligation is of limited understanding or weak or unable to dictate himself, then let his guardian dictate in justice. And bring to witness two witnesses from among your men. And if there are not two men [available], then a man and two women from those whom you accept as witnesses – so that if one of the women errs, then the other can remind her. And let not the witnesses refuse when they are called upon. And do not be [too] weary to write it, whether it is small or large, for its [specified] term. That is more just in the sight of Allah and stronger as evidence and more likely to prevent doubt between you, except when it is an immediate transaction which you conduct among yourselves. For [then] there is no blame upon you if you do not write it. And take witnesses when you conclude a contract. Let no scribe be harmed or any witness. For if you do so, indeed, it is [grave] disobedience in you. And fear Allah . And Allah teaches you. And Allah is Knowing of all things.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

O you who believe, when you contract, when you are dealing with, a debt, such as in prepayment for (future) delivery of goods or a loan, one upon another for a stated, a known, term, write it down, as confirmation and security against any dispute; and let a writer write it, the contract of debt, down between you justly, accurately, not increasing or decreasing the amount or the terms; and let not any writer refuse to write it down, if he is requested for such a task, as God has taught him (the kāf of ka-mā, ‘as’, is semantically connected to the verb ya’ba, ‘refuse’), that is, just as He has given him the advantage of knowing how to write, he should not be niggardly in this respect; so let him write (repeated for emphasis), and let the debtor dictate, to the one writing the contract, for he is the one being witnessed, and must be fully aware of his obligations; and let him fear God his Lord, when dictating, and not diminish anything of it, of the debt due. And if the debtor be a fool, a squanderer, or weak, not up to dictating on account of old age or immaturity, or unable to dictate himself, on account of being dumb, or not knowing the language and so forth, then let his guardian, the one in charge of his affairs, be it a parent, an executor, a custodian or an interpreter, dictate justly. And summon to bear witness, the debt, two witnesses, men, mature Muslim free men; or if the two, witnesses, be not men, then one man and two women, to bear witness, such witnesses as you approve of, on account of their piety and probity; the number of women is because of the fact, so that if one of the two women errs, forgets the testimony, given their lesser astuteness and accuracy; the other, the one remembering, will remind her (read fa-tudhakkira or fa-tudhkira), the one that has forgotten — the ‘reminding’ clause is the reason [for the choice of two women], that is to say, so that she may be reminded if she errs or strays into error, because this [forgetfulness] is the cause of it (a variant reading [for an, ‘that’] has the conditional in, ‘if’, with [the verb inflected as] tudhakkiru, ‘she will remind’, making it a new sentence, the response to which [follows]); and let the witnesses not refuse, whenever (the mā of idhā mā, ‘whenever’, is extra) they are summoned, to bear witness and take responsibility for the testimony; and be not disdainful, lazy, to write it down, that which you have witnessed in truth (for this frequently occurred), be it, small or great, a little or much, with its term, that is, the date on which it is due (ilā ajlihi is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the [pronominal suffix] hā’ of taktubū-hu, ‘you write it down’); that, writing down, is more equitable, more just, in God’s sight, more upright for testimony, that is to say, [that is] more helpful in summoning witness, because it contains the reminder; and nearer, closer to attaining [the desired state] that you will not be in doubt, with regard to the amount and the due dates; unless it be, [that] there is, trade carried out there and then (tijāratun hādiratun: a variant reading has tijāratan hādiratan, in which case the nominal sentence is missing its subject, and must be the pronoun for tijāra, ‘trade’, that is, hiya, ‘it [fem.

2:283

وَإِن كُنتُمْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ وَلَمْ تَجِدُوا كَاتِبًا فَرِهَانٌ مَّقْبُوضَةٌ ۖ فَإِنْ أَمِنَ بَعْضُكُم بَعْضًا فَلْيُؤَدِّ الَّذِي اؤْتُمِنَ أَمَانَتَهُ وَلْيَتَّقِ اللَّهَ رَبَّهُ ۗ وَلَا تَكْتُمُوا الشَّهَادَةَ ۚ وَمَن يَكْتُمْهَا فَإِنَّهُ آثِمٌ قَلْبُهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ عَلِيمٌ

Pronunciation

Wa-in kuntum AAala safarin walamtajidoo katiban farihanun maqboodatun fa-inamina baAAdukum baAAdan falyu-addiallatheei/tumina amanatahu walyattaqi Allaha rabbahuwala taktumoo ashshahadata waman yaktumhafa-innahu athimun qalbuhu wallahu bimataAAmaloona AAaleem

Translation

And if you are on a journey and cannot find a scribe, then a security deposit [should be] taken. And if one of you entrusts another, then let him who is entrusted discharge his trust [faithfully] and let him fear Allah , his Lord. And do not conceal testimony, for whoever conceals it – his heart is indeed sinful, and Allah is Knowing of what you do.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

And if you are upon a journey, travelling and you contract a debt, and you do not find a writer, then a pledge (ruhun or rihān, plural of rahn) in hand, as a guarantee for you. The Sunna clarifies the permissibility of making pledges in towns, where writers may be forthcoming; but the stipulation is made in the event of travel because in this case it is more important to have a guarantee; God’s reference to it being ‘in hand’ (maqbūda) is a condition for the pledge given to be valid, and to satisfy the pledgee or his representative. But if one of you, the creditor, trusts another, the debtor, over the debt and does not require a pledge, let him who is trusted, the debtor, deliver his trust, the debt; and let him fear God his Lord, when delivering it. And do not conceal the testimony, if you are summoned to give it; whoever conceals it, his heart is sinful: the heart is mentioned because it is the locus of the testimony, and because if it sins, there are other sinful consequences, and so the person will be punished as though he were a sinner; and God knows what you do, nothing of which can be hidden from Him.

2:284

لِّلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۗ وَإِن تُبْدُوا مَا فِي أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحَاسِبْكُم بِهِ اللَّهُ ۖ فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ

Pronunciation

Lillahi ma fee assamawatiwama fee al-ardi wa-in tubdoo ma feeanfusikum aw tukhfoohu yuhasibkum bihi Allahufayaghfiru liman yashao wayuAAaththibu man yashaowallahu AAala kulli shay-in qadeer

Translation

To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth. Whether you show what is within yourselves or conceal it, Allah will bring you to account for it. Then He will forgive whom He wills and punish whom He wills, and Allah is over all things competent.

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

To God belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. Whether you disclose, manifest, what is in your hearts or hide it, of evil and resolve for it, God shall take you to account for it, informing you of it on the Day of Resurrection. Then He will forgive whom He will, to forgive, and chastise whom He will, to chastise (both verbs are apocopated [fa-yaghfir, ‘he will forgive’, wa-yu‘adhdhib, ‘he will chastise’] if taken as the responses to the conditional, in tubdū, ‘if you proclaim’; but they may also be read with a final nominative inflection [yaghfiru, yu‘adhdhibu] in which case, it would [constitute a new clause and] follow on from an implicit fa-huwa, ‘then He’). And God has power over all things, including reckoning with you and requiting you.

2:285

آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ ۚ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلَائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ ۚ وَقَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۖ غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ

Pronunciation

Amana arrasoolu bimaonzila ilayhi min rabbihi walmu/minoona kullun amanabillahi wamala-ikatihi wakutubihiwarusulihi la nufarriqu bayna ahadin min rusulihiwaqaloo samiAAna waataAAna ghufranakarabbana wa-ilayka almaseer

Translation

The Messenger has believed in what was revealed to him from his Lord, and [so have] the believers. All of them have believed in Allah and His angels and His books and His messengers, [saying], “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and we obey. [We seek] Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

The Messenger, Muhammad (s) believes in, affirms the truth of, what was revealed to him from his Lord, namely, the Qur’ān, and the believers (wa’l-mu’minūna is a supplement to al-rasūlu, ‘the Messenger’); each one (the tanwīn of kullun stands in place of the second noun in an annexation [sc. kullu wāhidin]) believes in God and His angels, and in His Books, all of them and each of them, and His messengers, and they say, ‘we make no distinction between any of His messengers’, believing in some and disbelieving in others, in the manner of the Jews and the Christians. And they say, ‘We hear, what we have been enjoined to hear and accept, and obey; we ask you: Your forgiveness, our Lord; to You is the homecoming’, that is, the return at the Resurrection. When the previous verse was revealed, the believers complained of evil whisperings and it grieved them that they should be taken to account according to [the principle expressed in] it, and so the following was revealed:

2:286

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ ۗ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ ۖ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا ۚ أَنتَ مَوْلَانَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ

Pronunciation

La yukallifu Allahu nafsanilla wusAAaha laha ma kasabatwaAAalayha ma iktasabat rabbana latu-akhithna in naseena aw akhta/narabbana wala tahmil AAalayna isrankama hamaltahu AAala allatheena minqablina rabbana wala tuhammilnama la taqata lana bihi waAAfuAAanna waghfir lana warhamnaanta mawlana fansurna AAalaalqawmi alkafireen

Translation

Allah does not charge a soul except [with that within] its capacity. It will have [the consequence of] what [good] it has gained, and it will bear [the consequence of] what [evil] it has earned. “Our Lord, do not impose blame upon us if we have forgotten or erred. Our Lord, and lay not upon us a burden like that which You laid upon those before us. Our Lord, and burden us not with that which we have no ability to bear. And pardon us; and forgive us; and have mercy upon us. You are our protector, so give us victory over the disbelieving people.”

Tafsir al-Jalalayn

God charges no soul save to its capacity, that is, what it is capable of bearing; for it is what it has merited, of good and its reward, and against it is what it has earned, of evil and its burden: no person shall be requited for another’s sin or for what he has not earned, even if he was tempted to do it. Say: Our Lord, take us not to task, by way of chastisement, if we forget, or err, by straying from the right path unknowingly — as You used to take to task those before us: God has lifted this [burden] from this community, as reported in hadīth. The petition here, then, is a way of acknowledging God’s favour; our Lord, burden us not with a load, an affair which we cannot bear, such as You did lay upon those before us, namely, upon the Children of Israel, as for example, the killing of oneself in repentance, the paying of a quarter of one’s property for alms, and the severing of the impure part. Our Lord, do not burden us beyond what we have the power, the strength, to bear, of obligations and trials; and pardon us, effacing our sins, and forgive us, and have mercy on us, with mercy added to Your forgiveness; You are our Patron, our Master and the Guardian of our affairs; so grant us assistance against the disbelieving folk, by establishing definitive proof [for us] and victory over them in battle, for it is expected of a patron that he assist his clients against their enemies. In a hadīth it is stated that when this verse was revealed and the Prophet (s) was reciting it, after each word it was said to him, “Granted”.

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